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ft ' if-.- --.it-'.' . ' 1 PROGRESS. The Life oflhe Land is Esiabliskcc. in Righteousness. HONOLULU, OCT. 13, 1S93. ANNEXATION OR Won -Annexation IDJBB'saLTJSD. 4000 PEOPLE -LISTEN TO A - l'icfonous!&gimetgaiiist STANFORD TJNIVSBSITJ BOYS Give California's Verdict The following paper is ono of tlii-eo which contain a ebneensus of the argument usod in n dobato between the students' of tho Uni--versity of California and those of Leland Stanford University on tho subject of annexation of Hawaii to the United States, the Stanford students iaking tho aiegative. The debate was presided over by two Republicans, Judge IMorrownnd Judge Black, and a single Democrat Judgo Knight. At tho closo, tho judges gavo an unanimous docision in favor of tho negative. This Grst paper is ly Bob t L.1 G ruwoll : Mr. Chairman : My worthy opponent has at tempted to prove that the Hawa iian Islands are worthy of an nexation. It seems that tho logical way to dobato this ques tion would be to first prove that tho United States has a right to annex those Islands, aud then to prove that they are worthy of -annexation. f the fields of Hawaii woro as feitilo as tho valley of the Nile; it the Islands themselves Were a gold mine of inestimable value, if1 annexation bo an unjust act tho United States should posi tively refuse to add tho Hawaiian Islands to her territory. Let us then consider first tho justice of iue question. I bold hero in my hand a part of -the measacro of "President Harrison to tho United StaW Senate, transmitting information on the Hawaiian question to gether with the. Minister Stevens' confidential letters. When this dponiatat was at first "sent to the Senate, that body was enthusi astic for annexation. We kisow that iimiaedwtely turned a cokl shoulder to the ire-sty. fLet us road from Mr. Stevens confidential letters to the United States Government and see if we cannot find therein the causes which jitobktily TKOugiit, abMt' this sudden, change of seati-nt ; 11 Br. 1 hope to prove Iroa I VICTORY b&r. Stevens despatch number 74 that, previous to the revo lution, the Minister in conjuction tntb American citizens, was working up conspiracy to over throw the Hawaiian Islands and annex them to tho United States. "Let "us read" from this con fidentiaHetter, and see whether or not a conspiracy actually existed. Minister Stevens after speaking of the loss to the Amer icans in the Islands on account of the McKinley Bill and its ex cessive taxation says "wise and bold action of the United States will restore tho property owners from great loss, give the Islands a Government that will put an end to a useless expenditure of a largo portion of the revenues." Mr. Stevens simply- proposes to overthrow the Government and '"'rescue the property owners." He then continues and proposes "bold and vigorous measures for annexation." A littlo farther along in this letter ho" says, "having for many years extended a helping hand to the Islands aud encouraging the American residents wo cannot refuse now from hiding " them. with vigorous measures. "Wo cannot refrain from aid ing tho American residents in the. Islands, which shows that the "Americans ' are ' Intending to do something and he proposes to aid them with "vigoroos mea sures." What to do? to "use wise and hold action," to over throw tho Government. Then what? "to use bold and vigorous measures for annexation." Mr. Stevens then brings a climax by expressmg'the opinion that "the goldn hour is near at hand.'1 Remember ' that this letter was written about fifty days before ho aided the' American residents with "vigorous measures." In this despatch Mr. Stevens -publishes" to; the whble world that he is chief among tho conspira tors, and in plain languago shows his desire to overthrow tho Ha waiian Government- and rescue tho property owners. Can tho United States in consistency with past principles annex these islands until sho has made herself right before the world by undo ing everything that this Minister has doue? Can the United States afford to have the annexation of tho Hawaiian Islands go down into history as having been pro vitfusly jwdtked up "by the United States Minister and American citizens? Secoxd. I oppose the annexa tion of the Hawaiian Islands under the present conditions, because, it is -nothing less than & military conquest Tho des patch from which I read a few moments ago, was sent from Hawaii" about fifty davs "before the revolution. In it, Mr. Stevens asks for "wise and bold action" to overthrow the monarchy and rescue tho property owners. Let ns. now1 read the despatches sent-W- Mr. Stevens - iust after the revelation, ami see what pari he actually took in overthrowing tho monarchy and rescuing tho property owners- It is cer tainly Acknowledged thai if the United States through her Minister - and aaval force had anything to do -with the overthrew of the Qneea and the esfalblishm'eaC of tke 2?rovtsKaI Govern at, thaa the Hasted States ksne right to annex titoea islands until what she has done, has again bee aadoae. Li m see then who! E'er or naCweBad anything to do with the overthrow of the Hawaiian government Oa the 14th of last Janaary, according to Mr. Stevens papers, "the city (of Honolulu) was star tled by the information that Her 'Majestf'Queen' IHliudkalahi had announced'hef jntention to arbi trarily promulgate a new constit ution, and that three of the newly appointed Cabinet ministers had, or were about to resign in conse quence thereof. In response to the call from the Committee of Public Safety, a mass meetin was held on the 16th." We see by this that it took two long day to stir the people up to having 1 mass meeting, and when it met 1 was attended by one thousand three hundred out of nearly one hundred thousand people. Mr. Stevens called this in his despatch "a remarkable uprising." On the same dav, long before tho mass meeting, the Queen and her Ministers sent out the following proclamation: "HerMajesty's Ministers desire to express their appreciation for the quiet and order whicn has prevailed in this community sinco the events of Saturdav. and are authorized to say that the posi tion taken by Her Majesty in regard to the promulgation of a nevr constitution was under stress of her native subjects. Authority is given for the assurance that any changes desired in the fund amental law of tho land will be sought only bv methods provided in tho Constitution itself. Her Majesty's Ministers request all citizens to accept tho assurance of Her Majesty in the samo spirit in which it is given." This proclamation is not only signed-by tho Queen, but also by the Queen's Ministers, whom Mr. "Stevons tolls us "are favor able to American intorests.'r This proclamation was sent out in the morning and scattered throughout the city, and yet in the. face of it Mr. Stevens sends the following letter to Captain Wiltz: Sir: "In view of the" existing critical circumstmces in Hono lulu, iucluding an inadequate legal force, I reqnestyou to land marines and sailors from tho ship under your command for tho protection of tho United States Legatiou and the United States Consulate, and to secure the safety of American life and pio perty." Understand now that was two days before that Queen tried to promulgate new constitution, and up it tho the to the time Mr. Stevens sent thislet ter thore had not been a riotnor oven a-jife lost The Ministers whom Mr. Stevens says were "favorable to American interests" had six or -seven hours before1 issued a proclamation and scattered it all over tho ciy conjrratulatfnK tho-people on the peace' tSat had prevailed in" the city. In this proclamation the Queen withdrew her new Con stitution, the very thing which my opponent claims was the cause of the revolution. The government was beiag carried on by the Queen and her Mini stry (" fSvoraole to American in terests.") The Wtttes are set tled down, 'to their peecefal Hfe, and as has .already heea safd, "p to this time no riot has ocoenvd nor not even a hfe has been ;et And yet Mr. Siereas fa' the face of these faete sends that letter 1o Cap&in Wiltz in which he says: "In view of the critical cir cumstances I request you to land marines and sailors." Where were these 'critical circumstances?" 2ot in the gov ernment, or among tho natives. Where then did they exist? Why, over hero among the foreign sugar conspirators. Indeed it was a "critical circumstance." There was the little flock of foreigners trying to overthrow the constitu tional government so ' that they could offer the Islands to the United States for annexation, and at the same time they did not have a" soldier in arms. Here then were the foreign conspira tors without an armed soldier trying to overthrow tho Hawaiian Government, which had five hundred men in arms. It was a "critical circumstance," wasn't it? The Queen could have de stroyed the conspiracy in no tinjo, but Mr. Stevens landed the United States troops and held the Queen and the army at bay. until this couspiracy which was organizing against tho govern ment could organize an army to overthrow the government. And even when Blount went over thoro, the Provisional Government- which was offering itself to the United States was still under tho protection of Mr. Stevens and the army and with reluctance, did President Dole seo the U. S. marines march out of tho city. Wo seo then, that Mr. Stevens landed a force of United Stites -marines, marched" them into tho capital city of the islands, and the Queeni seeing that sho could not resist the United States for ces, quietly laid down her firms and surrendered to whom? To the Provisional Government? No, the Provisional Government could not at that time have over powered a corporals guard. She surrendered to the United States, and 'declared in tho following" words: "I, Liliuokalam, by the grace of God, and under the Constitu tion of the Hawaiian Kingdom Queen, do hereby solemnly pro test agaianst any and all acts done against myself and the Con stitutional government of tho Hawaiian Kingdom hy certiin persons claiming to have estab lished a Provisional Government of and for this Kingdom; (hat I yield to Uie mjKrior force oftiie United Stales of America, whose Minister Plenipotentiary, his Excellency JohiTL-T'Stovens, has caused United Stites troops to be landed at Honolulu and declared that ho would support" tho said Provisional Government" Let U3 bring this homo to America. Suppose that at the time the people of the South were woTkingup a cpn5piracy to divide the Union, that a "large Union army was in readiness to squelch the conspiracy, 'Suppose that at this time Eaglaml -with u much larger and stronger army had lauded and marched between the forces of the- -S'ortk and the limifed resources of the Sooth, and had held the anav of lihe Xorth'ai bay until the people of the Soath had so organized their army that they hd been a1ie to overthrow the United States Geviraeat "iZsjtland would fiave been jasi as guilty ami jast as rife-possible as if she had taken, oar capital by skri. For Minister Stevens to landau amy and protect that conspiracy nntiUit was able to overthrow the Hawaiian Government was as flagrant an outrage of all the do ties of our Government to another as was over committed by a civil ized nation. Can the United Stites annex these Islands until she has made herself right before the world? Until she has undone everything thai thisMinister'has done? Another reason why I would oppose annexation under Ihb present circumstances is, because the United States hs never received the 'sanction - of the voters of those Islands, aml'ltia. a fact known to all the world that a sweeping majority of the voters of thoso Islands are strong ly opposed to annexation. Lot a few facts be submitted to prove this statement About tho time that Mr. Stevens was asking tho United States Government to overthrow the monarchy and to use "wise and bold action" to overthrow tho monarchy, that is. about fifty days boforeho revolution, the " secret drifted to the Pacific Coast that the bankrupt sugar owners were by somo hook or crook going to offer tho Islands to "the United States for annex ation. So the San Francisco Examiner sent T. T. Williams down to the Islands to find out whether or not tho pcopla want ed to annex. As "Mr. Williams says he found tho natives strong ly opposed to annexation. The natives represent almost nine thousand out of fifteen thousand voters. In investigating this question Mr. Williams sent out a list of questions to both houses of tho Legislature, and ono of the questions was: "How would your people regard annexation?" The answer of theso questions appear in this Examiner (Novom bor 21st) a statement of each member above his own signature. Each member expresses the voice of tho people whom ho represents and when wo have considered each letter, wo have tho most authen tic poll of the Hawaiian voters on annexation In oxistehce today. Every ono of the inembors of the lower house who speak defi nitely on the matter at all state positively that tho people whom ho represents are against annexation. The rodson given is not that they dislike the United States, but that they love their own co'nntrv and desire to remain independent In this samo Examiner apQitrn the letters from the members of tho upper house. I3ear in mind that to be able to vote for a member of tho upper house- one must own three thousand dollar worth of property or earn six hundred dollars a year. So it transpires that the members of the upper house are elected by about twenty eight hundred foreigners. Tot among the whole Hat elected by the foreign vots we cannot find ono who says, when speaking tlefiuiiely on the matter, that tho natives want to annex to the baited States. Two of the gentlemen who were Couiissiouers fro the Provis ional Government fd ask the United States' fo annex the Hawaiian Inlands acknowledge that the natives do not "want to annex. Mr.Thars4on$ays iu plais terms: "I think-1 that mot native iiaiauiftAS mkr prt; eot- ditions wo-ald oppose annex ation."