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I Ts3 - - '- V , . - w ' . Read "AndersonviUe," "Sherman's Memoirs," " Lite of a Private in the Rebel Army," " Fighting Them Ovcr,'J etc., etc. To secure such a "treat" every week for a whole year, send $1 to THE NATIONAL TRIBUNE. Washington, D. C See Great Offer, 8th page. New pension rulings (of great importance thisyear) appear first, and often exclusively, in this paper. Keep posted. Send $1 to THE NATIONAL TRIB UNE, Washington, D. C, and get the paper every week for a whole year. See Great Offer, Sth page. wtta - B6 -' - " 0 care for Mm wbo hn$ borne ifte tjimu?, and for ttijj ujtfiow and szpfcan? " One Dollar a Year. Single Copy, 5 Cents. ESTABLISHED 1S77-EEW SERIES. WASniJSTfOff, D. C, THURSDAY, NOAEflBER 4, 1S97.-WITU SUPPLEMENT. VOL. XVII-ffO. 4-WUOLE NO. 847. W ..:t'''"-',SS? VP.X 'r'"'-'i 1-I!--- .?A'SMHSSra i vvi? -Mwi.- -jm i -aj.- p-5-r.awzi-r.Jv .i? vwnjtw i.rPwa. m.j r . i ., -ww yji i i a - r - v y- &! -' -- v JRW-i iBSL ,fc' - jflO -wtf ,i- it- - v- CO A Story of Rebel Military Prisons. (COrYKlOlIT.) STNOrSIS OF I'KKCKUING CHAPTERS. The, wonderful country about CumlierlanS Gap, kml lite strategic importance of tlmt place. The great need of food and foraco for the pnrrisou sends a battalion of 'cavalry up PowcH's Valley to clear it out and secure its supplies. A re.bol command starts doun tha Tallcy to drive the Union troopers out. The Itro forces meet on top of a hill, and ft prompt charge gives the day to the Union ik "d tcatters the icLels in headlong ront. The cavalry battaHon occupies the country gained, and protects the forage trains sent out to gather up the supplies and haul them in. This duty lasts until the morning of Jau. 3, 16G4. Tho battalion is attacked by Jones's Brigade of lebel?. and after a stubborn, desper ate fight is compelled to surrender. The pris oners aro taken by rail through .1 picturesque part of Virginia to Richmond, searched at Lib by, and sent to different prisons. First week of prison life. Interior and exterior scenes in Eicbmond. Stoppage of exchange. The firet squad of prisoner leave Richmond for AndersonviUe. Scenes tlong the route. Arrival at the (aroous prison-pen. Eemcthing as to southern Georgia. A sterile land. Ingenious construction of slioltcrs against the weather. Gen. Winder and Capt. Win Uke charge of the Prison. The month of March is passed in the pan, with little shelter from the snow, rain, and wind. The piison fills up with additional squads, including thoc deserters from Castle Lightning in Itichmoml, with whom the other prisoners Kave much trouble. Mortality rap Idly incrc.Br. Crowd inside the stockade constantly in creases. Arrival of prisouors and guns from Ooluttee. Killing of "Poll Parrot." Prisoners placucd by vermin. Trading with guards. Tho prisoners' minds are bent on exchange or escape. Much timo devoted to tuncel digging. Traitors aro summarily punished. The rainy month of June. The crowd in side the prieon rapidly increases, the rations grow worse, and the misery intensifies. Terrible ravaces of diseases of the digestive organs. A ppalliug increase in the mortaliiy. Some instances of deaths of tho writer's com rades. Itaidors grow unbearable. They attecipt the murder of Leroy L. Key, who forms a baud of Rteulalors. The latter defeat the liaiders in a battle. The Eaider leaders are arrest sentenced to death. The reiuaindWiffz in at a. court-martial of the rtrisonerssrXire lists shall ,be released from the spjpfTinockade. The prisoucis become infuriated at this, and as the Haiders are let into tho big stockade maul them severely. A scaffold is built andtbe Raid ers hanged amid intense excitement. The executions are followed by organization of & strong police force among the prisoners, and discipline becomes good. A young Ohio soldier, captured at Atlanta, tells the prisoners the story of the battle. He tells srapbically of the way in which the brave McPherson was killed, and how hisdeath affect ed the troops that loved him well. He describes how Gen. Logan took command of the Army of the Tennessee and led the men into the fight. The young soldier ends his narrative with his own capture at the close of the battle. The author interpolates in his narrative a transcript of the evidence at the Wirz trial of Prof. Joseph Jones, a Surgeon of high rank in tbe rebel army, who visited AndersonviUe to make a scientific study oi the conditions of disease there. The horrors of August. Something about rebel music. The Providential spring. Tho food, its meageruessand inferior quality. The escape, race with bloodhounds and recapture of the author and a companion. Fall of At lanta. Announcement of a geueral exchange. The author, with others, leaves for Savannah. They are disappointed to find they aro not to be exchanged, but confined in the Savannah prison-pen. CHAPTER LTV. (continued). THE LIGHT ARTILLERY OF the garrison of Savannah four batteries, 24 pieces was sta tioned around three sides of the prison, the guns unlimbered, planted at convenient distance, and trained upon us, ready ior instant use. Ave could see all the grinning mouths through the cracks in the fence. There were enough of them to send us as high as the tradi tional kite flown by Gilderoy. The having at his beck this array of frown ing metal lent Lieut Davis such an im portance in his own eyes that bis de meanor swelled to the grandiose. It became very amusing to see him puff up and vaunt over it, as he did on every possible occasion. For instance, finding a crowd of sev- eral hundred lounging around the gate, be would throw open the wicket, stalk in with the air of a Jove threatening a rebellious world with the dread thunders of heaven, and shout: " W-h-a-a y-e-e ! Prisoners, I give you jist two minutes to cleah away from this gate, aw I'll open on ye wid de abtillery!" One of the buglers of the arlillerv was a superb musician evidently some old "Regular" whom the Confederacy had seduced into its service, and his in strument was so sweet toned that we imagined that it was made of silver. The calls he-played were nearly the same as we used in the cavalry, and for the first few days we became bitterly homesick every time be sent ringing out the old familiar signals, that to us were so closely associated with what now seemed the bright and happy days when we were in the field with our battalion. If we were only back in the valleys of Tennessee with what alacrity we would respond to that " assembly " ; no Orderly's patience would be worn out in getting laggards and lazy ones to "fall in for roll-call": how eagerly we would attend to "stable duty"; how gladly mount our faithful horses and ride away to " water," and what bare back races ride, going and coming. We t would be ever glad to bear " guard " and "drill" sounded; and there would1 tcrrUjuT jjir-i 1 1 1 ini-wri- i-i 1 mi i - 1 1 1 1 1 1 mi M an 111 1 1 .rr .1 flu iw inlwwMii.il iwi ii iswwi lis n iiiiMinnn i ' - - , nimMuiniin 1 iiiimt wnwiiir 1 innnrnv 1 ninrfnw Mi in - Trr-rr 1 Tinm rii swf ir-inrr-HriiTwwttsnssi nrnnwiriii irw nr-mxwmmmmmmmm inWiiMiiniini kmss siliiHkBSiiiiiHK3'"S94 Copyright- 18S6. At Vicksbnrg, Lognn's Division of rcPherson's "Corps occurred the line crossing the 'Jackson road, and n sap" was constructed along this road toward the large fort which commanded the position. As the sap approached the fort it was covered by gabions made from cane, which grew in abundance near. When within 75 feet of the enemy's works ditches were dng at right angles with the sap, and occupied by troops, who gradually advanced until the .men on both sides were able to converse and rrom tbe head ol the sap before mentioned a mine was driven directly nnder the lort, more than .JO feet below the surface; Three different branch mines were constructed, and 2,700 pounds of powder placed in them. They were tamped with cross-timbers .and sandbags; fuses were arranged so as to explode at the same instant. The troops selected for the cliarge into the crater were from Gen. M. D. Leggett's Brigade of Logan's Division, which consisted of the 20th, :Wth, :31st, 45th, and 12-lth 111. The storming-party consisted of 200 men, under the imme diate command of Gen. Leggctt, while the balance of the brigade was underarms a short distance to the rear. At about 3::$0 on the afternoon of June 25 the torch was applied, and the great fort was lifted in the air and, scattered in -all-dircctions. While the air was yet dark with the dust, debris, and smoke, Gen. Lcggett led his command into the crater, when he was met by a maddened foe, and a most desperate encounter ensued, which M. de Thulstrup has graphically illustrated. Gen. Leggctt was severely wounded almost at the moment of entering, the crater, but lie refused to be removed to the hospital, and was carried back a few paces to his trenches, where he remained, giving orders and receiving reports until the struggle ended. The crater was cone-shaped, and the storming-party was thus exposed to loaded shells and grenades thrown into their midst by hand with deadly effect. Such of the shells and grenades as did not explode were caught by be music in the disconsolate " Surgeon's call:" "Come gel your q-ii-i-n-t-n-e; come, get 3'onr quinine; it'll isiaku you end; it'll make you sick. Come, come." O, if we were only back, what ad mirable soldiers we would be ! One morning, about three or four o'clock, we were awakened by the ground shaking and a series of heavy, dull thumps sounding off seaward. Our silver-voiced bugler seemed to be awak ened, too. lie set the echoes ringing with a vigorously played " reveille" ; a minute later came an equally earnest" " assembly," and when " boots and saddles" followed, we knew that all was not well in Denmark; (he thumping and shaking now had a significance. It meant heavy Yankee guns somewhere near. We heard the gunners hitching up, the bugle signal " forward," the wheels roll of!) and for a half hour afterwards we caught the receding sound of the bugle commanding "right turn," " left turn, etc., as the batteries marched away Of course, we became considerably wrought up over the matter, as we fan cied that, knowing we were in Savannah, our vessels were trying to pass up to the City and take it. The thumping and shaking continued until late in the after noon. We subsequently learned that sonnij of our blockaders, Ending time hanging j heavy upon their hands, had essayed a little diversion by knocking Forts Jack son and Bledsoe two small forts de fending the passage of the Savannah about their defenders' ears. After capturing the forts our folks desisted and came no farther. Quite a number of the old Raider crowd had come with us from Ander sonviUe. Among these was the shyster, Peter Bradley. They kept up their old tactics of hanging around the gates, and currying favor with the rebels in every possible way, in hopes to get paroles outside or other favors. The great mass of the prisoners were ?o bitter against the rebels as to feel that they would rather die than ask or accept a favor from their hands, and they had little else than contempt for these trucklers. The Raider crowd's favorite theme of conversation with the rebels was t he strong discontent of the boys with the manner of their treatment by our (iovcrxme. r exchange rations by throwing them over the intervening salient. The assertion that there was any such, widespread feeling was utterly false. We all bad confidence as we continue to have to this day that our Govern ment would do everything for us possi ble, consistent with its honor, and the success of military operations, and out side of the little squad of which I speak, not an admission could be extracted from anybody that blame could be at tached to any one, except the rebels. It was regarded as unmanly and un- soldierlike to the last degree, as well as senseless, to revile our Government for j the crimes committed by its foes. j But the rebels were led to believe that we were ripe for revolt against our flag, and to side with them. Imagine, if possible, the stupidity that would mis take our bitter hatred of those who were our deadly enemies, for any feeling that would lead us to join iands with those eucinics. One day we were surprised to see the carpenters erect a rude stand in the center of the camp. When it was finished, Bradley appeared upon it, in company with some rebel officers and guards. We gathered around in curios ity, and Bradley began making a speech. He said that it had now become ap parent to all of us that our Government had abandoned us; that it cared little or nothing for us, since it could hire as many more quite readily, by offering a bounty equal to the pay which would be due us now; that it cost only afewhuu- dred dollars to bring over a shipload of Irish, Dutch, and French, who were only too glad to agree to fight or do any thing else to get to this country. The peculiar impudence of this consisted in Bradley himself being a foreigner, and one who had only come out on Jer one of the later calls, and the inllujuce of a big bounty. Continuing in this strain he repeated and dwelt upon the old lie, always in the mouths of his crowd, that Secretary Stanton and Gen. TIalleck had positively refused to enter upon negotiations for exchange, because those in prison were "only a miserable lot of ' coilee-boilers ' and '.blackberry-pickers,' whom the army was better off without." The terms "coflee-boilers" and "blackberry-pickers" were considered the worst terms of opprobrium we had in prison. They were applied to that class of strag glers and sulkers who were only too ready to give themselves up to the enemy, and who, on coming in, told some gauzy SIEGE OF VICKSBURG. Assault on Tj)Tt HiU. story about "just having? stopped to boil a cup of coffee," or to do something else, which they should notdiave done, when they were gobbled up. ; It is not risking much to affirm the 'probability of Bradley and most of his crowd -having belonged to this dishonorable class. The as3pr-ion that either the great Chief of Stall or thestill greater War Secretary wer even capable of applying such epithets to the mass -of prisoners is too preposterous to. need "refutation, or even denial. oSTo person outside the Raider crowd ever gave the silly lie a moment's toleration. Bradley concluded ' ii his speech in some sticliManguage as this "And now, fellow-prisoners, I propose to you this: that we unite in informing our Government that unless we are ex changed in 30 days,-we will be forced by self-preservation to join the Confederate army For an instant Ins hearers seemed . stunned at the fellows audacity, and then there went up such a roar of denun ciation and execration that the air trembled.. The rebels! thought that the whole camn was goihglto rush on Brad ley and tear him to i pieces, and they drew revolvers and leveled muskets to defend him. The uproar only ceased when Bradley was hurried out of the prison, but for hours everybody was savage and sullen, and full of threaten ings against him, when opportunity served. We never saw him afterward. Angry as I was, I could not help being amused at the', tempestuous rage of a tall, fine-looking land well-educated Irish Sergeant of an? Illinois regiment. He poured forth derjuueiations of the traitor and the rebes, with the vivid fluency of his' Hibernian nature, vowed he'd " give a year of nio life to have the handling of the dirt'!? spalpeen for 10 minutes," and filially1, hi his rage, tore ofl his own shirt and .threw it on the ground and trampled on it. Imagine my astonishment, some time after getting out of prison, to find the Southern papers publishing as a defense against the charges in regard to Ander sonviUe, the following' document, which they claimed to have been adopted by " a mass meeting of the prisoners " : "At a mass meeting held Sept. 28, 1804, by the Federal prisoners confined at Savannah, Ga., it was unanimously agreed that the following resolutions be sent to the President of the United Stales, in the'hopo that he might thereby take (hu'men and thrown back, causing havoc in the ranks of the Confederates. Tun Union troops had no grenades, nat took instead shells, cut the ftufcj, and threw tham over to the toe. Filially, the enemy brought a piece of artillery close to the outer wall of ttte crater, and fired through the loo3e earth, stone, and timbers. The blaze from thci gun would often reach and hum some of Leggett's men. This gun was finally disabled by the large shells thrown by hand. An officer of Gen. Logan's staff was cutting the fnse3 of shells, igniting, and tossing them over tha wall, when onp exploded in, hi3 hands.. Said an eye:witne3s: "I was standing near, and saw that the fuse was too short, and that it must explode. I threw myself upon my back, and in an instant-came the report, and we were enveloped in the smoke. When it cleared away I expected to see his mangled remains, but, to my surprise, he was apparently uninjured, and. was coolly reaching for another shell." The contest was often a hand-to-hand struggle. The men would grapple and struggle fiercely for the mastery, but in such encounters the Union men were finally successful, as their foe had become enfeebled from insufficient food and long service in the trenches. ; The struggle continued through the weary night and a part of the day following. The 5Gth 111., led by Col. Green 13. liaum, was sent to hold the crater on the 2Gth, but, having exhausted their ammunition, a supply of the 'wron'c caliber was sent, which resulted in their defeat. At the time of the explosion a few Confederates were blown within the Union links, one or two of whom came down alive. One negro came over and fell head-first in a bank oPtldose sand in the rear of where the storming-party was standing. He was pulled out, and soon recovered. When asked how high he went, he answered: "Do' Jno', Jrassa; spec about tree miles; asl was coming down I met Massa gojn? up, and he didn't 'no' how high we was." . such steps as in his wisdom he may think necessary for our speedy exchange or parole : Jicsnh-cd, That while we would declare our unbounded love for the Union, for the homes of our fathers, and for the graves of those we venerate, we would beg most respectfully that oursituationas prisoners bediligently inquired into, and every obstacle consistent with the honor aud dignity of the Government at once removed. JicsoJvcd, That while allowing the Confed erate authorities all due praise for the atten tion paid to prisoners, numbers of our men aro daily consigned to early graves, in the prime of manhood, far from home and kin dred, and this is not caused intentionally by the Confederate Government, but by force of circumstances; tlje prisoners are forced to go without shelter, and, in a great portion of cases, without medicine. lie solo (J, That, whereas, 10,000 of our brave comrades have descended into an un timely grave within the last six months, and as we believe their death was caused by the difference of climate the peculiar kind and insufficiency of food, and lack of proper medical treatment; and, whereas, those dif ficulties still remain, we would declare as our firm belief that, unless we arc speedily ex changed, we have no alternative but to share the lamentable fate of our comrades. .Must this thing still go on ? Js there no hope? Jlcxvlvcd, That, whereas, the cold and in clement season of the year is fast approach ing, we hold it to be our duty as soldiers and citizens of the United States, to inform our Government that the majority of our prison ers are without proper clothiair, in some cases being almost naked, and are without blankets to protect us from the scorching sun by day or the heavy dews by night, and wp would most respectfully request the Government to make some arrangement whereby we can be supplied with these, to us, nrcessary articles. Jit solved, That, whereas, the term of ser vice of many of our comrades having expired, they, having served truly and faithfully for the term of their several enlistments, would most respectfully ask their Government, arc they to be forgotten? Are past services to be ignored ? Not having seen their wives and little ones for over three years, they would most respectfully, but firmly, request the Government to make some arrangements whereby they can be exchanged or paroled. lieuolvcd, That, whereas, in the fortune of war, it was our lot to become prisoners, we have suffered patiently, and arc still willing to suffer, if by so doing we can benefit the country; but we must most respectfully bog to say, that we are not willing to suffer t further the ends of any party or clique to the detriment of our honor, our tannics, and our country, and wc bag th-it this affair be ex plained to us, that wc may continue to hold the Government in that respect which is necessary to make a good citizen and soldier. P. Bkadlbv, Chairman of Committee in behalf of Pris oners. In regard to the above I will simply say this, that while I cannot pretend to L. .Prang & Co.. Boston know all, or even much that went on around me, I do not think it was possi ble for a mass meeting of prisoners to have been held without my knowing it, and its essential features. Still less was it possible for a mass meeting to have been held which would have adopted any such a document as the above, or anything else that a rebel would have found the least pleasure in republishing. The whole thing is a brazen falsehood. CHAPTER LV. WJIY WE WERE IfUKKIED OUT OF AXDER SONVII.T.E THE EFFECT OF TnE FALL OF ATLANTA OUK LOXOIXG TO IIEAE THE NEWS AUKIVAL OF SOME FIJESH FISH HOW WE KXEW THEY WERE ' WESTERN HOYS DIFFERENCE IN THE APPEARANCE OF THE SOLDIERS OF THE TWO ARMIES. The reason of our being hurried out of AndersonviUe under the false pretext of exchange, dawned on us before we had been in Savannah long. If the reader will consult the map of Georgia he will understand this, too. Let him remember that several of the railroads which now appear were not built then. The road upon which AndersonviUe is J situated was about 120 miles long, reach ing from Macon to Americus, Anderson viUe being about midwav between these two. It had no connections anywhere except at Macon, and it was hundreds of miles across the country from Ander sonviUe to any other road. When At lanta fell it brought our folks to within 60 miles of Macon, and any day they were liable to make a forward move ment which would capture that place, and have us where we could be retaken with ease. There was nothing left undone to rouse the apprehensions of the rebels in that direction. Tho humiliating sur render of Gen. Stoneman at Macon in July showed them what our folks were thinking of, and awakened their minds to the disastrous consequences of such a movement when executod by a bolder and abler commander. Two days of one of Kilpatrick's swift, silent inarches would carry his hard-riding troopers around Hood's right flauk and into the streets of Macon, where a half hour's work with the torch on the bridges across the ,Ocmulgee and the creeks that enter it at that point would have - ' - "- ' ' (Coutiuucd on third p;io.) PHOHSOpOEJ. WH. T. SflEHPlt WRITTEN BY HIMSELF. DEPARTMENT RED TAPE The General's Views Regard ing Army Administration. THE STAFF AND THE LINE Place of Commanding General at Head of the Column. MOVEMENTS AFTER THE WAR Construction of the Great Union Pa cific Railway. (COPYRIGHT). CHAPTER XXV (continued). A RECENT MESSAGE (JULY 18, 1874) made to the French Assembly by Marshal McMa hon, President of the French Republic, submits a. project de loi, with a report prepared by a Board of French Generals on " army administration," which is full of information, and is a3 applicable to us as to the French. I quote from its very beginning : " The misfortunes of the campaign of 1870 have demonstrated the inferiority of our system. '.. Two sepa rate organizations existed with parallel functions the General more occupied in giving direction to his troops than in providing for their material wants, which he regarded as tlie special province of the staff; and the intendant (staff) often working at random, taking on his shoulders a crushing burden of functions and duties, exhausting himself with use less efforts, and aiming to accomplish an insufficient service, to the disappointment of everybody. This separation of the administration and command, this co existence of two wills, each independent of the other, which paralyzed both and annulled the dualism," was condemned. It was decided by the Board that this error should be "proscribed" in the new military system. The report then goes on at gTeafc length discussing the provisions of the "new law," which is described to be a radical change from the old one on the same subject. While conceding to the Minister of War in Paris the general control and supervision of the entire military establishment primarily, especi ally of the annual estimates or budget, and the great depots of supply, it dis tributes to the commanders of the corps d'armee in time of peace, and to all army commanders generally in time of war, the absolute command of the money, provisions and stores, with the necessary ! staff-officers to receive, issue, and account for them. I quote further: " The object of tnis law is to confer on the commander of troops whatever liberty of action the case demands. He has the power even to go beyond the regulations in circumstances of urgency and pressing necessitar. The extraordi nary measures he may take on these occasions may require their execution without delay. The staff officer has but one duty before obeying, and that is to submit his observations to the General, and to ask his orders in writing. " With this formality his responsibility ceases, and the responsibility for the ex traordinary act falls solely on the Gen eral who gives the order. The officers and agents charged with supplies are placed under the orders of the General in command of the troops ; that is, they are obliged both in war and peace to obey, with the single qualification above named of first making their observations and securing the writteU order of the General." AIUIY KED TAPE. With us, to-day, the law and regula tions are that, no matter what may be the emergency, the commanding General in Texas, jNew Mexico, and the remote frontiers cannot draw from the arsenals a pistol cartridge or any sort of ordnance stores without first procuring an order of the Secretary of War in Washington. The commanding General, though in trusted with the lives of his soldiers and with the safety of a frontier in a con dition of chronic war, cannot touch or be trusted with ordnance stores or prop erty, aud that is declared to be the law ! Every officer of the Old Army re members how, in 1S61, we were ham pered with the old blue Army regula tions, which tied our hands, and that to do anything positive and necessary we had to tear it all to pieces cut the red tape, as it was called a dangerous thing for an army to do, for it was calculated to bring the law and authority into con tempt ; but war was upon us, and over whelming necessity overrides all law. This French report is well worth the study of our Army officers, of all gradesi and classes, and 1 will only refer again, casually, to another part, wherein it dis? Published by psrraission of D. Appleton & Co.. puUlisUei-j of tho Personal Memoirs o (ion. V. T. iisivJJu.