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,-' -'Vttsar-"!,;;' tss r'? ' ? i" -. i- j?- fr r This paper, coming week ly, is worth ten times its cost to soldiers, or soldiers' heirs, Subscribe now, or get up a club. Only $1 a year Paise a club for THE NATIONAL TRIBUNE That is the practical way to secure your own rights and help your comrades, everywhere nme V T " So t ant.for trim rc&o b 1meffeme, And fair ltfji ufatow gad trjftatt." 2 CO WASHINGTON, D'. 0., THURSDAY, DECEMBER 30, 1897. ESTABLISHED 1877-NBW SERIES. VOL. XVn-NO. 12-WHOLE NO. 855. Ipdopvill: m A Story of Rebel Military Prisons. PTOS OF GEJ. WJL T. SBE8PJL WRITTEN BY HIMSELF. 1 - -Ji&". x- . -:h;-L -rt,'i-- 1 ' i'T. - r ?.. 'x -'V Vf'f&::i--'&?z3&. '&''$ -v 3Jj .-'" , -,- ., " k- ijsisk-- -i .--v: . jp- HISTORY IN LETTERS (corYisiniiT.) jgv- jA MIT IT IT 3 1 'BHffipii4 tl I vTi i finE ii imn mi tUiiim.ii. miA 11 11 in " ' 1 hi MM' i mm mi 0i i qui i i , i r..- m's4r;s&Mi&S3SZ& &,jrt&? ' -a. ' ' u . . i -. . . mz. ?mmmsm. r--.. - -v.: -,- r-z:i -r-'i&:i!m5ffiK88 -- jfr.-x . .- - &&& ' -. --.;'- -zxk v vw& vzwrnsmBMbtms fm & y-oiv..--. . -&;&.. :,ji&Mt-?se.smmimmmf-' - -- --- y. &m:s-MfiJ&rw&'mmw --,-' -'-:, .':--. , :----:mm .- '-- r ---.'".' - . s.'r. t;-.m Jy- a r"-; . rjf. 'Wi . - "-i-, --' - " -- - .-,-. - .. ..., r , ...., , r,. r. .-. - ..- , J . ., ,... , -,-w ' ' ', ,' - . ,-. , ' .. -.-" '. - - - - " , . .,'j,y .... . ' ?Zv f L. STNOPSIS OF rUKCKDlXO CHAPTERS. The wonderful country about Cumber land Gap, and the strategic importance of that place. ISeed of fooii and iorage for the garrison sends a baltahon of cavalry up Powell's Valley to secure its supplies. A rebel command starts down the valley. The two forces' meet and the rebels are routed. The cavalry battalion occupies the coun try gained, and protects the forage trains gent out to gather up the supplies. On Jan. 3, 1SG1, the battalion is attacked by Jones's Brigade of rebels, and after a stuo born. desperate light is compelled to sur render, 'lhe prisoners are taken to Rich mond. Interior and exterior scenes in Richmond. Stoppage of exchange. The first squad of prisoners leave for Andersonvillc. Gen. "Winder and Capt. Wirz take charge of the prison. The month of March is j.assed in the pen, with little shelter from the snow, rain, and wind. The prison fills up with addi tional squads. Prisoners plagued by ver min. Trading wi.h guards. The prisoners' minds are bent on ex change or escape. Much time devoted to tunnel-digging. The crowd inside the prison rapidly increases, rations grow worse, the misery intensifies and there is an appalling increase in the mortality. Plundering prisoners, known as Raiders, attempt the .murder of Leroy L. Key, who forms a band or Regulators. The latter de feat the Raiders in a terrible battle. The Raider leaders are arrested, and at a court martial of the prisoners six are sentenced to death. The Raiders hanged amid in tense excitement. The executions are fol lowed by organization of a strong police force accn-, the prisoners. The author interpolates in his narrative a transcript of the evidence.at the Wirz trial' of Prof. Joseph Jones, a Surgeon of high rank in the rebel army, who visited Andersonville to make a scientific study of the conditions of disease there. The horrors of August. The Providen tial Spring. The food, its meagerness and inferior quality. The escape, race with bloodhounds and recapture of the author and a companion. Fall of Atlanta. An nouncement of a general exchange. The author, with others, leaves for Sa vannah. They are disappointed 19 find they arc not to be exchanged, but confr cd in the Savannah prison-prn. The prison ers are taken to Millen, and receive better treatment. . The narrative of the attempts to escape of Serp't Leroy L. Key is told by himself. After the hanging of the Raider leaders he obtained a parole and worked in the cook house. An important condition of the pa role was violated by "Wirz himself. Key and others then manage to pass the guards, but are caught several days later by citizens, and put in jail at Hamilton. Ga. They are taken to Macon, and thence to Savannah, being paroled on Nov. 24, 18C4. Sherman's advance frichtens the rebels into taking the prsoncr.s frrm Millen. They arrive at Blrckshear, :ir.d soon exchange Is announced, and the rebel officials ex plain that 'all must sign the parole. But after signing the "parole" they are sent lo Savannah, thence to Charleston. CHAPTER LXVIL .. OFF TO CITAULKSTON PABSIXO TWHOUGIJ THE JIICE SWAM I'S TWO EXTHEMES OF SOCIETY EXTP.Y ISTO CHARLESTON. LEISURELY WARFARE SIIELLTXG THE CITY AT REGULAR INTERVALS WIS CAMP IX A itASS OF RUINS DEPARTURE FOR FLORE VCE. THE RICE SWAMTS through which we were parsing were the princely possessions of the few nabois who before the war stood at the head of. South Carolina aristocracy I hey were South Carolina, in fact, as absolutely as Louis XIV. was France. In their hands but a few score in nutnler was concentrated about all there was of South Carolina education, wealth, culture and breeding. They represented a jinchheck imitation of that rerinie lit France which was happily swept oi.t f existence by the Uevolutn.11, and the destruction of which more than compensated for every drop of blood shed in tho.se terrible days. Like the provincial grandes seigneurs of Louis XVJ.'s teign, they were gay, dissipated and turbulent; "accom plished " in the superficial acquirements that made the " gentleman " 1 00 years ago, but are grotesquely out of place in this sensible, solid age, which demands that u man shall be of use, and not merely for show. They ran horses and fought cocks, dawdled through society when young, and intrigued in politics'thc rest of their lives, with Jrequent spice-work of duels. Esteeming personal courage a3 a su preme human virtue, and .never weary ing of prating their devotion to the highest standard of intrepidity, they never produced a General who was even mediocre; nor did anyone ever hear of ' a South Carolina regiment gaining dis tinction. Regarding politics and the art of gov ernment as, equally with arms, their natural vocations, they have never gi-en the Nation a statesman, and their greatest politicians achieved eminence by advocating ideas which only attracted attention by their balefulneW Still further resembling the French grandes seigneurs of the 18th century, they rolled in wealth wrung from the laborer by reducing the rewards of his toil to the last fraction that would sup port his life and strength. The rice culture was immensely profitable, be cause they had found the secret for rais ing it more cheaply than even the pau per laborer of the old world could. Their lands had coet them nothing originally, the improvements of dikes and ditches were comparatively inex pensive, the taxes were nominal, and EDITOEIAL N0TE.--Tfce Ill-treatment of ae prisoners at Florence, and liow t.at i8on compared witn Andersonville, is told next installment of " Andersonvillo." Copyright by Jus. E. 1'nylor. Col. Jas. E. Tavlor. the crreat war artist, served in the annv, and caught its spirit, has the picturesque background of towering Lookout Fountain. It was such a gathering of me war am not onen snow. J Here wis the incomparably greater 01 nioaem uencrais me snenr, linpcriurnauie, but all-seeing and all-controlling U. S. Grant, who never moved except to victory. There was the brilliaut strategist, AY. T. Sherman. JJis horse seems imb::cd with the restless impetuosity of bis rider. There was the handsome, knightly McPlierson soon to meet a soldier's death on the battlefield. There was the swarthy, licry, their slaves were not so expensive to keep as good horses in the Isorth. Thousands of the acres along the road belonged to the Rhetts, thousands to the Heywards, thousands to the Manigaults, the Lowndes, the Middletons, the Hugers, the Barnwells, and the Elliots all names too well known in the history of our coun try's sorrows. Occasionally one of their stately mansions could be seen on some distant elevation, surrounded by noble old trees and superb grounds. Here they lived during the healthy j art of the year, but fled ihc::cc t; l.'iimnifr resorts in il.e l.ijM.uiddas the miasmatic season a!i .1 ... The people we saw nt the stations aloiv' our route were mehiuchbl lvil.u--nt- lions of the evils of the rule of such a:i endured. oligarch)'. Thoie was . no middle class We became fearfully hungry. Tt will visible anywhere nothing but the two j be recollected that we ate the, whole of extremes. A man was cither "a gentle- . the two days' ration-: issued to us at Black mail," and wore a while shirt and city- ihearatonce.and we had received nothing made clothe?, or he was a loutibh hind, s'.nce. We reached the sullen, fainting clad in mere apologies" for 'garment?. " t-tage of great .hunger,' and for hours We thought we had found in the -t nothing was said by. any one, except an Georgia "cracker" the lowest substratum i" occ-tFioiir.l bitter execration on rebels of human socittv. but he was bright in- ami i.btl 1 radices, telligcnce cniparcl to-the Suth Cam- ; , Tt was late at night when we reached lina "clav-witer" and "fand-hillcr." ! The "cracker" a! v. ays gave hopes to one that if he'had the advantage of com mon school?, and could be made to 'un derstand that laziness wa.i dishonorablcj he might develop into something. There was little foundation for such hope in theaveiage low Sjuth Carolinian. His mind Avas a shaking quagmire, which did not admitof the erection of any super structure of education upon it. The South Carolina guards-about us did not know the name of the next town, though they had been raised fn that section. They did not know how far it was there, or to any place else, and they did not care to learn. They h&d no conception of what the war was being waged for. and did not want to find out; they did not know where their regiment was going, and did not remember where it had been ; they could not tell how long they had been in service, nor the time they had en listed for. They only remembered that sometimes they had had "sorter good times." and sometimes " they had been powerful bad," and they hoped there would be plenty to eat wherever they went, and not too much hard inarching. Then they wondered "whara feller'd be likely to make a raise of a canteen of good whisky?" Bad as the whites were, the rice planta tion negroes were even worse, if that were possible. Brought to the country cen turies ago, as brutal savages from Africa, they had learned nothing of Christian civilization, except that it meant endless toil, in malarious swamps, under the lash of the task-master. They . . -, possibly, a little moie clothing than their -Senegambian ancestors did; they ate cornmeal, yams and rice, instead of bananas, yams and rice, as their fore fathers did, and they had learned a bastard, almost unintelligible, English. who lms such an advnntace over his competitors painted .1 great picture of a notable gathering These were the sole blessings acquired by I a transfer from a life of freedom in the jungles of the Gold Coast, to one of slavery m the swamps of the Combahee. I could not then, nor can I now, regret 1 the downfall of a system of society which bore such fruits. Towards night a distressingly cold breeze, laden with a penetrating mist, set in from the sea, and put an end to future .observations by making us too uncomfortable to enro for -scenery or S''ci.:! conditions. . Ve wanted most to devise a way to keep warm. Andrews and I puiled our overcoat and blanket c'oselv about. u., s,miLrg!cd together so as to make each one's meager body afford the other. as much heat as possible and - Cliaileston. IJie lights of the citv. and the apparent warmth and comfort there, cheered us up somewhat with the. hopes that we might have some share in tliem. leaving, the train, we were marched some distance through well-lighted street3, in which were plenty -of people walking to and fro. - There were many stores, apparently stocked with goods, and the citizens seemed to be going about their business "very much as was the custom up North. At length our head of column made a " right turn," and we marched away from the lighted portion of the city, to a part which I could sec through the shadow was filled with ruins. An almost insupportable odor of-gas, escap ing I suppose from the ruptured pipes, mingled with the cold, rasping air from the sea, to make every breath intensely disagreeable. As I saw the ruins, it flashed upon me that this was the burnt district of the city, and they were putting us under the fire of our own guns. At first I felt much alarmed. Little relish as I had on general principles for being shot, I had much lesss for being killed by our own meu. Then I reflected that if they put me there and kept me a guard would have to be placed around who would necessarily be in as much danger as we were, and I knew I could stand any fire that a rebel could. Wc were halted in a vacant lot, and eat down, only to jump up the next in stant, as someone shouted : " There comes one of 'em ! " Ifwas a great shell from the Swamp Angel Battery. Starting from a point miles away, where, seemingly, the sky came down to the sea, was a narrow ribbon of fire, which slowly unrolled Itself against the star-lit vault over our head?. . On, on it came, and was appar s ently following the sky down to the horizon behind us. As it reached the A GROUP OP GENERALS. Under the Shadow of Lookout Mountain. in that he actually I .battle-leader, John A. of war leaders with i really great soldiers as zenith, there came' to our cars a pro- J longed, but not sharp " Whish ish ishr-ish ish ! " "We watched it breathlessly, and it seemed to be long minutes in running its course; then a thump upon the ground, and .a vibration, told that it had struck. For a moment there was a dead silence. Then came a loud roar, and the crash of breaking timber and crushing walls. The-shell had burst. Ten minutes later another shell fol lowed, with like results. For awhile we forgot all about hunger in the ex citement of watching the messengers from " God's country." What happi ness to be where those shells came from. Soon a rebel battery of heavy guns somewhere near and in front of us waked up, and began answering with dull, slow thumps that made U?e ground shudder. This continued about un hour, when it. quieted down again; but our shells kept coming over, at regular intervals with the same 'sldwv-deliberation. the same prolonged "varying, and the same dreadful crash when they struck. They had already gone on this' way for over a year, and were to keep it up months longer until thejeity was captured. , The routine .was the-same from day to day, month in,and '-month out, from early. in Auguit,,lS63, to the middle of April, I860.- Every 'few minutes' dur ing the dayourTolks -would hurl a great' shell into the .beleaguered city, and twice a day, for perhaps, an" hour each time, the rebel batteries-would talk back. It must have been a lesson to the ChaiTestonians of the persistent, metliQd: ical spirit of th.q North. They, prided themselves on the length of the time they were holding 'out against the enemy, and the, papers each day had a column headed "3)0lh day of the Siege," or 391st, 393d, etc., as the num ber might be since our people opened fire upon the city. The part where we lay was a mas3 of ruins. Many large buildings had been knocked down ; very many more were 'riddled with siiot-hol.es and tottering to,their fall. One night a shell passed through' a large building about a quarter- of ai mile from us. It had already been struck several times, and was shaky. The shell went through with a deafening crash. All was still foriqu instant ; then it exploded, with, al dull roar, followed by more crashing oft timber and walls. The sound died awayand was succeeded by a moment of silence. Finally the great building fell, a shapeless heap of ruins, with a noise like that of a dozen field-pieces. We wanted to cheer, but restrained Ourselves. This was the near est to us that any shell came. There wWly-ofte section of the city in.'reaqkof ottr guns, and this was nearly destroyed ."Fires had come to complete theworR Jeun by the shells. Outside of tho' boundaries. of this region, the people felfthlmsefves as safe as in one-of our-Nbrthcjfnclties to-day. They hadrWMdbigTaTth that they were clear out of reach of any artillery that wo could mount I learned after-1 Logan, fresh from his achievements before enemy. Tticre was tnc solid, zcaions, cver-faiUitui U. U. Mowara, newly lotnea. irom tue Army 01 me roiomuc. There was that incomparable Chief -of-Staff, John A. EawJins, Grant's right-hand man,. and his Adjutant ever since Jhe had started out to command a brigade. In the distance is seen "Morgan L. Smith. It is a picture to wake veterans' memories warm again. ward3 from some of the prisoners, who went into Charleston ahead of us, and were camped on the race course outside of the city, that one day our fellows threw a shell clear over the city to this race course. There was ab immediate and terrible panic among the citizens. They thought 'we had mounted some new guns of increased range, and now the whole city must go. But the next shell fell inside the es tablished limits, and those following were equally well behaved, so that the panic abated. I have never heard any explanation of .the matter. It may have been some freak of the gun-squad, trying the effect of an extra charge of powder. Had our people known of its signal effect, they could have depopu lated the place in a few hours. The whole matter impressed me queerly. The only artillery I had ever seen in action were filedpieces. They made an earsplitting crash when they were discharged, and there was liktdy to be oceaus of trouble for everybody in that neighborhood about that time. I reasoned from this that bigger guns made a proportionally greater amount of noise, and bred an infinitely larger quantity of trouble. Now I wa3 hearing the giants of the world's ordnance, and they were not so impressive as a lively battery of three inch rifles. Their reports did not threaten to shatter everything, but had a dull resonance, something like' that produced by striking an empty barrel with a wooden manl. Their shells did not come at one in that wildly ferocious way with which a missile from a six-pounder convinces every fellow in a long line-of-battle that he is the identical one it is meant for, but they meandered over in a lazy, leisurely manner, as if time was no object and no person would feel put out at having to wait for them. Then, the idea of firing every quarter of an hour for a year fixing up a job for a life-time, as Andrews expressed it, and of being fired back at for an hour at 9 o'clock every morning and evening; of 50,000 people going on buying and selling, eating, drinking and sleeping, having dances, drives and balls, marry ing and giving in marriage, all within a few hundred yards of where the shells were falling struck me as a most singu lar metliod of conducting warfare. We received no rations until the day after our arrival, and then they were scanty, though fair in quality. We were by this time so hungry and faint that we could hardly move. We did nothing for hours but lie around on the ground and try to forget how famished we were. At the announcement of rations, many acted as if crazy, aud it was all that the Sergeants could do to restrain the im patient mob from tearing the food away and devouring it, Avhen they were trying to divide it out. Very many perhaps 30 'djed during the night and morning. "No blame for this is attached to the Charleston people. ' They distinguished themselves from the citizens of every J s From the original painting by Jaa. . Taylor. Yicksbnrg, and eager for new battles. with the that idol of his division the intrepid, stormy . . . - other place in the Southern Confederacy where we had been, by making efforts to relieve our condition. They sent quite a quantity of food to us, and the Sisters of Charity came among us, seek ing and ministering to the sick. I believe our experience was the usual one. The prisoners who passed through Char leston before us all spoke very highly of the kindness shown them by the citizens there. We remained in Charleston but a few days. One night we were marched down to a rickety depot, and put on board a still more rickety train. When morn ing came we found ourselves running northward through a pine-barren coun try that resembled somewhat that in Georgia, except that the pine wa3 short leaved, there was more oak and other hard woods, and the vegetation generally assumed a more Northern look. We had been put into close box-cars, with guards at the doors and on top. During the night quite a number of the boys, who had fabricated little saw3 out of case knives and fragments of hoop iron, cut holes through the bottoms of the cars, through which they dropped to the ground and escaped, but were mostly recaptured after several days. There was no hole cut in our car, and so An drews and I staid in. Just at dusk we came to the insignifi cant village of Florence, the junction of the road loading from Charleston to Cheraw with that running from Wil mington to Kingsville. It was about 120 miles from Charleston, and the Eame distance from Wilmington. . As our train ran through a cut near the junction a colored man stood by the track gazing at us curiously. When the train had nearly passed him he started to run up the bank. In the im perfect light the guard mistook him for one of us who had jumped from the train. They all fired, and the unlucky negro fell, pierced by a score of bullets. That night we camped in the open field. When morning came we saw, a few hundred yard from ti3,. a Stockade of rough logs, with guards stationed around it. It was another prison pen. They were just bringing the dead out, and two men were tossing the bodies up into the four-horse wagon which hauled them away for burial. The men were going about their busi ness as coolly as if loading slaughtered hogs. One of them would catch the body by the feet, and the other by the arms. They would give it a swing " One, two, three," and up it would go into the wagon. This filled heaping full with corpses, a negro mounted the wheel horse, grasped the lines, and shouted to his animals. The horses strained, the wagon moved, and its load of what were once gallant, devoted soldiers, was carted off to name less graves. This was a part of the daily morning routine. It did not lequire a very acute comprehension to understand that the Stockade at which we were gazing was (Continued on third pnge) Comments Made on the Great Leader's Narrative, SHERMAN IN LOUISIANA His Attitude Near the Breaking Out of the War. PART THE FOURTH CORPS TOOK Battle of Jonesboro' as Some Promi nent Generals Viewed it. ' ,.i (oorri3K5. APPENDIX (continued) F OLLOWING ARE LETTERS received by Gen. Sherman after tho nnhlinnfinn nf KIo TirT-. Louisiana State UxrvERSirr, BatoiO Eouge, La., July 17, 1875. Dear General: I have read your book pretty carefully, especiaUy the chapter on Louisiana. The book -will no donht prove what you design it to be, a valuable contribution to the future historian Trho may wish to write of the origin and conduct of our great ciril war. The chapter on California I could almost anticipate page after page. I had heard vou talk it all in 1S60-'G, and the California story is, I think, the best part of the work. I am sorry you left ont Florida and "West Point; and it would have been all the better had you gone back to Ohio, and "Nosey Uiat yon used to have us langh at. As to the Louisiana portion of the "Me moirs," it is true in its aim and purpose, and almost faultless even in its details, and you know I had a good opportunity of testing its accuracy. From "Jan. 1, 1860, until vou left the seminary, in February, 1861, 1 knew you very intimately, officially and personally. Our isolation in the pine woods, and messing together, enabled our little party of profes sors to see and know more of each other than wonld otherwise have been the case. And, with the exception of a few minor and un, iiuporiant details, your account of onrschool,. yourself, and your relations to it and to the State, and of Louisiana affairs generally, as given in yonr book, is true given with re markable fidelity. You may recollect that I staid at the semi nary for you during the vacation of I860, while you visited your family in Ohio. You necessarily wrote me on business frequently, and as the country (North and South) was then in considerable agitation, pending the Presidential election, you wrote a good, deal also of politics. All those letters I have pre served, as well as those you did me the honor to write me after you had left U3 in 1861, from New Orleans and St. Louis, as late as May 13. and they bear you out in what you say in your book on Louisiana. .Regarding what I knew of your opinions and intentions, gathered from daily talk and discussions, you were a Clay "Whig (if you were of any party at all), and I a Calhoun Democrat; you denying the right of secession, and I maintaining it. I need only say that, for six months before Louisiana seceded, you even men, and at all times, denounced seces sion as treason; said if Louisiana did secede, you would resign your superintendency of our school, and go away, and you did so. All tho while, however, you expressed the hope that there would be no secession of any of the Southern States; and I shall never forget how you received the news of the secession of South Carolina. I happened to be in your room with you when the mail was brought in, and when you read of the actual passage of the formal and solemn withdrawal by that State from the Union, you cried like a little child, ex claiming: "My God, yon Southern people don't know what you are doing ! Peaceable secession ! There can be no peaceable seces sion. Secession means war. The North will fight yon, and fight yon hard, and God only knows how or where it will end ! " Yet, even after that, you seemed to have a vague hope that something would take place to bring back the seceding States, aud to pre vent actual war, and your letters to me show that to have been your hoDe, as lte as April 4, 1861. But all the while, before you left Louisiana and afterward, you said that, if war did come, every trne man must take sides one way or the other; and, a3 for you, you wonld go with the North, or the Union, as it was then understood. Nevertheless, your letters from St. Louis', of April and May, show clearly that you were then checked, or restrained, from actively taking sides with the'North, by what yon believed, to be the partisan nature of Mr. Lincoln's Administration, and from feelings of friendship for us in the Sonth. I remember well how it grieved you to leave ub, and how sorry were we to see you go, and how great an inflnence was brought to bear on you to keep you at your post at the head of our school. Moore and Bragg and Beauregard and Dick Taylor all wrote j-ou most urgently to stay. Some of these letters, left by you among: the official letters, I recollect seeing as late as 18G3. One of a very friendly nature from Beauregard, particularly, I remember seeing there. And Gen. Taylor told me, during the war, that he had thought you would not leave the seminary after you had received a certain letter from him. All thesagentlemen, bo distinguished after ward, seemed attached to you personally, and were very anxious that you should re main .is President of our school; and my im pression then was, and now is, that they Published by permission of D. Appleton St Co.. publishers of the Personal Memoirs of Gen. W. T. Sherman. EDITORIAL NOTE. Further installments gf interesting and historically valuable letters, commenting on the incidents treated In "Memoirs of Gen. "W. T. Sherman," will ap pear in succeeding issues. Gen. O. O. How ard's testimony before the Mixed Commission on American and British Claims, as to tfi burning of Columbia, is an interesting ftatuxt for the next installment, fc ' - '""-?Vff? -si i - :' ij-SS2??!r,.: ft-jt.Vd s.j,.s.'v!,-.'S5..&,,i.5..,-v.,-v, ?-..--'.-.".