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The National tribune. (Washington, D.C.) 1877-1917, July 02, 1908, Image 1

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The Glorious Anniversary and What It Aleans to Mankind
The Dcclnrntlon n Startling Innovation
in the Theory of Government and the
Rlghtx of Inn
Meaning of the 4th of July
So many glittering generalities arc
and read about the 4th of July
that its real meaning is lost sight of or
probably never understood It was to
the political and sucial world precisely
-what the advent of Christ was to the
religious and moral world Prior to
the birth of Christ each little country
or people had its code of morals and
its locals deities Christ came to pro
claim one -God for the whole universe
and the brotherhood of all men God
made of one blood all the Nations of
the earth A counterpart of this ex
isted in the political systems of the
world every country there was a
narrow circle of men who assumed the
right to absolutely govern all the oth
ers to be the complete masters of their
Jives and property and that whatever
rights were given the people at large
were gracious donations from the gov
erning class This is the theory yet
upon -which most of the Governments
of Europe rest and it is the theory
that is fundamental to the Government
The Japanese Constitution assumes that
all the people of Japan exist solely and
whollv for the nurposfs or tne MiKaao
that everything tnat oeiongs to
1 j his by rights and can be taken at
any time
A Mnrtllns Innoinllon
At the time- of our Revolution the
people knew no other form of govern
ment than this which had come down
to them from the oldest times when
the King and his nobles were supposed
to be descendants from the gods and
had brought -from Henvcn authority to
rule over their feIow meh Our Dec
laration of Indeiiendince was a most
startling innovation It proclaimed the
new and strange doctrine f omeininB
that mankind had never before heard
that the people are the real rulers of
a country and that the Government is
something of their own and for their
benefit exclusively It set up that the
people- did not exist for the benefit of
the governing classes but that the gov
ernors were the creations of the people
themselves for certain public purposes
and answerable to the people for their
acts This upheaving octrlne was a
direct indictment of every other Gov
ernment on eartli except that of Eng
land against which it was mainly di
The English people had been slowly
forgjnr forward for centuries toward a
uracttcal application of this doctrine
had not as yet grasped the
doclrinc fci anything like the force and
entirety of its enunciation in the Dec
laration of Independence The Kngllsn
IGovernmcnt had been established as an
if TTI n nil
fauSOlUlC uespouHl Xliu iviu waa
noweiful and could do what he pleased
The only check upon his authority e
It was the only check upon the author
ity of Klng3 In other land was th
proud and self assertive nobility which
Insisted upon a measure of Independ
ence from kingly tranny Both Kim
and nobility however agreed in abco
lutc tyranny of the lower clasres Iy
the great Magna Charta the English
among those being trial by a jury of
their peers They insisted that the
Kings will should not be absolute but
that there should be written laws ap
plied by Independent judges As said
before this only applied to the nobles
themselves that is to those who held
great landed estates directly from the
King The common people had no
voice whatever and no protection from
either King or nobles
of the Common People
As the centuries went by the common
people who were gaining wealth and
importance began to demand every
year more resolutely a share in the
Government and a modification of the
tyranny of the King and Lords As
the common people had all the money
n the realm and money was then as
badly needed is it is now they had a
solid basis for a successful fight At
first they were only admitted to enter
the House of Lords in the humblest
manner and kneeling before the
throne set forth their wishes very
modestly and deferentially This was
the beginning of the House of Com
mons As their wealth and intelligence
increased they got a greater shaie of
the Government and at last were rec
ognized as a separate house of Par-
of government had been certain that
no Government could as Lincoln said
long endure founded on such princi
ples As he eald in his immortal Get
ysburg address Now wc are engaged
in a great civil war testing whether
that Nation or any Nation so conceived
ind so dedicated can long endure The
triumphant end of the war was thus
nohilllv force w Klnir to acrree to the second slagc and tne ansoiuie com-
certain righto hch they claimed pletion of the Declaration of
- Kv - X
-- - - -- ch -
ence Had it not been for Appomattox
the Declaration of Independence would
have been relegated to the dusty pigeon
holes of history with thousands of oth
er political experiments that had been
tried and which had failed Appomat
tox was the seal upon the Declaration
of Independence and made it a vital
working principle for the Nations of
the earth
The document therefore has a value
even higher than being the birth act of
our Nation It was an evangel of lib
erty for the whole world and every
man upon whom the sunlight rests
should have as deep an interest in that
immortal document as Americans
The Declaration of Independence will
be read in most places of the country
as part of the ceremonies of celebrating
the Nations natal day It deserves
more- than this and every man who is
proud to proclaim himself an American
should periodically read the Declara
tion over understand its marvelous
language and sentiment and endeavor
to bring his mind into closer rapport
with it - -
We reproduce it below that no one
can fail in this particular duty by not
having the text of the document ready
at hand
In Congress July 4 1770
The unanimous declaration of the 13
United States of America When in
the tourse of human events It becomes
necessary for one people to dissolve
the political bands which have con
nected them with another and to as
sume among the powers of the earth
Photograph of the paintins by Trumbull in the Capitol at Washington
liament to which the King would go the separate and equal station to which
when ho wanted money and the House the laws of Nature and of Natures God
of Commons would find means by which entities tnem a decent respect to me
to raise Jt for him When Charles I opinions of mankind requires that they
found the House of Commons not should declare the causes which impel
posed to give him the money that he them to the separation
desired he tried to get it otherwise He We hold these truths to be
the House and levied the dent that all men are created equal
taxes himself which brought about the that they are endowed by their Creator
great revolution pf 1642 9 wun certain inaiienaDie rignis mat
The main result of that long civil among these are life liberty and the
war was that the House of Commons pursuit of happiness that to secure
had it conceded finally and forever that these rights Government are Instituted
it was the machinery for imppsing and among men deriving ir just powers
collecting taxes and It sealed its tri
umph by the further provision which
has since changed the whole system of
the English Government that the
House could appropriate the money
to the various purposes for which it
was needed Tills in effect and in coure
of time put the whole power of the
Kingdom in the hands of the IIouso of
Commons No money could be paid
to anyone or for any purpose until the
House of Commons appropriated it
Therefore the King and the Lords were
at the power of the Commons Th y
might plan and conspire but umes
the House gave them money to carry
out their designs they wpre Helpless
Our lletolutlon IitMeil On Principle
Our Revolution was based upon the
principles which had brought about the
revolution of 1C42 in England Our
people claimed that taxes were being
arbitrarily Imposed upon them by the
English Parliament in which they had
no voice The- Revolution began by
resisting tho o taxes and finally taking
up arms in self defense until they were
accorded the rlgnts given uieir
subjects in the Three Kingdoms This
was all the Revolution meant tor a
long while Washington himself at first
had no thought or Independence or tne
mother country and derided those who
preached it as abMird and Impractica
ble War is a swift educator however
and as the struggle progressed the Idea
of independence became more vivid and
controlling With that Wca came the
annunciation of the new doctrine of
Government that Governments were in
stituted for the benefit of the governed
and derived their just powers from the
consent of the governed
With all the agitation in England
sach an extreme but absolutely common-sense
view had never occurred to
the Engiisju people Our success in
winning independence made this new
doctrine an eternal part of the princi
ples of government and the people of
from the consent of the governed that
whenever any form of gover nent be
comes destructive of these ends it is
the right of the people to alter or to
abolish it and to institute new Govern
ment laying Its foundation on such
principles and organizing Its powers in
such form as to them shall seem most
likely to effect their safety and happi
ness Prudence indeed will dictate
that Governments long established
should not be changed for light and
transient feauses and accordingly all
experience hath shewn that mankind
are more disposed to suffer while evils
are sufferable than to right themselves
by abolishing the forms to which they
fire accustomed But when a long
train of abuses and usurpations pur
suing invariably the same object
evinces a design to reduco them under
absolute despotism It is their right it
is their duty to throw oft such Govern
ment and to provide new guards for
their future security Such has been
the patient sufferance of these Colonies
and such is now the necessity which
constrains thenu to alter their former
Kvstems of Government The history
all countries looked to us as the ex- 0r the present King of Great Britain Is
ponents of a new gospel This is whya historv of rencated injuries and
the principle was at stake during our usurpations all having in direct object
war or tne reoeiiion xne upnoiueraj tje establishment of an absolute ty
of the old by the grace of God theory rsnny over these States To prove thi
let facits be submitted to a candid
He has refused his assent to laws tho
most wholesome and necessary for the
public good
He has forbidden his Governors to
pass laws of immediate and pressing
importance unless suspended in their
operation till his assent should be ob-
Continucd on page three
the National Conventionv Is eomincr
r v- J
And AVashlngtontdfneial and unoffi
cial nearly all ofoth classes being
intensely political par
tisan begins to breiuh9 more rapidly
when a National Convention is about to
There is always a delightful uncertainty
about what a National Convention will
do even if it be the convention of a
minority party Then iherc Is always
an uncertainty about la Presidential
campaign No one can tell just how
the masse of voters are- going to size
up the candidates No one can tell
what little jar is going to loosen a land
slide Many a Presidential campaign
that promised to be an exceedingly fair
weather affair for one party has proved
tho contrary The storms have gath
ered to obscure a sunny sky Tornadoes
by the score leap funnel shaped on the
horizon and go furrowing devastation
thru political Gibraltars
Therefore it is that long as the Dem
ocratic Party has been In a hopeless
minority long as it has been unable to
carry elections in the North there is
keen interest In Its National Conven
tion This year there is quite as much
interest from the Washington
In what Denver does as there was
In what Chicago did For while Chicago
may have done well the opinlon grows
that it might have done better and that
the hands who guided might have guldr
cd more skilfully at1 least did not
guide as Skilfully as has been done in
other NationaliCpnvention3 of the Jte
publican PartysijQfaurse the ticket
and the patfornrmay grow upon the
country wise- men injpojiucs say tins
will happen and jjrobaljly they are
right But thcO hafd Urges continue
uslncss men say he Jiard times are
going to continue thru the Summer
The West is havinglbho of its periodic
upheavals- How JnGensi Uils is no one
can yet tell
The Ilepulilleno lnenHy
However politicis ns are proverbially
timid They jump Into the ceiling every
time the walls creak this is the
stage of the campaign wfhere they begin
to get nervous So the tupublicans the
while the Democrats aro very doleful
are anxious to see fhe Democrats make
fnnl t nf thnmsnlvivQ ail Denver The
Republicans will not est easy about
that till after the Denver Convention is
over Possibly they will not rest easy
then for there is no telling that this
will not bo the year when the Demo
crats may be a little wiser than usual
It Is all up to Mr Bryan for his
nomination Is assured Since the Re
publican leaders have returned from
the West where they have observed the
popularity of some of Bryans ideas
they are talking less aboutBTyan being
the weakest man the Democrats could
nominate but they Jhopeihat Bryan
may do something -that will enfeeble
his own cause thatltho wild colts at
Denver may run away wjth him and
execute a convcritiort program which
will discredit hlmfUrthcr with the
Therefore thec ncw interest in tne
t t v aV
m 1j I I II llel I iSCoppcMPtffllf sS
Keen Interest Felt in Washington Democratic Hopes Calcula
tions on Disaffection in the West The Figures as They Appear
To day Where the Battle Ground Will Be
The cry of Westward Ho a purely since the Chicago Convention adjourn
political cry rises again in Washing
ton There is n scramDe ror tne trains
much studying of routesandjnuch com
ment upon prospective ktdersSpecials
are thundering thru the city from
neighboring States tliat can reach the
great West only via the Federal Capi
tal Up over tfyc mountains the trav
elers go full of perspiration and some
of them full of something besides en
thusiasm altho the day of the full dele
gate of either political party is passing
In other words the Democratic Na
tional Convention Is near at hand A
different set of men ore ndwpulling out
for the West than wejc pulling out two
weeks ago They are not so numerous
the individuals of this Washington exo
dus because there are fewer Democrat
ic officeholders In Washington and few
er Democrats than Republicans who
rendezvous here But the outgo of po
litical population is sufficient and the
hubbub they stir up i3 sufficient to
make the Federal City fully aware that
I - -
of Russia It is steadfastly taught that
the King or the Emperor has all the
power concentrated in his hands and
that he is the absolute master of the
lives and property of every man and
woman living within his realm In es
tablishing a constitutional Government
for Italy for example the Constitution
expressly stated that the King held all
the power hi the country and that of
his own pleasure he created a Parlia
ment and gave it certain poucrs which
he would at any time resume should
the occasion arise The Constitutions
of the other so called constitutional
monarchies have in effect and practice
the same doctrine A short time ago
the Emperor King of Austro Hungary
hpcomirtr wean- of the wrangles of the
Reichwrath dissolved it resumed his
nowera as an autocrat and governed
without its intervention The King of
Prussia once did the same thing and
It was the attempt of Charles I to do
this In England that brought about the
civil war in which he lost his head
cd For when the ticket is made up at
DeVer the issues will be joined Tare
land Sherman can then talk DacK at
BrjXtn and Tip to date Mr liryan
has been sailing in about tne piatrorm
the Republicans adopted for their can
didates to stand on uryan nas oeen
ringing the changes about the Repub
lican Party being in full retreat from
the Roosevelt policies He has been
hacking the planks of their platform
scoffing at their labor planks their cor
poration planks their tariff planks
making fun of their praise of Roosevelt
In the platform as a cloak for refusal
to cordially support his policies Taft
has been hitting back a little He has
asked Attorney General Wade Ellis of
Ohio to put ip a few licks in defense of
the platform But Mr Taft cannot fight
back energetically because the Denver
platform has not been built The Dem
ocratic candidates have not been nomi
nated The most he can do when Bryan
runs up to dare him to a wordy en
counter is to defend himself
After the adjournment at Denver it
will be another story Bryan must be
on the defensive then as well as on the
aggressive He will have a platform
to defend The Republicans will move
up their artillery and open fire on the
Honorable Bryan himself The Den
ier convention will have to pass the
scrutiny of the country If it makes
any mistakes as it proably will Mr
Bryan will have to answer for them
The arrangements for the campaign
activities will then be largely completed
and the two parties will be more nearly
on even ground
Preparing for the Battle
There Is always the liveliest kind of
jockeying between Presidential candi
dates to get the best of it in argument
The one tries to get the other on the
defensive for there are thousands of
voters in every State who like to be
with the man who can make the smart
est most plausible talk To that end a
nice little duel of words is expected be
tweerLJJominee Taft and prospective
Nominee Bryan The latter has been
craftily- laying the foundations for his
argumentative campaign with his Re
publican opponent and the former has
been storing away ammunition against
the day when Mr Bryan becomes a
full fiedgcd nominee Both men know
that public sentiment is more easily
swayed to day by logical discussion of
issues and events than ever before
That means each will strive with great
determination to make a good showing
In tho great forum of public discussion
Each will be exceedingly wary about
being thrust Into a defensive position
This feature of the campaign may be
in full operation by the middle of July
Probably It will be one of the Impor
tant preliminaries to tho organization
work that both parties must conduct on
an extensive scale in the great f ruggle
for votes and for a majority of the
electoral college
Democratic Hope
Democratic sachems remaining in
Washington say thaf the Mississippi
Valley will loom large in the delibera
tions of the Denver Convention They
see how little hope there Is for the par
ty along the Northern Atlantic sea
board in New York New Jersey and
Connecticut Accordingly they are
making up their tables -of a majority
in the Electoral College next November
with States in the Middle West They
are- able to make the winning additions
only by grouping Southern and Missis
sippi -Valley States f
There is one precedent for this Dem
ocratic addition the election of 1892
For if the radical sentiment that pervades-
and permeates the Middle West
should be strong enough to embrace
Bryan and Bryanlsm of the 1908 va
riety and shodld sweep Into the Demo
cratic column in November the Middle
convene Such gatherings are historic I western States that went for Cleveland
Bryan probably would have a majority
over Taft He would not need to have
New York New Jersey and Connecti
cut or even Marvland and Plaw
perhaps If he could have Indiana Illi
nois Wisconsin ail of wnicn cieentiid
carried and a few of the small States
farther west Some of the more en
thusiastic Democrats talk about pros
pects in Minnesota and Iowa
However illusory such hopes may
prove to be the gossip and comment
of the Democrats at Denver will cen
ter around political figures In the Mis
sissippi Valley It looks now as tho
the East might be quite forgotten in
the conventions deliberations except
as far as the votes of the delegates
from that section are concerned The
talk about Gov Johnson of Minnesota
as running mate is persistent It is by
no means likely to subside In spite of
the Governors reiterated statements
that he docs not want the Vice Presi
dential nomination He could help
bring the numerous Swede voters in
Minnesota Wisconsin and Illinois to
the Democratic ticket and would be a
most desirable acquisition Incidental
ly he might reconcile to a degree
Democratic conservatives who do not
like Bryan and will not like the radi
cal platform on which he is expected
to stand By the time the Denver Con-
vention meets John Mitchell another
Mississippi Valley man will probably
have made up his mind whether he is
willing to run as the Democratic Guber
natorial candidate in Illinois Unless
he commits himself to a trial for that
nomination and office he will be dis
cussed much at Denver as a Vice Presi
dential possibility From the talk at
Chicago during the Republican Con
vention Mitchell is regarded as a for
midablc candidate for office In that sec
tlon altho some insist he would not
materially strengthen Bryans cause
A third Vice Presidential possibility
Is ex senator and cx ltepresentative
Charles A Towne of New York who
however is very much of a Mississippi
Valley man because he began his polit
ical career In Minnesota and was elect
ed to the National House from there
and appointed to the Senate from
there before he migrated eastward and
became a Tammany Congressman Mr
Towne was at Chicago during the Re
publican Convention and his friends
heard that he is exceedingly hopeful of
getting on tho ticket with Bryan
A Mnn from MlNsourl
After these three the most interest
ing man to the Convention will proba
bly be ex Gov David R Francis of
Missouri who was Secretary of the In
terior under Cleveland lie was a
Gold Democrat In the 189G campaign
but since then has come back to the
regular Democratic camp He will be
a delegate at large from Missouri to
the Denver Convention and is now a
good Bryan man Gov Francis loves
Denver Convention newer than ever J Ofl came ef politics immensely Un
- - -
t c
4T -
v n r
-a t
The National Birtti Certificate
less It be some dneln Chicago Gov
Francis Is regardedas the- most In
fluential business head in all the Missis
sippi Valley He wants to manage
Bryans campaign this year lielieves In
the possibilities of winning the big
Misslssippi Valley States tothe
braskan s standard and it
in Washington has some chance of be
ing commissioned to undertaker -the
task He has had sufficient experience
In politics to know how to do things
and could raise more money foe the
campaign than any other man who-
could be chosen as National Chairman
of the Democratic Party this year He
enjoys great popularity- in his section
of the country and Is quite as well
known as a successful executive and
shrewd manager in New York as he is
in St Louis
A lot of men are saying that if the
ticket could be Bryan and Johnson
with Francis as National Chairman the
Democratic campaign would start right
offwJth a big whoop In all the Middle
Western States and that the Republi
can headquarters in Chicago would be
kept guessing all ther Summer and
Autumn long Ot course JIr Bryan
as the prospective nominee will have
the say as to the National -Chairman
As far as known he has not indicated
wnemer uov irancis wouiu De accept
able to him It was widely circulated
some months ago that Ex Senator Pet
tlgrew of SouthDakota the native
Vermonter who used to have terrific
battles In the Senate with the late
Mark Hanna was Mr J3ryans choice
for Chairman this year Pettigrew was
a Republican till the silver craze swept
over the far West but became a pro
nounced radical in politics and
eventually drifted by the Populistlc
route into the Democratic Party
The DlMafTected AVcMt
As far as the disaffected West is
concerned the general conduct of the
Denver Convention is likely to make a
very important impression either in
Bryans favor or against him For
months he has been courting the ap
proval of Republicans in that quarter
He has been prafsing what he could
find to praise in President Roosevelt
knowing of course that the President
Is more popular there than anywhere
else in the land He has also been
tossing bouquets every little while to
Senator La Follette who has a tre
mendous following in the Mississippi
Valley as far South as Kansas It is
to be expected he would have the Den
ver Convention supplement the charac
ter of work he Ids been doing In this
There is much uncertainty about the
metes and bounds of tho disaffected
West The term has sprung into cur
rent use since the Chicago Convention
The wise men In both political parties
would like to know more about its ex
tent The one who could define It ac
curately and authoritatively would have
more valuable knowledge about the
Presidential campaign than all the Re
publican and Democratic leaders to
gether now have or are likely to have
for a number of months
As a matter of fact the disaffected
West comprises about all there is of
real live interest in the Presidential
campaign thus far For the rank and
file of voters do not care much about
what has been determined upon They
knew that Taft was to be nominated
before the Chicago Convention met
They know now that Bryan Is to be
nominated at Denver They know that
Bryans chances ate slim indeed in the
East unless something happens be
tween now and November to over
throw all calculations Where every
thing Is as certain as anything can be
in politics men rerusc to get very ex
cited They content themselves with
drifting along and waiting for the ver
dict at the polls
But the disaffected West was a
discovery to tho Republicans at Chi
cago altho President Roosevelt seems
to have had complete knowledge of it
and to have been planning the Republi
can campaign accordingly The oppos
ing Republican faction thought it was
wiser than he and blocked some of
the convention plans he had made and
now the disaffected West Is figuring
in all the maps that the politicians are
making of territory where the Presi
dency must be won
The KiRKer
It is pretty generally understood that
ach State has one vote for each of Its
two United States Senators and one for
each of its Representatives in the Na
tional House These votes make up
the electoral college which chooses
onco in every- four years a President
and a Vice President There are now
1 92 Senators and 391 Representatives
and the Electoral College this year will
comprise 483 votes The winning
ticket must have- at least 242 votes
This fa the largest Electoral College tha
country ever had the State of Okla
homa with seven votes having been
admitted since the last Presidential
The National Chairman at the very
outset will eliminate about three fifths
of those votes from their calculations
Approximately 158 votes or a trifle
more than one half of these three
fifths will be conceded to Mr Bryan
the prospective Democratic nominee
The Democrats may not concede quite
as generously to thfir opponents but
the fact remains that good judges will
concede about 144 votesin the Eastern
section of the country as good as cast
for Nominee Taft
The Democratic strongholds are la
14 States as follows
Alabama IX
Arkansas 9
Florida 5
Georgia 13
Kentucky 13
Louisiana 9 -
Mississippi 10
Missouri 18
Oklahoma -7
North Carolina 12
South Carolina 9
Tennessee 12
Texas IS
Virginia t 12
Total 158
Kentucky and Missouri have been
carried by the Republicans The form
er State now has a Republican Govern
or -More or less will be heard during
the campaign about Republican pros
pects in both those States In the in
ner offices of the Republican National
Committee however Kentucky and
Missouri will be put down at the very
start as Democratic
There arp two contiguous groups of
Eastern States nearly all of which will
go into the Electoral College tables thi3
year as belonging to Nominee Taft
First there are six New England States
Perhaps the Bryan forces will do some
reconnoitering in Connecticut but it
will hardly be anything- else The
votes of those six State r
Connecticut 7
Maine 6
Massachusetts IS
New Hampshire 4
Rhode Island 4
Vermont 4
The other group also comprises six
States with a much larger total vote
where In former times have been many
Presidential battle grounds These
States and their votes
New Jersey 12
New York 39
Pennsylvania 34
West Virginia 7
Maryland S
Delaware 3
Total 103
To be sure the Democrats claim not
to have abar Joned hope of New York
where the stake 39 electoral votes is
so large that the taking of long chances
is justified nor of Maryland nor pos
sibly of New Jersey -Maryland gave
McKinley a majority Twice and proba
bly would have givenRoosevelt a ma
jority but for the ignorance of thous
ands of voters who thought that in
marking the ballot for the first name
on the list of Republican electors they
were voting for all But Maryland Is
one of the most conservative States in
the Union and does not like Bryan
West Virginia has become as sure a
Republican State as Pennsylvania hav
ing had great accessions of voters front
Pennsylvania and Ohio
The Heal Battle Ground
The elimination of those 14 sure
Bryan States and of 12 more almost
as sure Taft States narrows the field
to the disaffected West which ha3
caught up -the Roosevelt and La Fol
lette doctrines with great enthusiasm
and which causes the politicians to
wonder whether it means also a fereat
flocking to Bryan in November With
two or three minor exceptions these
18 States have a large normal majority
of Republican voters If they should
give Bryan majorities very generally it
would be one of the most remarkable
phenomena In the history of Ameri
can politics And yet during the last
two weeks nearly- every one of the
following group of 12 States with a to
tal of 145 electoral votes has been men
tioned by Democratic optimists as tend-
Continued on page three
- 1

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