Newspaper Page Text
Tttlt WllUKIA ltll.0 'TRIBUNK, hlhO, HAWAII, TUESDAY, OCl'OBttR A, 1905.
HAWAIIAN BANANAS, THEIR CHARACTERISTICS Nomenclature and Description of Native Hawaiian Ba nanasProbably Fifty Varieties to be Found in the Territory Many Are Indigenous Others Are Ex oticCooking Bananas and Common Varieties. An instructive article on "Native! Hawaiian Bananas appears in the other. September number of the I'nrmlUcl Puapuamii. This has the lar of the Pacific ami is as follows: gest "tree" of the group. The The above name ("Native Ha- fruit differs from the rest of the waiiau Bananas") is not intended group in being less angular and to imply that the varieties mention- much less pointed at the ends, ed here are indigenous in the strict Kanua. This name seems to be application of that term. The 01 i- a synonym of Puapuamii. It is ginal stock probably came to these the term conmonly used in Koua Islands with the early migrations and other parts of Hawaii, but on of the Polynesian races of the south, this island is seldom heard. It Certain it is that the banana did may, however, be the older name. not originate here, though perhaps Hilahila. This is a synonym of no one can say positively that a Iholena. chance introduction has never been J Among those usually clnss'cd in made by natural means. Some of Maoli group arc: Maoli or Maia the varieties may have developed maoli, Puhi, Malai-ula, Kaualau, from the introduced forms. They Hai, Koae or Ac-ae, Kleele, Poni, are, however, found uncultivated in Loha and Hiuupaa. the gulches, the valleys and the Maimaoli. This is the corn sheltered places in the mountain monest variety of the group to forests, and are stioken of as "Na- tive bananas" or "wild bananas." Some of these are doubtless where ! they were placed by the early Ha- waiiau cultivators, but nature has , also done her part in the distribu-1 tion as she continues to do. Fori example a heavy rain uproots a banana plant or an old corm and and washes it down to the stream ' by which it is carried down the ' and length much greater than gulch and lodged in some new lo- thickness. Together with a few cality. As it grows it sends up new ' of the modifying forms it furnishes shoots and the progeny gradually most of the cooking bananas sold spreads over the side of the gulch, in Honolulu. In flavor and tex- The number of these so-called tnre all the Maolis very closely re native varieties is variously cstimat- semble each other. They are usu cd between 25 and 50. There may ally cooked, but are much enjoyed be as many as 50 different names' raw by some, and possibly more, but it is well ( Puhi. The distinguishing cha known that the same variety often racter of this variety is the great has several different names. The length of the fruit, which is small Hawniians of Kauai or Oahu may in diameter, compared with most give it a name quite different from others of the group, and is often that by which it is designated on bent or twisted. These peculiar! the island of Hawaii. Many names, ties give it its name, which is the therefore, are synonyms, but there Hawaiian for eel. are, nevertheless, many distinct Malai-ula. (Written also Ma forms. The differences in some laiula and Manaiula.) The upper cases are small, but sufficiently part of the "trunk" has a decided marked and constant to justify the ly reddish color, which extends out different names. more or less on the medribs. The Most of the Hawaiian bananas "ost striking peculiarity, however, may be classed in three general is the very dark red color of the ira groups, These are the Iholena, mature fruit or pistils of the flowers the Maoh and the Popoulu. "'hen they first appear. As they The Iholena group includes: incrcase in size l,lis color Bradually Iholena, I.ele, Haa, Puapuamii, Pses away and they take on the Knpua, Hilahila and lliou. In sha,,e. of Brce characteristic of the this group the fingers arc usually Maoh 8roP. of greatest diameter near the center ' Kaualau. This is the shortest nnri mnro nr Ips nnintcil nt either "tree" of the Maoli group, being end. The color of the immature fruits is a light green, turning to yellow while still hard and unripe. Iholena. This variety gives the name to the group. The plant is of low growth, perhaps 9 feet to the top of the leaves as an average. The petioles are rather stout, light green with pink on the edges; leaves slightly bronze colored on the under surface when new. The bunch is rather small. The fruits are arranged loosely and stand out at right angles from the axis of the bunch. The skin of immature fruits is light green, turning yellow before ripening. The form of the fruit is angular. When thorough ly ripe, beginning to turn black, it is regarded .'is one of the best of native bananas for eating raw. It is also good for cooking. The flesh is pink. I.ele. This plant is of much lar ger size, 18 to 22 feet. Petioles and leaf sheaths at upper part of trunk are of a very light green co lor. The leaf blades, when fresh, show sonic tendency to bronze tints on under surface, but less than Iho lena. The bunch is hung on a very long scape or stem. The fruits, which very closely resemble Ihole na, arc placed upon the bunch in the same way. The flesh is pink as in Iholena. Ilaa. This is characterized by the dwarf habit of the plant, which is even smaller than Iholena. It fruits quickly. Otherwise thehci two varieties closely resemble each which it cives its name. Most of the other members are simply slight modifications of this type. The trunk is light green in color when young, with faint tints of pink, The characteristics of this variety and of the group in general, arc roundness of form in fruit, which is usually turned more or less up- wards, bluutuess at the flower end, I on an average about fourteen feet. It may also be disinguished from its relatives by its dark green foli age resembling in color the leaves of the Chinese variety. It will . stand more wind than the others of I this group, I The bunch is rather small among the Maolis but the variety can hard ly be distinguished by the bunch. , The fruit is of good flavor, but not regarded by some as equal to Malaiula. Hai. This forms the largest 'plant of any of the native bananas and produces the largest bunch of fruit. The individual fruits also are very large. It is not so hardy, however, as some other kinds and neglected often fails to produce vigorous suckers and therefore dies out. ! Koae. Also written Ae Ae or simply Ae. This is probably M. sapientuni var. vittata. Koae is the white striped banana somewhat common in Honolulu but more so in Hiloaud other moist parts of the islands. The leaves are striped with white on petiole and there are blotches of white on the blade. The fruit is also striped lougtitudiiially I with white. It is claimed by some ,tobc of more recent introduction ,thau the other varieties, but is said to be growing uncultivated in places in the forests. The fruit is of fair quality when cooked. 1 Kleele. The "stem," petiole and midrib of leaf are all very dark in fact almost black. The fruit when it first appears is also so dark that at a distance it looks black. The black leaf sheaths, petioles and midribs furnish material used in the manufacture of native hats. Poni. Probably n synonym of Kleele. I.oha. The plant is of tall growth. The leaves resemble I.ele. It is peculiar among all other Ha waiian bananas in that the fingers or individual fruits hang downward toward the ground. The fruit, if not bruised, is very good, but slight bruising even while green destroys its texture. Hiuupaa. This is a black-stem variety resembling Kleele it' not identical with it. The Popoulu group is characteriz ed by short thick fruit set almost at right angles to the stem of the bunch. Here are classed: Popou lu, Kaio, Hua Moa, Moa, Nou and Lahi. Popoulu. The plant is of me dium to low growth, the stem is green with slight tendency to pin kish tints 011 petitoles. The bunch is of medium size, the scape (or stem of bunch) rather slender.- There are eight to ten fingers per hand. They arc short, thick and rounded, and blunt at the end. This is ra ther a common variety, and of good quality when baked. Kaio. This is similar to Popou lu but grows on a somewhat taller 'itrec" and is not so fine in flavor. It is sometimes called a tall grow ing Popoulu. Hua Moo. (Hen's Kgg.) The plant is medium height, the peti ole long and slender. There are rather more leaves in the. rosette than most other varieties have. Once seen it may always be dis tinguished by these characters. The scape is very slender. The fruit is nearly as great in diameter as in length. There are often only two or three fruits per bunch. The fruit has a tendency to era. k open before ripening hence it must be gathered early. It is of very su perior flavor. Moa. This is claimed by some to be distinct from Hua Moa, never producing in one bunch, more than two or three fruits, however, being of enormous size. It is probable, however, that the varieties are not distinct, the differences which have given rise to the two names being due to the immediate effects af soil and cultivation. Nou. A dwarf variety, three or four feet high. It does well in windy places. There are a few varieties that can not well be placed in the above classes. Maia Hua Alua sometimes called Mahoe. The peculiarity of this variety is that in produces two bun ches ol fruit from the stem. Maia Hapai. This is one of the most curious forms in the islands; probably Lubang or eel plaintain of Java. It ripens its fruit within the stem. Oa. An ornamental variety. The leaves are blotched with reddish-brown color. The above article is from data furnished by Iy. A. Andrews cf Hilo, than whom there is no person in the Territory better versed in the nomenclature and characteris tics of native Hawaiian bananas. Ki. Infliimntory ltlit'iiiiintlsiii. Any one who has ever experienc ed the excruciating and almost un bearable pains incident to infl ama tory rheumatism, will be pleased to know that prompt relief may be had by applying Chamberlain's Pain lialm. Mr. D. Snyder, of Rooseville, Ontario, Canada, says: "I have been troubled with infla matory rheumatism for the past two years and unable to sleep at night. I have taken many reme dies but must say Chamberlain's Pain Balm is the best liniment I have ever tried." For sale by Hilo Drug Co. Embroidery Lessons. Classes in embroidery will be formed upon reasonable terms. Classes meet Mondays, Wednesdays and Thursday! . Orders will also be taken for embroidery and artistic needle work, MRS. ELLA M. I.OKHKNSTKIN. BY AUTHORITY. HOARD 01' AGRICULTURE AND l'OUKSTRY, DIVISION 01' ANI MAI, INDUSTRY, TI'.RRITORY Ol' HAWAII. RULE AND REGULATION NO. I. INSPECTION Ol' IMI'ORTKD LIVE STOCK. In order to prevent ttic introduction into this Territory of infectious, con tagious mid communicable diseases among live stock nnd oilier minimis, local managers or agents of Steamship and Navigation lines or the commanding officer of liny ship shall notify the Terrl. tori.il Veterinarian or the locnl Live Stuck Inspector Immediately upon the arrival of any ship, of the presence on board If any, of live domestic nuitnnls, including poultry mid dogq, when same Is intended to be lauded in this Territory ami shall upon arrival of any ship furnish the inspecting officer with a lisl of the number and kind of animals taken on board from any port outside of this Terri tory, the number and kind destined for the Territory, the names of the owners or consignees, nnd a report as to the condition of hcaltli and cases of sickness or death among the animals while on board. If necessary to remove such animals before the arrival of the inspector, they must be confined on the pier in such a manner as to facilitate Inspection, but should in no case be turned loose on the pier. Hogs and sheep shall be confined in temporary pens. Cattle and horses shall be tied on the pier. No animal of any description shall be allowed to leave the pier until the Territorial Veterinarian or local Live Stock Inspector has issued a certificate of health permitting the landing of the animal or animuls in question. In no case shall the removal ol live animals from the ship for inspection or other purposes, constitute a lauding until a certificate of health for such animals has been issued. Until further notice the ports of Hono lulu, Oahu, and Hilo, Hawaii, shall constitute the only ports ol entry for live stock and other animals for this Terri tory. Any violation of this regulation Is a misdemeanor. This regulation shall take effect at once. C. S. HOM.OWAY, Executive Officer, Hoard of Agriculture and forestry. Approved September ir, 1905. G. R. CARTER) 47-3 Governor. HOARD Ol' AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY, DIVISION 01' ANI MAL INDUSTRY, TERRITORY Ol' HAWAII. RUMS AND REGULATION NO. 2. INSPECTION ANI) TKSTING 01' IMPORTED MVE STOCK, l'OR GLANDERS OR TUBERCULOSIS. In order to prevent the further intro duction of glanders and farcy into this Territory it is hereby ordered that: No horse stock, (including mules nnd asses) shall be admitted to the Territory unless accompanied by a certificate of health showing that the animal or ani mals in question have been submitted to the malleiu test and found to be free from glanders. Said test must be made and certificate issued by n competent veterinarian whose name appears upon the list of graduates from n recognized veterinary college anil whose professional standing in satisfactory to this board. The test must be made according to the rules of the Territorial Veterinarian and recorded on blanks furnished by him for this purpose. If such animals shall not have been tested before shipment they shall upon arrival in this Territory be placed in quarantine and held there until malleiu tested under the supervision of the Territorial Veterinarian or the local Live Stock Inspector and at the expense of the owner. Any person contemplating the Impor tation of horse stock to this Teriitory shall notify the Territori.il Veterinarian or the local Live Stock Inspector and obtain from him the necessary blanks and instructions. In order to prevent the further intro duction of tuberculosis in cattle it is here by ordered, that: No cattle above the age of six months shall be admitted to the Territory unless accompanied by u certificate of health showing that the animal or animals have been submitted to the tuberculin test nnd found to be free from tuberculosis. The said test must be under the same condi tion as those governing the importation of hor-e stock and be recorded 011 blanks furnished by the Territorial Veterinarian. If unaccompanied by such certificate the animals shall be tested upon arrival in the sume manner as prescribed for horse stock. If any horse block shall be found by the Territorial Veterinarian or the local Live Stock Inspector, upon arrival in the Territory, to be infected with glanders or any cattle to be infected with tubercu losis, the same shall be Immediately des troyed and carcass disposed of at the ex peuse of the owner, under the supervision of the Territorial Veterinarian or the local Live Stock Inspector. Any violation of this regulatin Is n misdemeanor. C. S. HOM.OWAY, Hxccutlvc Officer, Hoard of Agriculture nnd Forestry. Approved September 11, 1905. G. R. CARTHR, 47.3 GoNernor. BOARD Ol' AGRICULTUE AND l'OUKSTRY, DIVISION 01' ANI MAL, INDUSTUY, TI'.RRITORY Ol' HAWAII. RUM'. AND REGULATION NO. 3. CONCKUNING GLANDERED HORSK STOCK IN Till'. TI'.RRITORY. It having been brought to the notice of this board that n contagious disease known ni glanders nnd farcy prevails among the horse stock in various por tions of this Territory; therefore, In case any animal shows symptoms of glanders, the owner or person having charge of the srtnc, or any person having reason to believe or to suspect that nil nnimnlt tins glanders shall Immediately notify the Territorial Vctcruarlan or the local Live Stock inspector. If the Territorial Veterinrlaii or the local Live Stock Inspector decides that there Is reason to believe an nuimal is suffering from glanders he shall at once isolate the suspected nuimal or animals nnd either submit them to the malleiu test or remove them to (iiarlutiiie, -where they shall be kept un der oWrvation until the nature of the disease can be definitely established. All animals which upon examination by the Territorial Veterinarian or the lo ad Live Stock inspector are found lo ex hibit definite symptoms of glanders shall be destroyed and the carcass disposed of under the supervision of one of the nbove mentioned olncers. 1 Alt other animals which have been ex- posed to the infection by being in the same stall, yard or premises, or which in any way have come in contact with an af fected animal, shall be quarantined for such period as shall be required by the Ter ritorial Veterinarian or the local Live In spector, or submitted to the malleiu test. The premises where affected nnimals have been kept shall be disinfected under the supervision of the Territorial Veter inarian or the local Live Stock Inspector. All expenses in connection with the examination, testing, destroying and dis posing of nlfcctcd nnimals, as well ns quarantine and disinfection, shall be paid by the owner. Any violation of this regulation is a misdemeanor. This regulation shall take effect nt once. C. S. HOLLOWAY, Executive Officer, Hoard of Agriculture and l'orestry. Approvad September n, 1905. G. R. CARTER. 47-3 Governor. BOARD 01' AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY. Office of Territorial Veterinarian. Honolulu, Sept. 12, 1905. All owners of horse stock iu this Terri tory should carefully and regularily ex amine their animals to ascertain if they exhibit any of the symptoms of glanders or farcy as follows: Discharge from the Nose. This condi tion occurs In a number of diseases, as for instance catarrah of the nose and strangles (distemper, epizootic), but iu glanders it is usually quite characteristic. Iu mild cases it is not very abundant but is thick and quite sticky, of a transparent witisli color, souewhnt resembling the white of an egg. This sticky discharge adheres to the margin of the nostrils forming tough brownish scales and crusts. The discharge does not necessa rily sink when dropped iu waler, as is xpularly believed. The most popular characteristic symp toms of glanders is the presence of ulcers iu the nose, usually on on the partition between the nasal chambers. These ul cers are not always plainly in sight, but may be brought into view by holding the the nostrils well open and turning the nose toward the sun. They vary in size from 1-8 to 1-4 inch Iu diameter up to one to two inches, and may become con fluent nnd form large patches, nlways with ragged irregular edges. The ulcers may heal nnd leave depressioued wrinkl ed scars. The amount of discharge from the nose depends upon the extent of the ulcerations; when small the dis charge is scant and when more extensive it becomes more abundant. Frequently the discharge and ulcers occur only on one side, There Is nearly always .1 swell ing of the glands between the branches of the lower jaw, but not to the same ex tent as iu strangles, and they rarely sup purate or break open. The type of glanders known as farcy consists iu n specific iullamatiou of the skin and may occur on any part of the body or limbs. Tile glands become swollen, forming the so-called farcy buds, and often oc curring as a chain of nodules along the enlarged lymph vessels. The noddles break open and discharge 11 yellowish white, sticky pus, forming crusts similar to those seen around the nostrils. The abscesses may heat up and new ones form iu the same vicinity or on more distant parts of the body. The disease may be either chronic or acute in Its course nnd the chronic form may at ntiy time become acute. Mules nnd asses almost invariably de velop the acute form while In horses cither form may be seen. Want of feed and over work frequently causes la tent glanders In the horse lo become acute. The disease U often nccompnnlcd by n a soft dry hacking cough nnd n tendency to sudden swelling of one of the lcg9, es pecially the hind legs. In n large number of cases of glanders the symptoms arc very slight even though the onlmals may have been affected for months or even yenr9 nnd herein lies the great danger of the spread of the disease lo other nnimals or lo man. In the course of n few days the Terri torial Veterinarian will have for distribu tion copies of Bureau of Animal Industry Circular No. 78 entitled "Glanders and 1'arcy" .ind which gives n detailed des cription of the history, nature, symptom, diagnosis and prevention of the disease in question. All requests for this circular should be addressed to DR. VICTOR A. NORGAARD; 47-3 Territorial Veterinarian, Honolulu. Akau's llcstuuraiit. To be opened Saturday, Sop- tombor 16. Opposite I'ish Market. Short Orders a Spcciolly. Orders for Ice Cream nnd Cake attended to promptly and delivered lo any part of City. Telephone No. 17. For Kent. House 011 School Street, recently oc cupied by 1'. Souza, Apply to R. A. LYMAN or II. VICARS Five Points That's right, five there are others, but these arc the important ones for you nnd your eyes: WHEN You frown or squint in looking at au object. Your eves show au intolerance of light. They tire, ache, smart or water. Objects swim or become dim. These nre points that point to the need of glasses. A. N. SANFORD OPTICIAN BOSTON BUILDING, - HONOLULU While the Agents of many Life Insurance Companies arc petitioning their Officers for the ANNUAL DIVIDEND policy, it is n source of great satisfaction to the Policyholders of the Pacific Mutual to know that their Company has been issuing almost uothinu else for years. No petitioning necessary for liberality with the good old Pacific Mutual. The Directors of the Company are by the Coliforuia law made jointly and severally liable for all monies EMBEZZLED or MISAPPROPRIATED by the officers during the term of office of such Director, Quite n pro vision from the SECURITY STANDPOINT, considering what has recently occurred. The best policies arc issued by the best Company 011 Earth for policyholders. THE PACIFIC MUTUAL LIFE INS. GO. OF CALA. CLINTON J. HUTCHINS, Conoral Agent, 02O Fort Stroot. H. E. PICKER, Travollng Roprosontativo. PAY FOR THE BEST IT'S CHEAPEST AND THAT'S THE CLASS 01' WORK EXECUTED BY CAME ROM THE PLUMBER FRONT ST., Or. SPRECKEL'S BLOCK Subscribe for the Tkmiunk Island sub scriptlou 3.50, f9 j "K '