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The G-olct of Chat Land is goocL"
Publisher. i- jr. Txmalb A. Hand, volume" l t ' i ' ! 1 1 THE ARIZONA MINER.'' rj?. a. iiFA.Ni, i'uiiiifluW. ; fcajfaWe in aAvaaoo, with 6a t SpUoa ,, For one year " - - - $6,00 For six months 3,00 For three months - - 1,50 1 Single copies 10 PEES0OTT, AKIZOFA, WEDNESDAY AUGUST 10, 186'4. NUM Bill ntn iWMmimiiiiiimMim'iiwi,iiina ii'auum TUB PRE-IHSTORIC MAN OF ARIZONA, NUMBER ONE. Editor of the 1 Arizona Miner. Every new expedition against the Apaches, or exploration m search of new gold aud silver wondora in this rich gem of mineral lands, brings to light some ruined city in its bright valleys, or niou deriuir tortresa on its romantic mesas, we tread upon the urns that contain the ashes of an unknown dead, Evidences of a high civilization are mot with at every step in this hitherto terra incognita, and the questions naturally force them . . . i , l.l ...liil selves upon tue mina, who reareu tneso euiuues and built theso walls? who constructed these irrigating canal3 and made the rich valleys teem with grain, and fruits, and flowers ? Jt is a sub iect that awakens a curiosity, while the imagina tion grasps at the most 6hadowy conjectures to gratify it. Wo seem to bo walking among the tombs of the doubly dead, whoso histoiy is as silent as their dust, and there comes a longing wish to lift the veil and gaze back upon the past that past which sends no echoes horn the silent depths. Wo cuu only read it oy the geology oi ita graves tho fossils which the crushing tread I of timo has spared among tho drifts ol ruin. :Theai faintly glimmer in U twilight shadow which rests ovet the origin and history of tha iintmUvo man of Arizona. AuTuauguwon can ioidv lift the mvsUrious cloud with the ate of tradition and a few iaolntad and ioddpendttm unci, which. dispelling tho shadows of dot ixiufuld n reasonable aortninty to tho enquiring; ini Kithiint. thoBO ftitiK onunooa would be aa va fried as the individual minds which gave them form. 'arch to tba first representations of bis language ! g his bieroglypblcol paiutiDgs, and advantage in; regular gradauous step oy step. Tho miant oi time in the great school of nature, ho has gradu ally progresaad from the oloudy and nncmuia dawn of his being in the womb of ages, until tlni present time, and still stands with his satchel in ; hand on tho threshold of science. ; Man 8 superstitions and tehgioas systems will not prove an identity of origin or civilization. The progression of tho human mind in the spirit ual, or Cod-idea, is governed by tho same princi ples as his progressions in art. From his vague savago droamings of superior power tho tungi ble embodiment of hi3 higher aspirations in the worship of some object the highest materialism in the sun worship,-to the more spiritual idea ol an unknown, indefinite Great Source of All, only exhibit the Bame progressive pathway of tho human mind in the development of tho spiritual idea common to all. That the Chaldeans, Per sians, and other nations of the east, aliko with tho Toltecs, Aztecs, and Peruvians, of the west, worshipped the sun, no more proves a common origin for their religious faith, than the Triod of the ancient Egyptians and the cross of the god of rain, Plalic ol the Aztecs, prove them to have been Christians. 1 hey are accidental comciden cea springing from the innate organization of the human mind. These premises being stated, I hold. 1. That tho aboriginal inhabitants of Ameri ca, who once inhabited, and whose descendants 3tiil inhabit the valleys and plateaus of Arizona and Mexico, are n distinct raco of men from the man of the old continent and that their civiliza Hon was indigenous. 2. That tfw pre-historic mo of Ariwsna waa of the great ToRae family, whfch included Uw Nuhaaiiac mtm, gerny Known a3 the Azvx at the Uma of ifee oooaaael. 3. Thai the Pnb4o lr,b of Arizona the Navoma or Pims awl Pap of, ara bat off 'i ..i month of tho Rio Navojo or San Juan of the Colorado. If they emigrated from the inhospi table shored of north-eastern Asia to Ariaona in order fco -account for the absenco of all traite in thair transit, w rnusfc presume that ihv cnrrlatr their proviBious with them and made no halt or SGttltrna-.t, and Soft bohmd no rDorjumeot or rt- mains in a distance of several thousand mile3 along the summits of the great Oordilleran range, crossing wide and deep rivers, and making their pathway over deserts, buch a presumption is contrary to all reason. Much les3 could they have emigrated from the shores of the Atlantc without leaving any tradition or trail. The furthest eastern trace of their ruins does not ex lend beyond the valley of the Eio Graodo and its tributaries. They do not seem to have pene trated to the great prairie plains east of tho itocky mountains. Then physiologically speaking, thoro is a marked difference between the pre-historic man of Arizona and tho Tartar hordes, who inhabit that pari of Asia from which it is claimed that he emigrated. The Mongolian Tartar belocg3 to tho raco of man who represents the type of the elongated or dolichocepholic head, while the man of Arizo na belongs to the short, round-headed or crachy repholic type of head. The Mongolian with his squaro feoture3 and high cheek bone3 is the rep resentative of a race entirely different from the oval and rounded face of the man of Arizona. Osteological comparisons prove tho fact, so far as they have been made. From the custom of burning tho dead, which existed with the Toltec or Arixonian race, a com narison of crania is difficult. I do not believti Urat a p. rffct akaU of that ancient rac is vo ex tatonca, a m3 k mast resort to the fragmentary skHs of .heir nrns, and like Caviar bring science to oar aji!. and nfco judga of the race by tha fsr&Bfftl dvVtrf ytrnieot of their d3ieoduofak Y ms dtQieaiiy will la time be partnutjr obvmtml, gmHrrgLinrj pnuihwartl to tlm valleva of Maxioo. 4, That the 'i oltec or North American civil Hhoots of the parent stock, left, boh i ad in lb6:rjfts c-?err day naw dicovt,kriea are beiog made, and LhfTft w a srrowinir dasiro amonir lug Djma Lu collet and preserve tho relics of the past j and hero let me suggest to toe ursu legislature oi Arizona tho propriety ot establishing in connec tion with the Territorial Library, n Historical Department, witha museum for the preservation of ull relics, remain3 and fossils of the past ages in Arizona. Ethnological researches in tho Uuited States, ization had its origin in tho valleva of the Gilu Mexico, and Central and South America, have ami Colorado, and that tho seat of their ancient convinced mo that there are certain great general Umpire was in the valley near the junction of the truths standing UKe mile-stone3 along tue patn- ftjo Verde with the Conception or baliuas. way of time, by which a theory can be traced 5. That this Toltec or Arizonian race left in relative to the pre-historic man of Arizona, disputable trails behind them, as they emigrated which, if not clearly demonstrable, at least, pos- South : that alter the Tolteca abandoned the val taesses n probability which excludes aoy different hHy of Mexico, they populated the country from i hypothesis. Yucatan to tho isthmus ol JLJanen, and that m f Bv these philosophical truths, somo facts, few aj probability somo adventurers from the same land isolated it is true physiological comparisons. Ltock became the Incas or governing raco of fund the light of tradition, 1 propose to wander pu, and wero tho origin 01 tho l'eruvjim emu bmone the numerous raoulaenng ruins around us. zatfon. md revea some ot tho mint lines 01 tne uistory g. That thev were and are distinct irora the f those who reared them. North American red Indian race. There are certain general principles which lie 7. That they are not ol tho raco of tho mound tat the basis of every reasonable conjecture. The builders of tho Mississippi valley, nor of the Atlv lorgaoization of tho human mind is tho same in aposcan race, which has encroached upon them till countries, varied only oy capacity, reauiung nr0m tho nortn east ana nortn-wesu from the sensitiveness or obtuenes3 of the ner- Tho data for the illustrations of theso propo- Svous temp'T.iment and its activity, or as as mod-Litiotis have a common relationship arid necessa- iided by tho mnuences 01 cinnato or local circum- rily run together on many points ; out 1 win en ietances- Hnce the early struggles of man, in deavor to avoid prolixity and repetition. whatever land ho muy be placod, in his progrea- I bad hoped that reusou long since would have leivo emergence from a barbarous to a social and exploded tho idea of emigration to America from fcivilized state, will be similar. Whethor in the tho other I will not say older continents; but sand-hemmed valley of tho Nile, tho plains of j0 order to build np somo creed or theory, con- Central Asia, the island ol the ocean, or thy jacture is still aufisjred to float v.'ide cn 41:1 cccan f irreat nlntoana of America, his infant progress in of uncertainty, without reason at the helm, aud fetho rudiments of art will bo marked by tho same dashing aside tagad, apniars more aricftuit than iha Bfrl Ham- reikl of tho ago of Bdhi Thf aoold nolrlMva been ancted by tho same1 raoa of popl, tbn wide ly eoparated in the primal age of Ujo erthAffii p&r au.ojf Ufd aatce rmh of dvelojHWfc. . ' cidenco only proTe the theory q( t- r U ltwio bo regrottrd that Uaptait. i : means of transportation did not permit o hH carrying an urn containing tho romatrit of & grown person. In the urn found wera terai pieces of charred cotton cloth, which evidoatlv lormed the wrapping of the child when burn Some relics, such as a etono ax, and an annulet of bone, was found. Its form and doaiirn Mrere simnlar to tho3e foand in tho oldest Egyptian tombs, as described by Sir Uardmer WilklOion The skull ns far as coaid be discovered w not of the elongated Tartar race, but was rocmiad. globular, and decidedly of tho braebycepliolic type or skulls. All the fragments of akalw from these cemoitfes so far as examined show the short rounded head, Buch as is now foaod ffith the present Pirao race, and in the totnba of the Incas of Peru. It is not the pure Camcaaian type, but an apparent transition from the Mongo lic or elongated type of head to the Caucasian such a transition hvad as corresponds to that of the ancient ASgyptian and the head of the, cunei form age of the Euphrates ruins. Vae it ao4 the result of development from tho barbarona tlon- gated head of primitive savage man, to tb toor penect cerebral organization of man in to Jaa cosian or rather the European race? And wus not tho pre-historic man of Arizona tha "toltec of Mexico the natural development of it higher order of man from the square elongate braded, primitive barbaric red man of America working tut an indigenous and independent'-';!'. wuicu wa cot snort in its progress r.y qneai or Cortex? And was it not v tu progress of t)i haro.in race in th tet3f frcrr. Ih4 prim va, ooarsejsrr imlion of-mjin. onward and op ware progressive development until he and onward progressing European.! r ethnological queries, which ticne aud apace will not permit tno here to investigate. I have no doubt-but farther discoveries in tht- ancient cemeteries of Arizona, and the riioiH around the ruins of Tula, Teotihuncau, aad the V;- Ja- hi- I ... II rtr. rtf Tix5rt nnrl satnnln,!no1 '.-.irsW r4iinn The ancient custom of tho man of Arizona, m .,, Jna,W;cl thji tnnt thnh fh ihnirtu,rr. Kill WJ krVA Ullwii V J w VIAW WUV telW4W W " tho scattered fragments of truth, steps, tho same development of ideas, and tho ;n tho current of traditionary history. It will be same progression from tho Bimplo antitypes of aulliciont to refer to n few leading points in order nature to complex forms. They have their ori- 10 expose tho fallacy of any such supposed ori gin, and spring from common wunts and nocessi- in of the primitive American. Emigration to ties, and their identity is only rendered incom- any distance, especially across n wide strait or JBplete bv the modifying causes, of capacity, climate arm of tho sea, presupposes some advancement SKand local influonees. Wherevor man is placed in tho arts, and considerable progress in c'mliza an independent being, an indigenous civilization tion enough at least to leave somo sign or tra- Will Spring lOrtU -lb 10 icaum ui luwct wuiuii lUlVIUIl Ul tun iuui. uiciu ua iiu uimgnniun vy uature has fasteued on his being. Necessity the Pacific Ocean in pre-hietoric times t6 z.mer- Kvill force Wna to progross in tho rudiments ol ica or thoro would have been some tradition left Lirt. whilo interest, ambition, taste tho lovo of of so important an event, or at least some remains , . . k 1 11 m. t . p 1 i I .. 4.t. . : : c it... .1. t... itlio oeautuui-will direct nun lorwaru wo u uiguer 01 art in me viumuy 01 tuu uoa tuuio, ur uuu fcivilizution. Similarity of form, or construction country populated contiguous thereto; but on in tho development of art, will not prove a com tho contrary wo find no tradition of such an fmon origin for thoso who orectod similar forms ovont no ruins indicating civilization on tho sea or developed similar ideas. The pyramids which shore, or noar it. Indeed, we find all tho relied cast their shadows over man s hrst works of art. of c vi ization m .North America south ot rf tho moqldering tower of Bolu3 ond Bira Nora and east of a lofty mountain ridge, a vast desert HHrnnil tho vnst. nllns nf ( ) in nla and Lootihuacao. n nin nnr !i m-uat river. 1 here could have oeen fin Mexico, although Bimilar in form and architec- no emigration by Behr'mg's Straits, or there turo, do not show that thoy originated with a would have been somo lingering memory among , - , .. 1 -1 .t. e .. . . .. , .1. mii. m- r a - ...1. Kiiuirea people, rnoy oniy oxmoit tne moo tnat tne peopio tue ioubch 01 nzoua, wuu uu ;tho human mind marched in the same faith of their hieroglyphical history of the past : or there development, though widely separated by time would have been some sign or monument left md distance. Air tho early oflorts. ol man a art between the bold chits; ot umt cuannei to tne eudy oiibibit necessity developing his facilities Arctic ocean, And the moKfc northorn mips of any y modgls lurnished by nature, vising nrogrossiv lolyi izod raco in AnzortA, or maooa in America, ly iran, tho mound, tho pyramid, tho pillar and'whioh Ue botweou 8CW and 3?w north, fealow burning the dead, was to collect and deposit the bonea and ashes to earthern Jars. 1 hey were tnen buried in the dry soil of the mesas, near their cities and habitations. The atmosphere of Ari zona is dry aud pure. As little rain falls in her clear, cloudlet climate as in Egypt, and thoso jars or urnslhat have been exhumed are dry and perfect in their preservation, alter having been for ages in the earth. The tenements arounJ have mouldered into dust, and the stone founda tions alono remain, vet the urns of aucient pot tery coma forth dry and uninjured beneath the ruins, with the bones of tho dead aud tho ashes as drv as when first deposited. Recent discov eries in the Aztec v lley ou tho Uio Gila, have duvoloned numerous cemeteries of these ancient . . .. - ., . ii 1... people, and lurtoer investigation win unng more to light. The expiticn of Co!, Davis, inspec tor General, which is now on ita way to that val- hy, with tho object ot exploring the country and -i . -it ,:..t.t ,, ratSOiisUlUg U UllUWMjr jjusu, vui uuuuicoa uuu much to our koowledae ot the. remains of nnciunt art, and the traits of the ancieut inhabitants of hat fertile valley. Gantain Tidball in one of his late expeditions atrainst the Apaches m tho Aztec valley, discov- ered one ol these Diinai piacea tmu i,ook ouo 01 .. if. 1 t . r- the BRialhir urus, wmcti contamen tne nones oi a child, to Ft. Bowie, where it now is. Tho urn is a fino specimen of workmanship, su perior to the work of the Iudians or Mexicans of tho present day, painted with angular lines, and with tho enamel perfect and uninjured by time. 1 was forcibly struck by tho resemblance of some of the points of these angular ornaments 1 A 1 to the arrowhead or cunenorm cnaracter m tue ruins of the volleys of tho Tigris aud Euphrates The analogy only proves tho ago of man's pro gression that both nations had arrived at tho pame point in their development, 111 that trunsi- bUIll puriUU UUliiVOCU Jiiiuiuiv uuiuuiioiii uuu ilization. They also mark tho relativo ago of tho ruins. Many of the ruins on tho Gila are of the aamo ace. if not anterior, to the oldest ruins on tho Euphrates. With a drier atmosphere, less visited bv rain and land storms, tho oldor ruins of tho Gila, exhibit an external charactor of age more marked than tho remains oft the first east ern civilization. Th6 gigantic ruined pile of what was evidently the great temple ot the sun 'mid headed skull, 13 the type of the pre historic man of Arizona. His descendants among the toqui, Zuni, Nevomo or Pi mo. and Papaeo racae. an well a? tno rottec and Aztec descendants 01 tne same race m iuexico and uentrai America, ana probably in Peru, have tho same typ of $ead. Among many of the Paeblos just named are to bo fonnd persons of brown hair fine in texture, of light complexions, and with tho skull and fa cial angle corresponding to the "European faces. Tho olongflUnl or dohiliocephalic type of head i-; not found omong them, unless m oxoepWnns vhich can be traced to contact with thsaloegatad heads of the athopascan races nroaod tbam There is a wido constitutional differor c iu tb physical form, characteristic and tnenul orsani satiou of the ancient and present man of Arizo na, which distinguishes him from y f th northern Asiatic tribes, or the , barburoui rei tribes by which hu 13 snrronndod, , ilia kaad i" more globular, his hair liner, his eys mot mild and expressive, his ears smaller, hiseheek bonei more rounded, his mouth better chiseiad and less sensual, his form more rounded and-le ungahsr, and hi3 feet ond hands smaller. ar marked distinctions. . a Men of the same family, althaiighdniur Mpamtad by titoe, will rotuin some trace of languaf whkh will tend to identify them, yet inthe aocipnt or of the Toltec or ArwoiJian igo ica, (way between the ancient city in tho valley of the tuo Vcrdo and Salinas aud the Gila at tw Pfmo ril modern langua race, there is not one word to jueniuy it witn any tribe or nation of Asia, or the so-ciihHi Uii world, either ol ancient or modern times ot is there any identity in a solitary roligioui cu.s torn, or superstition, save that which rs. rally result from two families of me v tho samo relative positions on the ! face, each working for its own dovelojuiMt&T petty- out any knowledgo of tho existence of tfi. oihar. The civilization of tho Toltec 01 Aj?t,mt race lias no connection with that of til' othe; nations of tho earth. It was pecuhwlv then own, epnngiug from and adapted to tho r?&ce.-hi ties of tho countries and climates it wbi- h tiny lived material it is truebut I should j'ldee com mensnrato with their wants as far at developed But Una, number is already too ipug. in my next I will takd up the propositions t?."l in order until Pcloso the seriea. unlf f and your rulers. fur