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ESTABLISHED 1S77-NTEW SERIES.
WASHINGTON, D. 0., THURSDAY, NOVEMBER IT, 1898.-TWELVB PAGES.
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By THOMAS C. ESTESMAlf.
Cop3Tiglit, 1S9S, by the Tublisliers of Tiik 2Catjokai. Tiuituxn.
The first glimpse of the West Indian
coast regions reveals an almost unbroken
expanse of woodlands, and the traveler
marvels hy what process of devastation
the natives of the Oriental tropics can
have contrived to turn their forest3 into
In Cuba the jungles of the coast plain
have frequently been cleared for scores
of square miles, and the plantations
have been made to yield a succession of
uniform crops; but the fertility of the
eoiI seems to defy exhaustion, and
wherever farmlands have been neglected
for a year or two the forest-gods of the
wilderness are sure to resume their
To a hight of 2,000 feet above tide
water that exuberance of vegetation
rather impairs the attractiveness of the
country. Dense thickets of underbrush
everywhere impede the work of the
road maker, and homeseekers have to
egin their struinrle for existence with
a campaign of destruction. But higher
the aspects of nature realize the concep
tions of a terrestrial paradise. The
"woods become park-like, open, and al
ternate with mountain meadows and
copses of hazle-nuts, clustering around
moss-covered rocks. The insect plague
abates. Springs and pebbly,brooks can
be found on every square mile of
In all these respects the Cuban in
Eurgenta enjoyed a decided advantage
over the Spanish garrisons in the low
land towns ; but, on the other hand, the
Spaniards could almost boast a monopoly
in the conveniences of civilized life.
TO THE 3XSTKGEXT CA3IP.
Indolence and indifference to the
sanitary blessings of a highland climate
make the West Indian Creoles incredibly
averse to the trouble of mountain-climbing,
and in 1897, when a messenger of
Col. Parras conducted me to an insur
gent camp in the bights of the Sierra
de Cobre, I could almost fancy that my
guide was purposely choosing the rough
est mountain-trails, and avoiding the
Eight of human habitations
For miles and milea the
4Vnm 4hA yfvrnt-frTra r 4lrt m o l r .
J1U1U LUt JUUIUUUIUIIU UL LliC 1U111U
range betrayed no trace of agriculture,
uu fcuuu-i&icb uuywuere in uio wiue-
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cv w ,-u4C, . -u
cnvnoM eno Af TTawiMrfl onn ntiltr ma !
ana tnere in tne glens or tne summit
xegiona a trailing mist simulated a
wraith of chimney-smoke.
In the early morning hours that im
pression of solitude is, however, modified
by the thousand-voiced bird concerts of
the mountain forests.
At the first gleam of dawn, when
the night-hawks still circle about the
flowering combax trees and before the
phosphor light of the torch beetle has
ceased twinkling in the gloom of the
ravines, the approach of the sun is her
alded by the shrieks of the noisy hill
paroquets and the still noisier Iris crow,
a steel-blue connecting link between the
crows proper and the blackbirds, or
Etarlings, of the higher latitudes. Sleep
becomes impossible in the neighborhood
of the roost-trees, where the emotional
little cousins of the jack-daw have
passed the night, and debate the object
ive point of their forage excursion
before they finally take wing and
transfer their controversies to the river
bottoms of the vega.
From five to 10 thousand correxos,
as the Cubans call them, often gather
in one roost. The paroquets, too, travel
in swarms, chattering and screeching,
but after sunrise can no longer monop
olize the conversation.
Trumpet-voiced cranes rise from the
lagoons, thousands of wood-ducks frolic
in the reeds of the mountain farms, and
from the bramble-thickets of the ravines
comes the diapason of the chachalaca,
KA1J1UTS AND WILD DOGS.
Quadrupeds, on the other hand, are
rare, so much so, indeed, that the first
exploration of the "West Indian wood
land confirmed the companions of Colum
bus in the idea that they had landed in
eastern Asia, where an ancient civiliza
tion that of southern China, perhaps
had resulted in the extermination of wild
animals. Here were neither deer nor
antelopes, i'oxes, bears or wolves; no
equirrels, even, though the woods
abounded with wild-growing nuts.
That deficiency has to some degree
been remedied by the introduction of
rabbits and the rapid increase of run
away pigs and dogs.
In eastern Cuba, where the caverns
of the limestone sierras offer refuge from
the discomforts of the rainy season, wild
coneys can now be seen scampering
across the roads as often as in rodent
haunted California, but their over
increase is checked by prowling dogs as
ugly and predatory as jackals, "and
almost as noisy.
The Cuban guerrillas shoot these four
footed bushwhackers whenever they ven
ture within rifle-range, knowing by sad
experience that on the slightest encour
agement they will hang around a camp
nnrl nttrnpf. lr pupiuv's cnnnlc wr tJmiv I
midnight yelps. My guide sent half a
dozen bullets on an errand of that sort,
and brought down a young gallo vaslcco,
or mountain grouse, that flopped across
our trail, but not far enough, before it
risked a rest in a myrtle-bush.
The Cuban Creoles, like their Spanish
cousins, are generally poor shots, unable
to rival, or even to comprehend, the ex-
IXTHE COBAX CA3n? "I
ploits of our rifle artists (they either re-
I fused to credit the record of Dr. Carver i
or ascribed it to black art) ; but the
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mansuip oy constant iorays in woou-
Innrla vVorA ftrit nlmrmo nf ciiri'it'nl
IA14M lA.W&t V. VltlW J UUfYt.
ftnfl ria0finA nnrt fi,n u;!;,,, nf
gecurinfir a bag of wild fowl
Besides wood-ducks and divers, there
are snipes, four or five kinds of grouse,
and a peculiar fleet-winged bird known
as the codornita ("little quail"), and
which seems to combine the character
istics of the pigeons and gallinaceous
fowl. It flits pairwise about the grassy
slopes of the upper sierra, and in sud
denly rising, with a whirring noise,
reminds one of the slate-colored dwarf
doves of the southern Alleganies,
though it builds its nest on the ground,
like a quail or partridge.
Of true pigeons there must be close
on a dozen species, including the paloma
real, thatatlains the size of a mountain
raven, and wear3 a coronet of speckled
CUBANS TOOll MARKSMEN".
In the haunts of these winged abo-
a good marksman need not
starve, but the Cuban insurgents, as a
rule, are too poor to use shotguns, and
have not yet learned to snap-shot their
small-caliber rifles at birds on the wing,
nor at fugitive rabbits, which in the cave
regions of the eastern sierras need not
scamper more than a few hundred yards
to find an inexpugnable refuge.
The hulias (a sort of overgrown-wood-rats)
enjoy the same facilities for
escape, but, like our prairie-dogs, have
a foolish habit of sitting up on their
hind legs, to reconnoiter, before diving
into the shelter of their burrows.
" A bush-rat is about the biggest
game 'ou are apt to get hold of, isn't
it? " 1 asked my guide.
"Yes," said he; " unless we were to
try dog-steaks, like the Pelados on Mayo
River. There used to be a good many
wild pigs, and near the coast you can
see 50 of them in a drove ; but in the
sierra they have become very scarce."
" But I understand you never had
any Portuguese fasts (times of outright
starvation) in this camp ? "
"No, not lately, anyhow," said the
old campaigner. " Times did get fear
ful tight a year ago, when our ammuni
tion was so often giving out, but we
manufacture our own powder now;
powder makers with every command in
the east country ; and for bullets, you
know, you can make many shifts j we
make them out of pewter and copper
slag when we get out of lead."
He could not deny that his comrades
were wholly out of shoes, and into
guarachos, or home-made sandals; and
with good-humored self-banter told me
an anecdote about a rebel Captain who
suspected one of his troopers of a pref
erence for the independence of private
brigandage. "Look: here, Gaccia,"
said he one evening, " I'm pretty sure
you intend to skip out to-night, and, of
course, I I well, I can't stop you,
though I wish I could make it worth
your while to stay ; but you have two
pairs of boots, and if you do skip, you
might as well leave me one of them."
The suspect made no reply ; but the
next morning Capt. R. found a pair of
boots in his hammock, and liked their
polish too well to spoil its radiance in
pursuit of the former owner.
PATKIOTS AND HAXDITS.
Leather in all its forms had become
scarce, and more than one commissioned
officer was obliged to remedy the
threatened dissolution of his saddle
breeches with a net work of hemp
Yet these semi-sansculotte3 belonged
to the better class of insurgents, the
" patriots," or guerrillas proper.
Their highly improper co-operators
are bandits, in the toughest sense of the
word, though they prefer to describe
CAX MEND TjIKEE A DAY," SAID I, EXAJJUNDfa ANOTHER Jl'-XR,
themselves a3 pelados, or ragamuffins,,
and attribute their depredations to the
urgency of .the law of self-preservation.
These heroes of the foray are mostly
negroes, but recruit their ugliest mem
bers from the Yucatecos (natives of
Yucatan), the east Mexican adventurers
that can be found in all the principal
seaport towns of the "West Indies.
Their approach is the signal for a gen
eral stampede of non-combatants, and
the Spaniards do not much exaggerate
the truth charging them with a deter
mination to subsist by the labor of other
men and a penchant for vagrancy that
can be cured only with a dose of lead.
The camps of the organized guerril
las, too, harbor desperadoes of that
brand, but also many indisputable
patriots men who have relinquished
abundance and domestic comforts for
the hardships of the wilderness, and
attested the sincerity of their profession
in many, a iigJi
ouus. lneir gypsy mode of existence
has not deprived them of their self re
spect, though it has made them some
what cynical in speech and manners.
" Va por puclwro8 de res hurrah
for beef stews now," was the acclaim
that greeted our arrival, when my guide
stopped in iront ot a weather-shed,
screening the entrance of the cave that
served the purpose of a Quartermasters'
My contract with the emissaries of
Col. Parras included an agreement to
straighten out a cargo of long-range
rifles that had been captured near San
Carlos and brought to the mountains
without other cover than a thick coat
of rust; and our greeting referred to a
plan to test the graded sights on the
more than half-wild cattle of the mount
Some three dozen ragged champions
of independence were squatting about
the campfire, mending their clothe3 or
scraping a lot of yams that had .been
brought in by a troop of foragers. If
my friends could not keep the pot boil
ing, the difficulty had evidently nothing
to do with the lack of fuel. Of resi
nazzos, or pitch-pine knots, alone they
had a pile sufficient to last a first-class
bakery for a year or two.
" The Officer of the Day is gone to
the lookout, but will be back in a few
minutes," said my guide, ushering me to
a seat in the shade, where I had a
chance to examine the camp arrange
ments of my employers.
In a corner of the weather-shed a
mule was munching locust-pods, and
every now and then tossing up its head
to dislodge a gad-fly.
These flies and a species of blue
hornet that insist on a share of all
of the upper sierras. Musketoes some-
how fail- to ascend steep elevations of
more than 3,00J) fee though their en
terprise has no Northern limits, to judge
from their mass-meetings on both shores
of Lake Superior andUlhe horrid reports
of the Klondike miners. In that respect
the narrow.mouiitain-chains of the West
Indies- have an advantage over the
Mexican tableland sierras, whose stag
nant waters form i ponds, and even
extensive lagoons, .enough 10 breed
anything venomous, from a gnat to a
"Here comes the -Lieutenant now,"
said ray guide. " Wait I'll tell him
we brought yoifalong."
"Viciie listed a una muy pobrc casa
(you come to a poor man's house),
Senor," said Lieut. Salinez. " Never
theless, I'll warrant you "Won't starve if
you can help us straighten out that
stack of chooting-iroabV pointing to a
pile of rifle-cases ami -ammunition-boxes
in a recess or
" Our raiders
made a good haul, 'bftl they had to stick
them in a cache right ina streaming
rain. By bad luck some of the cases
got broken, ancl there 'is more rust than
They were Mauser rifles, as rust-eaten
as if they had been dredged from the
wreck of a sunken steamer, and their
captors had not managed to mend mat
ters in trying to loosen the screws bv
"Yes; no wonder you shake your
head," laughed the Li'eutenant. "Do
you think you can ever get them into
working order agaiir? "
"Oh, of course he can," said the
guide, in his anxiety for a favorable
issue of his mission. "Just ask him
how many a week'ho can mend. "What
do you say, Don Tomas? We'll furnish
you a ream of sandpaper and a youngster
to help scraping.' -
" About three a clay, "" I replied with
some hesitation, after examining a second
specimen ; " but. .Til have to keep at it
" Good for 3'out said the Lieutenant,
slapping my shourlcler;' " let's say two a
day, so you neetfri't .work your hands
sore, and can takeout part pay in fun
trying your luck", with the bush-pheasants."
With that understanding I established
WMsMi " k -' aH t&&$w ' - -
Prom a recent photpgiupii.,
Poiitrait$ of Dr. CANxoy, Atjthok
my repair-shop in the Quartermaster's
cavern of Camp Barrancas.
The Quartermaster himself returned
that afternoon, and at once attempted
to turn my job-contract into a perma
AN ENTERPRISING QUARTERMASTER.
" Oh, you can be useful to us in a
hundred ways," he insisted, "and a time
may come when you will be safer up
here than in any town. In a general
rough-and-tumble fight a fellow might
as well have a club of his own. "We'll
keep you busy, no fear of that. Say,
you can make bibicaws, can't you ? "
" Oh, baby-size shells, gun-shells and
bul Jets what d'ye call them in Eng
lish ? hold on, I have one on my shelf,
the last of a box full."
It then turned out that he meant
" B. B." caps, aiias Flobert cartridges,
and that he had an idea that I could
manufacture them to order at a reason
able advance on the factory price, say,
40 or even 50 cents a hundred. There
was nothing mean about Quartermaster
I had to acknowledge the limits of
" I told you so," said the Lieutenant ;
" those kind of cartridges can't be home
made; I opened one and found that
they have no powder in. It's a trade
secret, and they keep it close, or the
market would soon be flooded with imi
tations. It's a pity they are so hard to
He then explained that they had a
Flobert rifle and valued it above all the
marvels of their armory, a3 it enabled
them to fill their larder without making
the echoes of distant sierras and attracf
ing the attention of the enemj's spies.
" We cleaned it every day," said he,
"and it has killed hundreds of birds
and things ; but we are out of ammu
nition now, and that's one reason why
we are so anxious to get those Mau.'erj
mended. They don't make much ncis?,
either, and we have cartridges enough
to clean out this sierra from end to
"And some of the adjoining Town
ships?" I ventured to inquire.
""Why, yes," he laughed; "widows'
cows excepted. This is a cavalier's camp,
" Todo bianco es caballero" (every
white man "3 a gentleman)) says an old
J Spanish "West Indian proverb; yet
I Camp Barrancas mustered twoifull-blood
negroes, one mulatto and three Yuca
tecos, as the Cubans call immigrants
from the coast provinces of Mexico.
The rest, if not cavaliers of the Pelayo
type, were Caucasian enough to " raise
military mustachio3 and white " I
hesitate to add the noun mentioned by
my cicerone, who seemed to have studied
the color contrasts of certain philan
thropic parasites. Throughout Spanish
speaking America new corners are, in
deed, apt to be amazed at the remarks of
natives combining courteous manners
and generous, or even poetic, instincts
with a propensity for colloquial black
guardism that would startle the ostler of
a Texas cowboy tavern.
It indeed ha3 been said that not one
tenth part of the anecdotes perpetrated
at the bivouacs of our "Western hunters
and miners would vexiture to make its
appearance in print, but the vulgarians
of those same camps' could be stampeded
by a literal translation of Spanish
American fireside conversations.
Yet, to be just, after volleys of blas
phemies and portentious obscenities,
Pancho Fernandez may redeem himself
by an outburst of eloquence implying a
considerable development of what our
phrenologists call the organ of sublimity.
(Continued on third page.)
of "Inside of REBELnoM;,!'
rt sr:rr'i 1 Trr&w "&9f ce
ET DR. J. P. CANNON, Co. C, 27th Ala.
Copyright, 1S03, by the Publishers of The National Tkiecxe.
The original series of " Inside of I?ebel
dom " began in narrative with eseuts of the
Spring of 3864 aniUclosed with the writer's
mnster-onfc at the end of the civil war. So
popular did this narrative of personal ex
perience become ma& xir. cannon nas con
sented to give mora of his experiences, be
ginning with his entry into the rebel army,
and treating of events np to the point where
he began his story of last year. He was
very youug when he left Florence "Wcsleyan
University at the outbreak of the war, and,
carried away by the prevailing war spirit and
drifting with the tide, was eager to enlist.
Bnfc his parents would not allow birn to do
so until after Jefferson Davis's call for more
troops. Dr. Cannon's father had been a
strong Union man up to the time of the
secession of Alabama, but after the Ordi
nance was pas-ed bad-abandoned all hope of
a peaceful settlement, and considering it his
duty to go with his State, had become a
stanch supporter of the Confederacy.
The regiment in which Dr. Cannon en
listed was armed, as were othera, with
double-barreled shot-guns and bowie-knives
fashioned by village blacksmiths from old
files and other steel. Thus equipped they
were ready, Dr. Cannon humorously ex
presses it, to exterminate all the Yankees
who should, be so foolish as to attempt to
come up the Tennessee Jiiver. Every
chapter of Dr. Cannon's story will be found
delightfnlly written, find not an issue con
taining it should be missed.
His lirst two installments include events of
the Forts Henry and Donelson campaign.
Our readers will find throughout an absence
from all lancor over the results of the war.
He talks like a soldier who manfully did bis
duty as he saw it at the time, and after all
glories in a united country.
I enlisted in Co. C, 27th Ala., in the
Fall of 1861. Companies from other
Counties which were required to com
plete the regiment were slow, and it was
not until the latter part of December
that we were ready for organization.
As the eventful day approached we be
gan to tell friends and sweethearts
good-by. Every young fellow who
went to the war got a kiss from his'
" best girl," aDl as it was the first that
many of us had ever enjoyed, it is not
surprising that a last farewell was re-1
peated over and over again before we
actually took our departure.
Our patriotism ebbed and flowed,
we being anxious to get off, yet loth to
leave home and friends whom we might
never see again. It was a trying time
when the 24th day of December, 1861,
came, the day set for us to meet in
Florence and be " mustered in." One
other company from our County and
eight from other Counties in north
Alabama met us at the appointed time,
and as each numbered about 100, we
had a full regiment, and were sworn
into the service of the Confederate
States for 12 months " unless sooner
If you Yankees could have seen that
array of 1,000 doubled-barreled shot
guns, 1,000 long bowle knives not
keen, bright blades as the story writers
would say, for many of these bore the
marks of the unskilled blacksmith's
hammer, and the rust of years still
clung to them, untouched by the stone
which ground them to a sharp edge
perhaps you would tremblingly have
folded your tents and marched back to
your "Northern homes and left the Con
federacy " one of the nations of the
earth " ; but you did not see it, and the
war went on, battles were planned and
'.from a war-time tintype.
preparations for a movement up the
Tennessee Iviver were continued just the
same as if the 27th Ala. had not come
OFF TO THE WAR.
When the ceremony of mustering
was finished we marched to the river,
where a boat was waiting to bear us to
the war and the work of loading began,
which was no small task, for we had
enough baggage to supply a division 12
months later. Like all fresh regiments,
we had everything we needed and 10
times as much that we did not need ; in
short, we were fully equipped for house
keeping, with the single exception of
feather beds, the nearest approach to
that article of luxury being ,thebed
ticks that we carried for the purpose of
filling after we should reach our desti
nation. When our tents, trunks, boxes of
provisions, buckets, washpans, etc., wero
all on board and we marched on, that
boat was probably more heavily loaded
than it ever was before. It wa3 late in
the afternoon when, taking a last fare
well of the anxious friends who had
followed us thus far, we loosened the
lines, and amid cheera and waving of
handkerchiefs steamed out down the
This was tho first steamboat trip for
many of us, and we enjoyed the ride and
the scenery, which was all new to us
even enjoyed the novelty of eating cold
rations and sleeping on deck ; but aside
from this the trip was uneventful, and
we reached Fort Henry on the morning
of Dec. 26.
Henry was a small fort on the East
bank of the Tennessee Kiver, in Stewart
County, Tenn. It had 10 or 15 guns,
chiefly small ones, but looked exceed
ingly formidable to us who had never
seen anything of the kind before. We
were not allowed' to laud there, but were
carried to the opposite side of the river,
in Calloway County, Ivy., where it wa3
intended for us to build a fort that,
with the assistance of Fort Henry, was;
to present an impassable barrier to all
craft3 and blow the Lincoln gunboats?
"to Halifax," if they should ever have
the audacity to attempt a passage up the
Our baggage was dumped off on the
bank, a guard left with it, and we
marched across the muddy bottom to
where the ground rose above high-water
mark, gradually sloping upwards to the
foot of a rauge of hills which bordered
the river for miles in either direction.
On this slope we pitched our camps, and
began cleaning out the undergrowth and
staking off the ground for each company-
-, .. "'
JOYS OF THE EECRUITS.
We were provided with large wall
tents, but having had no experience in
stretching them had great difficulty in
getting them properly adjusted ; but after
tearing down, readjusting, moving peg3
from place to place numberless times, we
finally got them arranged to our entire
satisfaction. The next step was to buy
lumber, put down floors, build bunks,
and having filled our bed-tick3 from a
neighboring farmer's strawstack, we felt
like we were ready to move in and begin
housekeeping ; for in our ignorance of
the uncertainties of a soldier's life we
thought we had " come to stay," and
that it was the part of wisdom to make
ourselves comfortable in the beginning.
All of us, from Colonel down to
lowest private, were fully as green a3
the average recruit. I was the onlv
member of my company who had had
any experience in drilling, my knowl
edge in that line being limited to the
small amount I had learned wljile at
school. However, we had but little of
that exercise to undergo, as the weather
was bad, and it was difficult to find
enough level land to drill on, except in
the river bottom, which was too rough
when frozen and too muddy when
thawed. Nor were we subject to very
rigid discipline ; our regiment being the
only troops on that side of the river,
and no enemy near, we were allowed all
the freedom we could ask.
Our rations consisted chiefly of a
fair article of beef aud cornmeal ; but
we were not much concerned about
rations, for we had brought from home
great boxes of boiled ham, chickens,
pies, cakes, butter, eggs, coffee, etc., and
those of us who lived near the river had
promises from our good mothers of more
to follow every week on the steamboats
that made regular trips.
Camps once in good shape, engineers
laid off our fort (which, like Bill Arp'a
well, u was never dug,") and we chris
tened it Heiman, in honor of the Col
onel of the 10th Tenn., who at that time
commanded the forces oh both sides of
But little work was done on the fort;
it seemed useless to waste our energies
digging and spading, when we had not
a single cannon to mount. The officers
were so careless about it that we began
to think maybe it was all a mistake
about the anticipated invasion, or per
haps Gen. Grant had learned that the
27th Ala. was theie with their double
barreled guns and bowie-knives, and
had abandoned his plans altogether.
A TRYING NIGHT ON TICKET.
For the first two or three weeks we
had as quiet a time as could be desired,
with no enemy near, no guard duty ex
cept ordiuary camp guarding, no picket
ing, as we depended on a small squad of
cavalry that scouted in the direction of
Columbus to apprise us of any approach
of the enemy. But it so happened
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