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--"S .& -v 5 3 - .- New pension rulings (of great importance thisyear) Eppear first, and often exclusively. In this paper. Kecppostod. It may put rr.cncy in thy purse." Send $1 to THE NATIONAL TRIEUNE, Washington, D. C , and get the paper every v.eek for a whole year. Great Offer, 8th page One Dollar a Year. ESTALLISHBD 1S77-NEW Increasing Struggle to Eeacli The Miner's Mecca. BY OCEAN AKD RIVER Histoiy ard Cliaracter of tlie Yukon River. OTHER FIELDS EOR PROSPECTORS :ance at the Nature of tlie Met Countiy. THE EAGEII lil'SH TOT. ALASKA. Tiie rusb to the Yukon gold fields continues without cessation. Every steamer and unemployed sailing vessel on tlie Northern Pacific has been pressed into service to go to Alaska with a cargo of miners and supplier, either to Juueau, the entrepot for the route by the Chilcoot Pass, or for St Michaels, at the mouth of the Yukon, where the change is made to the river steamers. Already over 3,000 men have gone North in less than a month since the ex citement began, and only lack of trans portation has prevented the number from being double what it is. . The Yrukon is open only till about ept 15 at the latest, and there is little aore time to go in by boats up the river ihis season, as the trip from San Fran- I risco requires 40 days. But orders have been given for the building of a fleet of steel steamers for the river trade, to be read3r next Spring, and we may expect to see the tremendous activity on the .jreat northern Amazon that character ized the Ohio and Lower Mississippi in the glorious days of steamboating before the war. Letters are being received daily in various parts of the country from men who went to Klondike with the stam pede last Fall, and all continue to tell the same marvelous stories of the vast amount of treasure in the region. There seems to be no returned miuer with empty pockets. It looks now as though nothing could stern the tide of adventuie, and there is little doubt that 50,000 men will go in next Spring, when other and vastty more important discoveries are expected in what promises to be the richest auriferous outcropping known to history. Warnings are being freely given urg ing gold seekers to stay away till Spring, because if they start now" by the sea route to St Michael's and up the river they will stand long chances of being frozen in on the way and haviug to camp till topring. U, on the other band, they try to make the trip by Juneau aud Dyea, they will be blocked by tho tre mendous embargo of accumulated freight at the foot of Chilcoot Pass, aud will be obliged to wait till the Spring to get over. It may be mentioned, how ever, in paienthesis, that an effort is being made to have built a wagon-road over the Chilcoot Pass, under the supervision j P A- T7.. . J L . i I vj. -aaiuj Xiiiguiwrs, anu anxious travel ers have agreed to turn in 2,000 strong and do the work in 10 days after it is laid out Another possible means of going up theYrukon with supplies aud possibly mail ail after the freeze-up is by a reindeer ! iravan. We have about 1,500 Sibe- carav rian domesticated reindeer that have been brought over and colonized in Alaska, aud these animals find a plenti ful food supply the year round, and move over the ice with great speed. Dr. Sheldon Jackson, who has charge of the reindeer, is iu Alaska at this time, and it is understood will arrange to utilize the animals for this service. Our illustration shows a steamer on the river bound up with a full comple ment of foituue hunters. THE LONG IIOAD TO THE KLONDIKE. Last week we published a map and description of the shortest road to the mm fpp ST. MICHAELS TO DAWSON j&&&fT ' SI- rll&;- I ; "lfesa$- " v-ggi UP THE YUKON. fl-, I Ji ' - Yi Lrnr "f ipz iv t 54 111 mm 1 r A . aH a MM l 1 1 lalaCTB' -TbTi 1 1 a la" " r . I y aH T SERIES. Yrukon gold iields by the Chilcoot Pass from Dyea. This week we present a map of the other way to go, which is by the lower Yukon, and is an all-water j journey. I ins route entails a sea journey of 10 to 13 days from either Seattle or San Franciso to the Island of Lnalaska, which is the port of entry for vessels bound to Bering Sea. The second stage of this journej is from TJnalaska to St Michael's Island, in Norton Sound, a distance of nearly 800 miles, which is generally ac- complished in four or five days, if the vessel is fortunate enough to escape delay from the ice-pack. St. Michaels Post was founded by the old Russian Fur Co. in 1837, and is the nearest point to which a sea-going vessel can approach the mouth of the Yukon. On account of the vast amount of silt carried down by this river the sea is rendered so extremely shallow that for an immense distance from land there is scarcely two fathoms of water at high tide. At St. Michaels, passengers and freight destined for points along the Yukon are transhipped to small stern-wheel boats, which make the journey around the coast for a distance of 80 miles to the Aproon mouth of the river. Once in the Yukon, iherc is an uninterrupted run of 1,800 miles to Fort Selkirk, the most distant trading post, situated at the mouth of the Pelley River. The Yukon is 2,600 miles in length, with over a dozen great naviga ble tributaries. It is almost needless to mention that the journey via TJnalaska and St Michaels can only be made in the short open season from the close of June to the early part of September, during which time Bering Sea is clear of solid ice. Furthermore it may be added that it is only by this route that freight and provisions can be introduced into the Y'ukon district in great quantity with present facilities for transportation. HISTORY OF THE YUKON. Up to within a very recent period little has been known about the Yukon, and when the United States purchased Alaska from Russia there was no gen eral knowledge of the extent and im portance of the mighty river. It is even now imperfectly known, although it is probable that the stream drains a larger territory than any other on the Western hemisjihere, except the Amazon, of South America. It undoubtedly is J the greatest river of the Pacinc Slope 5? Clther hemisPhere and according to lJie. mos rece;Lnn at0 VuhM!p l. uiiuua uuuui uvUjVUU square nines or territory, and discharges one-third more water per annum into the Siberian Ocean than the Mississippi River empties into the Gulf of Mexico. Incredible as this statement may seem, it must be remem bered that Alaska is a vast empire and only forms a portion of the watershed of the Yukon, which also drains the British Northwest Territory between the water sheds of the northern tributaries of the G'lumbic on the south, the rivers flow ing into Hudson's Bay on the east and to the Mackenzie Valley, which falls into the Arctic Ocean. It will, there fore, be seen that it gathers the accumu- cook Ate " W'1 , ofc il ' a .4 S f IHiaffiHfiMEra' "a w, fox Mm .-cx rv r i inri trrs-i rs -i a.v ,i ""in"' v , o: vn v s-ssi aaaaaaaiaaaBaKz5rt2j.sfcii?,w'it ars3' ft. iizaaecrs"" St'ftV" grrr i2SfeL5s. 5 x't A Typical Pi, czBCLnr, SnowiKoCrr, Sluiceway and TAiLisag. lated snow and rainfall of the vast re gion of the northern Rocky Mountain chain throughout the greater part of its length in the British possessions. The j upper river was long known to the Hudson Bay Co., while the lower river was in possession of the Russians, the business of which was monopolized by the Kussian-Amencan luir Co. The Russians called the river the Kvichpak. The first knowledge of the stream was made public by Lieut. Zagoskin, of the Russian navy, who visited it in 1842. lie traveled from the mouth of the river to a point a little above Nulato, the most eastern post occupied by the Russian company, about 600 miles from the sea. Zagoskin's report afforded the only knowledge of the river until the Western Union Telegraph Company be gan its explorations in 1855, the inten tion being to build a line to Europe .by way of Russian-America and Siberia, connecting the land lines with a short cable across Bering Strait. After some dozen years' laborious efibrt in this di rection, the scheme was abandoned, ow ing to the unexpected success of the Atlantic cable. It is said that the honor of making the first trip up the river from St Mich ael's to Fort Yukon belongs to an em ploye of the Russian Fur Co. named Ivan Simonsen Lukeen, who performed tlie journey in 1863. No report, how ever, of this trip has been published, and in 1866 two Western Union men named Ketchum and Labarge went over the same route, and announced to the world that the Yukon of the English and the Kvichpak of the Russians were one and the same stream. Before that they had appeared upon the maps as distinct from each other, one emptying into the Arctic ! ocean and the other into Norton Sound. In the Winter of 18G6 to 18G7 Ketchum and Labarge went up to Fort Yukon on the ice, and the following Summer pushed on more than 400 miles further up to Fort Selkirk, the highest point at that time reached by any explorers traveling from the coast The next expedition up to Fort Y"ukon was made by Messrs. AYllliam H. Dall, Director of the Scientific Corps of the Telegraph Co., and Frederick Whymper, an Englishman connected with the com pany, an author and artist They Win tered at Nulato, and in the Spring of 1867 proceeded up the river in skin boats to Fort Yukon, arriving there in the latter part of June. Although it took 29 days to go up the river from Nulato to the fort, traveling day and night, they made the return trip all tho way to St Michael's by the aid of tlie current in only 15 days. Both of these gentlemen published books upon Alaska and the Yukon country, which remain to the present time the most valuable contributions to the knowledge of the region concerning which they treat. When the United States Government purchased Alaska the Hudson Bay Company had a post at the most north erly bend of the river the Fort Yukon to which we have before alluded. From this point afl a base they made w kv&tCMMW, j , ft c "' ''""""-i. tt&0 to twite tU pxtilt, m& fov l$ Mm aafl 0vpanj$.f WASHINGTON, D. C, THURSDAY, AUGUST 12, 1897. n 3- excursions into Russian territory as far down as the mouth of the Panana River, about 300 miles, and this well-known infringement upon Russian rights be- came an odjccc or soncuucie to me Americans upon the transfer of the Russian territory to the United States. It was decided, therefore, to send a mili tary expedition to ascertain the exact latitude and longitude of Fort Yukon, to determine whether or not the point was in American territory, and if so, to put a stop to the incursions of the Hudson Bay Company's agents. In pursuance of this plan Gen. Halleck in the Spring of 1869 ordered Capt C. W. Raymond, of thetCorps of Engineers of the United States Army, to proceed with a suitable party to eastern Alaska to ascertain the location of Fort Yukon and to take possession of the country in behalf of the United States. It was found that the Fort was well within American territory, as appears from an extensive report submitted by Capt Raymond in the Spring of 1871. He reported Fort Yukon to be in latitude 66 degrees 33 minutes' 47 seconds north and in longitude 145 degrees 17 minutes and 47 seconds west from Greenwich, at which point the river receives the waters of the Porcupine, a large tributary com ing in on its north bank, and up to this time, like most of its other branches, very little known. CHARACTER OP THE RIVER. When the traveler sets out from St. Michael's to enter upon the final step of his journey to tho gold fields he will enter the northern or Aproon mouth of the stream and proceed about 40 miles from the const up,1 to the apex of the delta to the main channel of the river. This mouth at the sea is in longitude 164 degrees west from Greenwich, and latitude 64 degrees 10 minutes north approximately. The pass is about one third of a mile wide, but when the stream separates at the head of the delta it is three miles in width. This is about its normal width up Lo the mouth of the Tanana, its chief tributary, from the south below the junction of the Lewes aud Pelly at Fort Selkirk. The region surrounding the river on its lower reach is flat and swampy, covered with pools and thickets of willows and alders. Theie is no timber , until some hundreds of miles have been passed, ' when the prevailing tree is the spruce. Off to the south, near the mouth of the river, will be seen some low hills, but in the main the north bank is the rougher region, and the river hugs the elevations on this side. Above Nulato the region is very roitgh, and 240 miles above this point the stream breaks through a mountain chain in a torrent, narrowing upjto less than' 200 yard?. This place jj called the Lower Ram parts, from the fortress-like appearance of the 'granite cliffs which have been cut into fantastic shape by the current with its vast? cargo of ice and drift wood. .This' point is not dangerous, however, and the boatsN pass up freely in the face of a,yery strong current. Above the Ramparts there are many islands,, aud the river is filled with drift wood, cutting the shores, piling up into temporary obstructions, and playing navoc generally wun me DanKS. xoats of four to five hundred tons find a safe channel, and in Midsummer, probably, as a rule, craft of much deeper draft might safely go up to the head of the stream 2,000 miles above its mouth. About the end of August the river begins to fall rapidly, owing to the check ing of its tributaries by the return of the Arctic Winter away to the north on its upper course, and by the latter part of September the river is floored over by one vst ice-cake and carpeted with snow. UNEXPLORED ALASKA. There is reason to expect more im portant discoveries than any yet made in a vast region within American terri tory which is drained by the Kushkok- wim and Nubsaguk, which flow into Bering Sea, the Tanana, which falls into the Yukon, and the mysterious Suchitna, which empties into Cook Inlet. Tho eastern part of this region is drained by the Copper River, falling into the Gulf of Alaska. For the last two years a good deal of exploration has been done by prospectors, and gold has been reported in various places. The vast extent of the country, however, the shortness of the season, and the want of knowledge as to transportation routes have made the examination of t this enormous extent of broken country very arduous and difficult. There was last Summer quite a rush of men to the Cook Inlet region, and the Alaska Commercial Company was obliged to put a special steamer on this line running from Juneau to Turnagan Arm to carry miners in and out. It has been reported that this companj' has located a vast gravel bed several hun dred acres in extent, and 25 or 30 feet thick, which, should the whole area average up with the points which have been prospected, will yield over $25, 000,000 in this one placer. Just what has been done in tills region during the present season is not yet known, but it is significent that men who were in the Cook Inlet region last Winter are re ported as turning a deaf ear to the stories of the big strike in the Klondike, and are satisfied with something that has been found in the country named. Tlfe rivers which drain this vast area are all large, muddy streams with great glaciers and are at flood bight through out the short Summer season. The swift current of these streams, the clouds of gnats and musketoes and the un friendliness ,of the Indians who occupy this part ot the lemtory present greater difficulties to prospectors than even the region farther north. Of the 2,000 men who ventured in by the way of Cook's Inlet in 1895 to 1896, it was reported that only five parties succeeded in get ting any f reat distance up the Suchitna from the head of the Inlet. The most that is known about thic region has been contributed by Mr, W. - . tttw. VOL. A.. Dickey, who, in May, 1896, landed at Tyonick, at the head of Cook's Inlet, wiiere ne iounu snow on tne ground to the depth of about two feet and blocks of ice lying on the shore. While wait ing for the river to break up, the party did some prospecting and found colors of gold at various points, showing that there was, no doubt, plenty of the yellow metal up the streams, the finer dust of which was washed clear down to the Inlet Starting in an open dory, with an in coming tide which runs up Cook Inlet to a hight of about 65 feet, Dickey's party reached some broad mud flats, ex tending about 16 miles from the mouths of the Suchitna. Two days were spent on the flats hunting for the entrance to the river, which has an extensive delta, with a network of shallow channels spread over an expanse of eight or 10 miles. The banks of the lower river ! are muddy and caving, covered with thick brush and cotton wood trees. The country had the appearance of being frequently overflowed a long distance. Thirty miles up the river there is an Indian trading-station, where the stream is.divided into two channels, the east ern one of which was measured and found to be 855 yards wide, flowing deep from shore to shore. The other channel was nearly as large, but not so swift and deep. Above this point were met the first high banks in the shape of perpendicular cliffs of rock on each side, against which the stream beat with great force. Mr. Dickey's party finding their sea dory too heavy to face such a current, they stopped and whip-sawed lumber to make two river boats, such as are used on the Yukon, 25 feet in length and 18 inches wide on the bot tom and 40 inches at the top. They caulked over the new craft with spruce gum and grease, and, equipped with paddles, poles, and tow-lines, pushed on up the stream. The party went on to an unexplored region some 300 miles, discovering a lofty mountain-chain, of which Mount McKinley is the apex, and then they re turned. This is the terra incognita from which much is anticipated. There are other and better known creeks in American territory, yet little prospected. Such as Miller's Creek, Glacier Creek, and Mastodon Creek. The view above show3 a characteristic placer mine on Miller's Creek. In all this region there seems to be enough to engage American enterprise wihtout rushing pell-mell into inhospitable Can adian territory. There are various considerations why it is desirable for Americans to turn their attention to American territory. The development of our own country is a worthy object, and, again, our citizens Aviil escape the harassing restrictions proposed by the Dominion Government, which threaten unpleasant complica tions with a neighbor already in an iras cible frame of mind on account of the Southeastern boundary dispute and the new tariff bill. .i- .... ' "" '"" - ' " -! . 1 - t Read "Andor3onvl,,, "Sherman's Memoirs," "Where the Laurtl Blooms," "Alf Wilson," " Picket Shots," etc, oto. To secure such a "treat" every week for a whole year, send $1 to THE NATIONAL TRIBUNE, Washington, D. C. Sa Great Offer, 8th page. Single Copy, 5 Cents. XVI - NO. 44-WHOLE NO. 835. i TnTEIDrArflC fi"C (ZTM j CUlijJ Uf1 Vltjl. M T. SflErOTL WRITTEN BY HIMSELF. MOVING FOR G0LD8B0R0 Army Eeaches Clieraw, and Finds It Full of Stores. READY FOR OPPOSITION j New York Newspaper Indicates Sher- man's Future Movements. DRIVEN OUT OF FAYETTEYILLE Hardee and Hampton Escape Across Cape Fear River. (copyright). CHAPTER XXIII (continued). w1 E REACHED CHERAW in a couple of hours in a driz zling rain, and, while waiting for our wagons to come up, I staid with Gen. Blair in a large house, the property of a blockade-runner, whose family remained. Gen. Howard occupied another house farther down town. He had already ordered his pontoon-bridge to be laid across the Pedee, there a large, deep, navigable stream, and Mower's Division was already across, skirmishing with the enemy about two miles out. Cheraw was found to be full of stores which had been sent up from Charles ton prior to its evacuation, and which could not be removed. I was satisfied from inquiries that Gen. Hardee had with him only the Charleston garrisoD, that the enemy had not divined our movements, and that consequently they were still scattered from Charlotte around to Florence, then behind us. Having thus secured the passage of the Pedee, I felt no uneasiuess about the future, be cause there remained no further great impediment between us and Cape Fear River, which I felt assured wa3 by that time in possession of our friends. The day was so wet that we all kept in doors ; and about noon Gen. Blair in vited us to take lunch with him. We passed down into the basement dining room, where the regular family table was spread with an excellent meal; and during its progress I was asked to take some wine, which stood upon the table in venerable bottles. It was so very good that I inquired where it came from. Gen. Blair simply asked, "Do you like it ? " but I insisted upon knowing Published by permission of D. Appleton M C.t puhiNhura of the Persouul Meinoira of Qao. W. T. bberiiiun. jfc-J - '.'f.. g -v. 'v t4tyj- cr J. A. - Irt - -V ,.