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" " ""-,"-- -'HVJ a -:a( ---NOV17 1898 r JL , .r . - imv v A.'t awhole lifetime In a whole lifetime you may never strike such another bargain as offered A V in avwnoie liieume you sJ-.J- . , "may never strike such l -2 IMW V " 1 t " - r another bargain as offered on the 12 th page of this Jt on the 12th page of this paper, paper, ' I . V 'V J&. " 0 rare for Km urko te lionw'tit? stife m& for lifc tsi&w ssui ffrpfeatis." ESTABLISHED 1S77-NTEW SERIES. WASHINGTON, D. 0., THURSDAY, NOVEMBER IT, 1898.-TWELVB PAGES. vol. xvm-m g-whole no. ooi. '""V-tH" " -- .. -. ;-,. " - - J. ..'xvfi!fSry' " - i i- w Vg- !- J1 - , csxMiiawyvv; - j $&mmmm2g22.-..- r . - w -" rm " Hf MEk mill tioJI V SviMifel Uvl 111 EI 5 0 fcTj 00 is&-MSiKB&zsSSsw V Mf w' IPV 'Vw ; fc. Pen B is - ; S5-b r :iTi it c-rK By THOMAS C. ESTESMAlf. Cop3Tiglit, 1S9S, by the Tublisliers of Tiik 2Catjokai. Tiuituxn. I The first glimpse of the West Indian coast regions reveals an almost unbroken expanse of woodlands, and the traveler marvels hy what process of devastation the natives of the Oriental tropics can have contrived to turn their forest3 into deserts. In Cuba the jungles of the coast plain have frequently been cleared for scores of square miles, and the plantations have been made to yield a succession of uniform crops; but the fertility of the eoiI seems to defy exhaustion, and wherever farmlands have been neglected for a year or two the forest-gods of the wilderness are sure to resume their ancient sway. To a hight of 2,000 feet above tide water that exuberance of vegetation rather impairs the attractiveness of the country. Dense thickets of underbrush everywhere impede the work of the road maker, and homeseekers have to egin their struinrle for existence with a campaign of destruction. But higher the aspects of nature realize the concep tions of a terrestrial paradise. The "woods become park-like, open, and al ternate with mountain meadows and copses of hazle-nuts, clustering around moss-covered rocks. The insect plague abates. Springs and pebbly,brooks can be found on every square mile of ground. In all these respects the Cuban in Eurgenta enjoyed a decided advantage over the Spanish garrisons in the low land towns ; but, on the other hand, the Spaniards could almost boast a monopoly in the conveniences of civilized life. TO THE 3XSTKGEXT CA3IP. Indolence and indifference to the sanitary blessings of a highland climate make the West Indian Creoles incredibly averse to the trouble of mountain-climbing, and in 1897, when a messenger of Col. Parras conducted me to an insur gent camp in the bights of the Sierra de Cobre, I could almost fancy that my guide was purposely choosing the rough est mountain-trails, and avoiding the Eight of human habitations For miles and milea the 4Vnm 4hA yfvrnt-frTra r 4lrt m o l r . J1U1U LUt JUUIUUUIUIIU UL LliC 1U111U range betrayed no trace of agriculture, uu fcuuu-i&icb uuywuere in uio wiue- m.1 nl . a ..&. ak vk I. ...a J 1 .. v . .. cv w ,-u4C, . -u cnvnoM eno Af TTawiMrfl onn ntiltr ma ! ana tnere in tne glens or tne summit xegiona a trailing mist simulated a wraith of chimney-smoke. In the early morning hours that im pression of solitude is, however, modified by the thousand-voiced bird concerts of the mountain forests. At the first gleam of dawn, when the night-hawks still circle about the flowering combax trees and before the phosphor light of the torch beetle has ceased twinkling in the gloom of the ravines, the approach of the sun is her alded by the shrieks of the noisy hill paroquets and the still noisier Iris crow, a steel-blue connecting link between the crows proper and the blackbirds, or Etarlings, of the higher latitudes. Sleep becomes impossible in the neighborhood of the roost-trees, where the emotional little cousins of the jack-daw have passed the night, and debate the object ive point of their forage excursion before they finally take wing and transfer their controversies to the river bottoms of the vega. From five to 10 thousand correxos, as the Cubans call them, often gather in one roost. The paroquets, too, travel in swarms, chattering and screeching, but after sunrise can no longer monop olize the conversation. Trumpet-voiced cranes rise from the lagoons, thousands of wood-ducks frolic in the reeds of the mountain farms, and from the bramble-thickets of the ravines comes the diapason of the chachalaca, or bush-pheasant. KA1J1UTS AND WILD DOGS. Quadrupeds, on the other hand, are rare, so much so, indeed, that the first exploration of the "West Indian wood land confirmed the companions of Colum bus in the idea that they had landed in eastern Asia, where an ancient civiliza tion that of southern China, perhaps had resulted in the extermination of wild animals. Here were neither deer nor antelopes, i'oxes, bears or wolves; no equirrels, even, though the woods abounded with wild-growing nuts. That deficiency has to some degree been remedied by the introduction of rabbits and the rapid increase of run away pigs and dogs. In eastern Cuba, where the caverns of the limestone sierras offer refuge from the discomforts of the rainy season, wild coneys can now be seen scampering across the roads as often as in rodent haunted California, but their over increase is checked by prowling dogs as ugly and predatory as jackals, "and almost as noisy. The Cuban guerrillas shoot these four footed bushwhackers whenever they ven ture within rifle-range, knowing by sad Jrar-viiu ' nggkrjujnjiJ.riJiiLA experience that on the slightest encour agement they will hang around a camp nnrl nttrnpf. lr pupiuv's cnnnlc wr tJmiv I midnight yelps. My guide sent half a dozen bullets on an errand of that sort, and brought down a young gallo vaslcco, or mountain grouse, that flopped across our trail, but not far enough, before it risked a rest in a myrtle-bush. The Cuban Creoles, like their Spanish cousins, are generally poor shots, unable to rival, or even to comprehend, the ex- IXTHE COBAX CA3n? "I ploits of our rifle artists (they either re- I fused to credit the record of Dr. Carver i or ascribed it to black art) ; but the ?-., "Jr . .4--.'? '.. v ,..- ?'Av itT ,- Wife?'" &' K. "-' r- ii. ' ' ' ---;."-.-. ---'- v5-v.jr $ piubi)ew,M. !. !.. nrnvo,1 tl,;r TrmvW. mansuip oy constant iorays in woou- Innrla vVorA ftrit nlmrmo nf ciiri'it'nl IA14M lA.W&t V. VltlW J UUfYt. ftnfl ria0finA nnrt fi,n u;!;,,, nf -- ' gecurinfir a bag of wild fowl Besides wood-ducks and divers, there are snipes, four or five kinds of grouse, and a peculiar fleet-winged bird known as the codornita ("little quail"), and which seems to combine the character istics of the pigeons and gallinaceous fowl. It flits pairwise about the grassy slopes of the upper sierra, and in sud denly rising, with a whirring noise, reminds one of the slate-colored dwarf doves of the southern Alleganies, though it builds its nest on the ground, like a quail or partridge. Of true pigeons there must be close on a dozen species, including the paloma real, thatatlains the size of a mountain raven, and wear3 a coronet of speckled feathers. CUBANS TOOll MARKSMEN". In the haunts of these winged abo- ngmes a good marksman need not starve, but the Cuban insurgents, as a rule, are too poor to use shotguns, and have not yet learned to snap-shot their small-caliber rifles at birds on the wing, nor at fugitive rabbits, which in the cave regions of the eastern sierras need not scamper more than a few hundred yards to find an inexpugnable refuge. The hulias (a sort of overgrown-wood-rats) enjoy the same facilities for escape, but, like our prairie-dogs, have a foolish habit of sitting up on their hind legs, to reconnoiter, before diving into the shelter of their burrows. " A bush-rat is about the biggest game 'ou are apt to get hold of, isn't it? " 1 asked my guide. "Yes," said he; " unless we were to try dog-steaks, like the Pelados on Mayo River. There used to be a good many wild pigs, and near the coast you can see 50 of them in a drove ; but in the sierra they have become very scarce." " But I understand you never had any Portuguese fasts (times of outright starvation) in this camp ? " "No, not lately, anyhow," said the old campaigner. " Times did get fear ful tight a year ago, when our ammuni tion was so often giving out, but we manufacture our own powder now; powder makers with every command in the east country ; and for bullets, you know, you can make many shifts j we make them out of pewter and copper slag when we get out of lead." He could not deny that his comrades were wholly out of shoes, and into guarachos, or home-made sandals; and with good-humored self-banter told me an anecdote about a rebel Captain who suspected one of his troopers of a pref erence for the independence of private brigandage. "Look: here, Gaccia," said he one evening, " I'm pretty sure you intend to skip out to-night, and, of course, I I well, I can't stop you, though I wish I could make it worth your while to stay ; but you have two pairs of boots, and if you do skip, you might as well leave me one of them." The suspect made no reply ; but the next morning Capt. R. found a pair of boots in his hammock, and liked their polish too well to spoil its radiance in pursuit of the former owner. PATKIOTS AND HAXDITS. Leather in all its forms had become scarce, and more than one commissioned officer was obliged to remedy the threatened dissolution of his saddle breeches with a net work of hemp strings. Yet these semi-sansculotte3 belonged to the better class of insurgents, the " patriots," or guerrillas proper. Their highly improper co-operators are bandits, in the toughest sense of the word, though they prefer to describe ;yiOTi!BM:ra CAX MEND TjIKEE A DAY," SAID I, EXAJJUNDfa ANOTHER Jl'-XR, themselves a3 pelados, or ragamuffins,, and attribute their depredations to the urgency of .the law of self-preservation. These heroes of the foray are mostly negroes, but recruit their ugliest mem bers from the Yucatecos (natives of Yucatan), the east Mexican adventurers that can be found in all the principal seaport towns of the "West Indies. Their approach is the signal for a gen eral stampede of non-combatants, and the Spaniards do not much exaggerate the truth charging them with a deter mination to subsist by the labor of other men and a penchant for vagrancy that can be cured only with a dose of lead. The camps of the organized guerril las, too, harbor desperadoes of that brand, but also many indisputable patriots men who have relinquished abundance and domestic comforts for the hardships of the wilderness, and attested the sincerity of their profession in many, a iigJi against formidable ouus. lneir gypsy mode of existence has not deprived them of their self re spect, though it has made them some what cynical in speech and manners. RAGGED CHAMPIONS. " Va por puclwro8 de res hurrah for beef stews now," was the acclaim that greeted our arrival, when my guide stopped in iront ot a weather-shed, screening the entrance of the cave that served the purpose of a Quartermasters' store-house. My contract with the emissaries of Col. Parras included an agreement to straighten out a cargo of long-range rifles that had been captured near San Carlos and brought to the mountains without other cover than a thick coat of rust; and our greeting referred to a plan to test the graded sights on the more than half-wild cattle of the mount ain pastures. Some three dozen ragged champions of independence were squatting about the campfire, mending their clothe3 or scraping a lot of yams that had .been brought in by a troop of foragers. If my friends could not keep the pot boil ing, the difficulty had evidently nothing to do with the lack of fuel. Of resi nazzos, or pitch-pine knots, alone they had a pile sufficient to last a first-class bakery for a year or two. " The Officer of the Day is gone to the lookout, but will be back in a few minutes," said my guide, ushering me to a seat in the shade, where I had a chance to examine the camp arrange ments of my employers. n. In a corner of the weather-shed a mule was munching locust-pods, and every now and then tossing up its head to dislodge a gad-fly. These flies and a species of blue hornet that insist on a share of all of the upper sierras. Musketoes some- how fail- to ascend steep elevations of more than 3,00J) fee though their en terprise has no Northern limits, to judge from their mass-meetings on both shores of Lake Superior andUlhe horrid reports of the Klondike miners. In that respect the narrow.mouiitain-chains of the West Indies- have an advantage over the Mexican tableland sierras, whose stag nant waters form i ponds, and even extensive lagoons, .enough 10 breed anything venomous, from a gnat to a jungle viper. "Here comes the -Lieutenant now," said ray guide. " Wait I'll tell him we brought yoifalong." "Viciie listed a una muy pobrc casa (you come to a poor man's house), Senor," said Lieut. Salinez. " Never theless, I'll warrant you "Won't starve if you can help us straighten out that stack of chooting-iroabV pointing to a pile of rifle-cases ami -ammunition-boxes in a recess or t.uo grotto. " Our raiders made a good haul, 'bftl they had to stick them in a cache right ina streaming rain. By bad luck some of the cases got broken, ancl there 'is more rust than iron now." They were Mauser rifles, as rust-eaten as if they had been dredged from the wreck of a sunken steamer, and their captors had not managed to mend mat ters in trying to loosen the screws bv main force. "Yes; no wonder you shake your head," laughed the Li'eutenant. "Do you think you can ever get them into working order agaiir? " "Oh, of course he can," said the guide, in his anxiety for a favorable issue of his mission. "Just ask him how many a week'ho can mend. "What do you say, Don Tomas? We'll furnish you a ream of sandpaper and a youngster to help scraping.' - " About three a clay, "" I replied with ri some hesitation, after examining a second specimen ; " but. .Til have to keep at it while daylightJlast.' " Good for 3'out said the Lieutenant, slapping my shourlcler;' " let's say two a day, so you neetfri't .work your hands sore, and can takeout part pay in fun trying your luck", with the bush-pheasants." ,' :' With that understanding I established WMsMi " k -' aH t&&$w ' - - -5s j Prom a recent photpgiupii., Poiitrait$ of Dr. CANxoy, Atjthok my repair-shop in the Quartermaster's cavern of Camp Barrancas. The Quartermaster himself returned that afternoon, and at once attempted to turn my job-contract into a perma nent engagement. AN ENTERPRISING QUARTERMASTER. " Oh, you can be useful to us in a hundred ways," he insisted, "and a time may come when you will be safer up here than in any town. In a general rough-and-tumble fight a fellow might as well have a club of his own. "We'll keep you busy, no fear of that. Say, you can make bibicaws, can't you ? " Bibi what?" " Oh, baby-size shells, gun-shells and bul Jets what d'ye call them in Eng lish ? hold on, I have one on my shelf, the last of a box full." It then turned out that he meant " B. B." caps, aiias Flobert cartridges, and that he had an idea that I could manufacture them to order at a reason able advance on the factory price, say, 40 or even 50 cents a hundred. There was nothing mean about Quartermaster Captain Holgar. I had to acknowledge the limits of my art. " I told you so," said the Lieutenant ; " those kind of cartridges can't be home made; I opened one and found that they have no powder in. It's a trade secret, and they keep it close, or the market would soon be flooded with imi tations. It's a pity they are so hard to get." He then explained that they had a Flobert rifle and valued it above all the marvels of their armory, a3 it enabled them to fill their larder without making the echoes of distant sierras and attracf ing the attention of the enemj's spies. " We cleaned it every day," said he, "and it has killed hundreds of birds and things ; but we are out of ammu nition now, and that's one reason why we are so anxious to get those Mau.'erj mended. They don't make much ncis?, either, and we have cartridges enough to clean out this sierra from end to end.' "And some of the adjoining Town ships?" I ventured to inquire. ""Why, yes," he laughed; "widows' cows excepted. This is a cavalier's camp, you know." CAMP COMPANIONS. " Todo bianco es caballero" (every white man "3 a gentleman)) says an old J Spanish "West Indian proverb; yet I Camp Barrancas mustered twoifull-blood negroes, one mulatto and three Yuca tecos, as the Cubans call immigrants from the coast provinces of Mexico. The rest, if not cavaliers of the Pelayo type, were Caucasian enough to " raise military mustachio3 and white " I hesitate to add the noun mentioned by my cicerone, who seemed to have studied the color contrasts of certain philan thropic parasites. Throughout Spanish speaking America new corners are, in deed, apt to be amazed at the remarks of natives combining courteous manners and generous, or even poetic, instincts with a propensity for colloquial black guardism that would startle the ostler of a Texas cowboy tavern. It indeed ha3 been said that not one tenth part of the anecdotes perpetrated at the bivouacs of our "Western hunters and miners would vexiture to make its appearance in print, but the vulgarians of those same camps' could be stampeded by a literal translation of Spanish American fireside conversations. Yet, to be just, after volleys of blas phemies and portentious obscenities, Pancho Fernandez may redeem himself by an outburst of eloquence implying a considerable development of what our phrenologists call the organ of sublimity. (Continued on third page.) of "Inside of REBELnoM;,!' rt sr:rr'i 1 Trr&w "&9f ce Mtzmzn?? jjffif M&s&sma ET DR. J. P. CANNON, Co. C, 27th Ala. Copyright, 1S03, by the Publishers of The National Tkiecxe. EDITORIAL NOTE.: The original series of " Inside of I?ebel dom " began in narrative with eseuts of the Spring of 3864 aniUclosed with the writer's mnster-onfc at the end of the civil war. So popular did this narrative of personal ex perience become ma& xir. cannon nas con sented to give mora of his experiences, be ginning with his entry into the rebel army, and treating of events np to the point where he began his story of last year. He was very youug when he left Florence "Wcsleyan University at the outbreak of the war, and, carried away by the prevailing war spirit and drifting with the tide, was eager to enlist. Bnfc his parents would not allow birn to do so until after Jefferson Davis's call for more troops. Dr. Cannon's father had been a strong Union man up to the time of the secession of Alabama, but after the Ordi nance was pas-ed bad-abandoned all hope of a peaceful settlement, and considering it his duty to go with his State, had become a stanch supporter of the Confederacy. The regiment in which Dr. Cannon en listed was armed, as were othera, with double-barreled shot-guns and bowie-knives fashioned by village blacksmiths from old files and other steel. Thus equipped they were ready, Dr. Cannon humorously ex presses it, to exterminate all the Yankees who should, be so foolish as to attempt to come up the Tennessee Jiiver. Every chapter of Dr. Cannon's story will be found delightfnlly written, find not an issue con taining it should be missed. His lirst two installments include events of the Forts Henry and Donelson campaign. Our readers will find throughout an absence from all lancor over the results of the war. He talks like a soldier who manfully did bis duty as he saw it at the time, and after all glories in a united country. CHAPTER I. I enlisted in Co. C, 27th Ala., in the Fall of 1861. Companies from other Counties which were required to com plete the regiment were slow, and it was not until the latter part of December that we were ready for organization. As the eventful day approached we be gan to tell friends and sweethearts good-by. Every young fellow who went to the war got a kiss from his' " best girl," aDl as it was the first that many of us had ever enjoyed, it is not surprising that a last farewell was re-1 peated over and over again before we actually took our departure. Our patriotism ebbed and flowed, we being anxious to get off, yet loth to leave home and friends whom we might never see again. It was a trying time when the 24th day of December, 1861, came, the day set for us to meet in Florence and be " mustered in." One other company from our County and eight from other Counties in north Alabama met us at the appointed time, and as each numbered about 100, we had a full regiment, and were sworn into the service of the Confederate States for 12 months " unless sooner discharged." If you Yankees could have seen that array of 1,000 doubled-barreled shot guns, 1,000 long bowle knives not keen, bright blades as the story writers would say, for many of these bore the marks of the unskilled blacksmith's hammer, and the rust of years still clung to them, untouched by the stone which ground them to a sharp edge perhaps you would tremblingly have folded your tents and marched back to your "Northern homes and left the Con federacy " one of the nations of the earth " ; but you did not see it, and the war went on, battles were planned and '.from a war-time tintype. Dit. Cannon. preparations for a movement up the Tennessee Iviver were continued just the same as if the 27th Ala. had not come into existence. OFF TO THE WAR. When the ceremony of mustering was finished we marched to the river, where a boat was waiting to bear us to the war and the work of loading began, which was no small task, for we had enough baggage to supply a division 12 months later. Like all fresh regiments, we had everything we needed and 10 times as much that we did not need ; in short, we were fully equipped for house keeping, with the single exception of feather beds, the nearest approach to Ltfe--o.vPriv&te"in'th tbnfcclzmMny), that article of luxury being ,thebed ticks that we carried for the purpose of filling after we should reach our desti nation. When our tents, trunks, boxes of provisions, buckets, washpans, etc., wero all on board and we marched on, that boat was probably more heavily loaded than it ever was before. It wa3 late in the afternoon when, taking a last fare well of the anxious friends who had followed us thus far, we loosened the lines, and amid cheera and waving of handkerchiefs steamed out down the "blue Tennessee." This was tho first steamboat trip for many of us, and we enjoyed the ride and the scenery, which was all new to us even enjoyed the novelty of eating cold rations and sleeping on deck ; but aside from this the trip was uneventful, and we reached Fort Henry on the morning of Dec. 26. Henry was a small fort on the East bank of the Tennessee Kiver, in Stewart County, Tenn. It had 10 or 15 guns, chiefly small ones, but looked exceed ingly formidable to us who had never seen anything of the kind before. We were not allowed' to laud there, but were carried to the opposite side of the river, in Calloway County, Ivy., where it wa3 intended for us to build a fort that, with the assistance of Fort Henry, was; to present an impassable barrier to all craft3 and blow the Lincoln gunboats? "to Halifax," if they should ever have the audacity to attempt a passage up the river. Our baggage was dumped off on the bank, a guard left with it, and we marched across the muddy bottom to where the ground rose above high-water mark, gradually sloping upwards to the foot of a rauge of hills which bordered the river for miles in either direction. On this slope we pitched our camps, and began cleaning out the undergrowth and staking off the ground for each company- -, .. "' JOYS OF THE EECRUITS. We were provided with large wall tents, but having had no experience in stretching them had great difficulty in getting them properly adjusted ; but after tearing down, readjusting, moving peg3 from place to place numberless times, we finally got them arranged to our entire satisfaction. The next step was to buy lumber, put down floors, build bunks, and having filled our bed-tick3 from a neighboring farmer's strawstack, we felt like we were ready to move in and begin housekeeping ; for in our ignorance of the uncertainties of a soldier's life we thought we had " come to stay," and that it was the part of wisdom to make ourselves comfortable in the beginning. All of us, from Colonel down to lowest private, were fully as green a3 the average recruit. I was the onlv member of my company who had had any experience in drilling, my knowl edge in that line being limited to the small amount I had learned wljile at school. However, we had but little of that exercise to undergo, as the weather was bad, and it was difficult to find enough level land to drill on, except in the river bottom, which was too rough when frozen and too muddy when thawed. Nor were we subject to very rigid discipline ; our regiment being the only troops on that side of the river, and no enemy near, we were allowed all the freedom we could ask. Our rations consisted chiefly of a fair article of beef aud cornmeal ; but we were not much concerned about rations, for we had brought from home great boxes of boiled ham, chickens, pies, cakes, butter, eggs, coffee, etc., and those of us who lived near the river had promises from our good mothers of more to follow every week on the steamboats that made regular trips. Camps once in good shape, engineers laid off our fort (which, like Bill Arp'a well, u was never dug,") and we chris tened it Heiman, in honor of the Col onel of the 10th Tenn., who at that time commanded the forces oh both sides of the river. But little work was done on the fort; it seemed useless to waste our energies digging and spading, when we had not a single cannon to mount. The officers were so careless about it that we began to think maybe it was all a mistake about the anticipated invasion, or per haps Gen. Grant had learned that the 27th Ala. was theie with their double barreled guns and bowie-knives, and had abandoned his plans altogether. A TRYING NIGHT ON TICKET. For the first two or three weeks we had as quiet a time as could be desired, with no enemy near, no guard duty ex cept ordiuary camp guarding, no picket ing, as we depended on a small squad of cavalry that scouted in the direction of Columbus to apprise us of any approach of the enemy. But it so happened r- sr?"W., .-, t .--,a ,-.s-r.Vriyj--& .iv , 4 .. -fjr ,. -- . .dlL?k&JU'-,