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BUNDAt BULLETIN, HONOLULU, T. It., St'NDAV, JCNT? 1, 1902,
Cultivation of Silkworms in the Household
. k I .
Prospects nre strong that the
United HtntOB will soon produce Us
own silk. A bill Is now before Con
gress for the encouragement of silk
cultiV In this country, and Senators
and Members of Congress nre Interest
ing themselves In the subject. Hooker
T. Washington thinks that silk culturo
can lie tnrrlod on by tho poor colored
people In tho South. Silk culture as
sociations aro bc'ng formed In South
Carolina and Georgia. A company 1 as
been started In Now York, backed by
ample capital to Btart establishments
for reeling silk In portions of the
South, so that local supplies of cocoons
can bo depended upon.
A Paying Industry.
Silk culturo was once a palng In
dustry in this country, on a small
scale, but continued competition with
the cheap labor of foreign countries
was found to be 1 npracticablc. As lr-to
ns the passaga of the McRlnloy tariff
bill efforts'wero mailo to secure an Im
port duty on rnw silk. Opposition by
the manufacturers of silk goods, how
ever, defeated these efforts. But it
seems now to those who aro pushing
the matter that tho tlmo has com
when silk culture can be taken up to
auiantnge In many portions of th
country by poor families and non-pro
duclng members of comparatively well
to do families. With a sure product,
and with reeling establishments cnco
started, tho product cannot fall ."
continue to Increase.
Silk Culturo Is Easy.
Silk culture Is easy, requires caro,
but may be carried on by unskilled la
bor, by tho vomen and children of the
household. That Is the way It Is dona
In France und Italj and thnt Is the
way It Is largely done in Asia Minor,
China and Japan.
It has often been said that silk cul
ture in tnls country docs not pav
where there are so" many other ave
nues which aro moro lucrative. This
may be true; nevertheless, there are
thousands of families In tnls country,
especially In the South, that could
gladly add a few extra dollars to thtlr
annual incomo by undertaking this
easy and light employment for a lew
months each year. This work can ha
performed by tho aged, the young and
moro especially by the women of the
family. Tho raising of a limited quan
tity of cocoons cacn year need inter
fere but little with household duties.
The question arises, Why cannot this
Industry bo cnrrlcd on as well in this
as In other countries?
It Is to bo hoped that the facts here
in given lelating to this Interesting
and Industrious creature will aid tho
beginner who wlsncs to engage In tho
production of silk with but a small nut
lay of tlmo and capital.
Nature of the Silk Worm.
The silkworm proper or the Chinese,
species trom which the ordinary com
mercial silk Is produced, is the lava ut
a medium sized moth, which Ceoila
upon the leaf of the mulberry tree, rnd
Is commonly tailed tho mulberry silk
worm. Early In the spring, at about tin
tlmo the mulberry leaves begin to
come forth, the eggs will hatch afiot
having been exposed to a warm tern
peraturo for five or six days.
During the Larval Stage.
United States May Produce Its Own Silk in the Near Future Bill
Before Congress for the Encouragement of the Venture
Company Formed In New York to Open Establishments
for Reeling in the South, So that Local Supplies of
Cocoons May Be Depended Upon.
During the larval Btagc, which lams
trom thirty to forty das, tho larva
spends most of Its time in feeding, and
growing rapidly, attains a length ot '
nbout three Inches. The larval stage'
Is divided Into five different ages, scp-'
orated by what are called molts, at
which tlmo the worm casts Its outer
coerlng, or skin. The rapid Increase I
In size of the Insect renders the origi
nal skin too small to allow for Its
growth, and hence four molts occur
during this stage. ,
When the fullgrown worm Is ready
to spin u pit crawls 'over the leaves, '
shrinks somewhat in size, and chnnges'
to a clear, translucent, yellow color.
Finding some suitable place to climb
upon to spin, It commences to threw
out threads of silk, which it forms It.lo
a cocoon, which Is completed In about
In seven days the larva changes tn
a pupa, which Is brown, oval nnd con
siderably smaller than tho fullgrown
larva. In from two to throe weeks l.io
pupa skin splits, and tho moth, of a'
rream-whlte color, secretes n liquid
which moistens the end of the rocoon
nnd dissolves the l.ard, gummy lining.
The moth then, with crimped and
damp wings, emerges. Soon after (ha
lemale begins lalng her eggs.
Wintering and Hatching Eggs.
Silkworms should by all means he
kept nt an extremely low tempera
tuie, not too moist nor too dry. A
noithcaBlcrn, cxposod, cool, dry cellar
Is a suitable place to winter eggs.
At Intervals they should bo Inspect
ed, nnd where mold Is found It should
be brushed off and removed to n more
dry location; they should likewise bo
protected from rats, and predaceous '
Insects. They should never bo allow
ed to hatch out until mulberry leaves
begin to unfold, and about tho time ,
mulberry begins to como forth tho
eggs should be brought from their v in-'
ter quarters Into a well-aired room, I
with an average temperature of about1
70 degrees Fahrenheit. i
If the eggs have been deposited on
n i!ntli amorm,! tlin nlnltt m-n. ,Vii Imt.
torn of the tray. If, however, they,
I have been wintered In tho lootfo cm
dltlon, they must be spread out thinly
over sheets of pap r or cloth. The heat
of the room should be Increased about
two degrees ent h day, and they sbot.ld
begin to hntch out about the fifth or
sixth day Do not oxposo the eggs to
the sun's rn)s. and when the hatching
time approach-, the atmosphere must
be kept moist by sprinkling the floor.
In order to ennblo the worms tn cut
through the eggshell moro easily
Cultivation of the Silkworm.
The silkworms snotild bo given the
closest attention during the larial
stage, which jatlB trom thirty to tort)
The rearing room must have n north
eastern exposure and ho easily icntl
Inted. The olr should bo pure and
fresh, nnd the room should bo clean
ind fun from dust. Several times
during thi larval btnge burn fresh llu
calyptus lenvis to rid flic atmosphere
of mlciotie permt Tno Htnofto will not
injure the worms no matter how dense
whereas tooacco smoke Is extremely
Injurious to tin. worms Open the win
dows to allow tin smoke to escape.
.Maintain an average temperature ul
72 degrees Fnhrtiitielt until several
days previous to the beginning of thu
spinning of the cocoon When the l.ir
vne begin to spin tin- icniperntiiio
should be allowed to rise tn 80 dogiecs
Fahrenheit it", the silk will flow moio
easily nt thnt teinpernture. Hats and
mile should bo guntded against, a
thej nre tin- silkworms worst cnoni).
and und2r no Ircmnstnncoi must tho
pggs or worms he exposed to the sun 1
rays or draughts ot nil
As soon as the buds of the mnlbeny
tiee begin to unfold, the egg should
he taken from their winter quarters
and brnugTit Into the rearing room,
'There the) should he spread out thinly
oil clean m.inll.i or white paper, or.
wln-n laid on doth, plate the doth on
the trn. When the first worms ap-
jpenr. which stiould be about the flttu
da), iindT fnwjrable conditions, place
lover them mosquito netting upon
Willi ti a fen hints (if flnel) (hopped
leaves Itnvp been scattered.
I The ball) worms soon heioine aware
if the presence of their food anil pass
I upward through the nettinis Wheu
the buds or leaves are devoured place
another sheet of netting upon which
new food has been spread, over the
old one. The worms will leave the
'old food, and ascend through the
meshes tn the fresh leaves placet
shim1. When this cncuis reuioie th
old ndtlng with tin- remains upon it
Only by cperlcnto can one learn tin
amount of food that should be giiei
the worms, filling tun in urn fond li
the first nge ler) often lesulls In the
loss of a great mini) ut tne worms in
the Intti-i ln nut under an dreutii
stances feed with stall- damp or moist
leaves Fur the eaily illuming meal
pick tile leases tin- (-Veiling before and
pinte the brunches 111 water, lly do
lug this the) will be flesh tin the (lift
meal the follow lug mnrniiu:
During Latter Stages.
DiiHni: the luiier stages when the
win ins hale tntrciistil In size lame net
tllig of qliaiter Inches meshes woien
oier n light frame will In convenient
lui the wnrins tn rise thlnilgh Split
eiun sin h ns ts used fur railing chairs
Muni -nilili n "hang-- in t. nip latm-
st i Inlli during tin lat -tag' If th,
limil lias been smipll'-d In aliiinilar,
nnd the tempi ratlin Kip' at tin piop
i-r point with giMid ventilation tin
Inline should begin to spin tin- in
minis nbiiut thirty three day
Im tin nrxi itar supplv uf eggs
-nvi a hundred or mon ul tin best
i in i on- rm breeding Those iiiii br
-trimir upon a strong sewing thnad
tliiiuigh tin mil of the i or ooli great
are heliig taken not to pierce the en
after i lost il pupa with the needle The)
Ihen enn he hung upon a pinto fn
J f loin ints nnd mice to await the emer
is the best for this purimse The lat
tice tray should be used during thu
last stage. The netting and lattlio
tray should be used each time fresh
food Is glien. ns It obviates the neces
sity of handling the worms, and bu
sbies Insures their being kept thur
As the Itfth or sixth day approaches,
signs of the first shedding of the skill
lll appeal, the worms hold then
heads up, art- motionless and appear
u be asleep, and this Indicates that
wiling will cease for at least forty
Ight hums No food shoulil be allow
'd these until the majority haix
hanged, as this serves tn Keep tho
ninny together It Is essential to
,eep each roluii) together and to
mie the worms molt at the same tlmo.
is It will save considerable tlmo.
lountlful Supply of Food-
As soon as the majorlt) have cast
iielr skins a bountiful supply ut food
hiuild b" given them, fur they will be
it) hungr) after two ila)s fast, the
.nnils should be nllowed more space
s they itinw, and It will bet nine neces
ui") to divide tin- colon), which Is ca
1) done nt an) meal by removing tho
net whin abntit half of the worms
'tuve asteiiili'd thiuiiRli It. and uqilA
mix It b) another one
The fuiiii'i or last molt Is more In
Inn Ions. unit. Inasmuch ns II Is the II mil
molt. It is best tn give the mine nil
lain ed worms a light feed when the)
have uudergniie the change .
The temperature thiuugliuiit the
glutting peilnd shuilld he kept at about
To nr 72 ib-giees Fahrenheit At all
times the larvne should be prutetted
Carnegie Amassing Big Library
Longest and Most Costly
Tunnel In All the World,
Tho railway tunnel under the
Slinplun I'nss between Switzerland nnd
Italy Is tho biggest thing of Its kind
yet attempted. A quarter of a cen
tury ago such n project would havo
been qulto Inicaslblo. It differs from
the Mount Cents, Mount St. Gothaid
and Arlberg tunnels not only In being
longer, but also in being a continuous
rock tunnel, unconnected with tho
air by a slnglo vertical shaft.
Its length will bo 19,731 meters
moro than twelve miles asagalnst 15,
000 meters for tho fioiiiard, 12,800 for
the Cenls and JO.SuO for the Arlberg.
On the other hand. It will be only 087
meters less than T-tOo feet abovo
sea level, whereas the altitudes of the
others rango from 3800 to 1600 feet.
Tho low elevation avoids tho steep
grades of tho other lines and secures
for the approaches comparative Immu
nity from snow blockades and avalanches.
tunnel, where the tempernture was (-n
ly (S tlrgreos. tl.e men could wink uuli
five boms a da) nnd had eiery thud
In the Slmplou workings the tem
prr.it mo lg loweied it ml the all, vitia
ted by human exhalations and tin
smoke of explosives, la renewed by
means of ventilating pumps ot 500
lioitepovver, which furnish IICUO cubic
feet of fiesh nlr per second. The tun
nel ts being worked from both ends at
once. On June 30 the Italian end hnd
attained a length of 3000, the Swiss
tOOO meters. The woik is thercfo
nearly half done. It was begun August
1, 1898. The date fixed far its comple
tion Is May 1, 1901. Tho cost of ac
tual construction Is limited to (14,000,
000. but auxiliary and unforeseen ex
penses will probably bring the 'otal
cost up to J16.000.000. Tho Mount Ce
nts tunnel cost. In proportion to length.
All llttei should b- removed often genre of the moth wlilrh should np
especially diseased or feeble worms, pear In about two or three weeks after
which should he destro)ed. During the rocoon has been formed,
the last age the quantity of leaves tbeKIIIIng the Pupa.
worms devour Is something enormous, I Define tln meoon is pierced b) the
nnd It will keep the person In charge emergence of the moth, which would
extieiuely busy furnishing them with Injure It for reeling, the pupa Is sub
fond. ' Jectetl In the "stifling or (hoklng'
The rearing room should nlvvn)S process In the warm Southern State
have n thermometer this may lie dune by exposing the (o-
The necessary requisites for sue- conns tn the sun. from 9 o'clock until
eessful cultivation of the silkworms t In the nfternoon. for three days. The
are: 'dry heat method consists of placing
1. The norms of each colony, as far the cocoons In clean pans tn nn oven
as possible, be kept uniform In sire, and leaving them for from two to tw en
ho their molting will nccur at the same ty-fnur hours with a temperature of
time. i nlKiut 200 degrees Fahrenheit. A hum
2. Abiimlnnce uf food should be sup mlng noise Is discerned so long as
piled, extept during the moTtlng pe life remains, at Its cessation the llfo
rloils. i of the pupa Is extinct.
:! The worms should have plenty of Egg-Laying,
loiiin. to prevent crowding each other The room In which moths are pro
I. The air should be fresh, and as diiced should be darkened, onl) suffl
fin as possible uf n uniform tempera-1 dent light being admitted to enable
tore. .one to distinguish objects. In from
.1. The tra)s netting, lattlio, etc.. eleven to eighteen dtt)8 from the time
should be kept thuinughly clean. the worm commenced to spin the
ii. Avoid feeding the worms with moths begin to emerge from the co
stale, damp or wet leaves. coons laid nslilc for breeding purposes
Preparation for Spinning. The) Issue usually In the enrly morn-
At the end of eight or ten days uf Ing. from 6 tn 8 oVlock. The sexes
vuineloiis feeding alter the final mult 'should lie separated at once, and kept
ilie win ins will begin tn ciawi over' apart for a brief period, thr- moths be
the leaves without eating tliem. theli Ing handled by the wings onl).
inlnr changes to n clear, transitu ent The mule Is more slender nnd will
)elluw. the) In me restless nnd renr be observed fluttering his wings nnd
theli heads as If In searrli of some moving nbout nctlvdy. whereas tho
thing tn tlltnli upon, and begin to leinnle Is heavy, and sin- remnlns very
throw out silk Wln-ii these signs are quid Several hours after emeiglng
until eil everything shoulil be prepaied take them gentl) and place them b)
at once fin them tu spin their rot-onus pairs a male and n female together
In urder that the) tn.i.v not lose their tin n pli ol iinbleatbed cottnn or
sticngth and silk In seeking fur the cheesecloth about a jaril square
support they require (lather torfeth The eggs adhere to whatever thn
er bum lies of small twigs, tn nn) moth deposits them on b) n iinturnl
clean, well dried brush free fiuin gum nnd being fastened, the worms
leaves, and make with these small when haldiing ent their wny out bet
arches on the shelves near the wnims. tei Alter the deposition of the t ggs
The arches should be (united so ns tu the moth lives bTit a few ilnvs
present a bushy appearance, without be- Food Plants.
Ing tno thick nor too thin. They The natural food plant for the silk
should he about une font apart, mid worm Is the mulberry. The mulberry
tin- niimhei should depend upon the Is easy tn propagate from cuttings or
number of worms I from seeds. The endings should In
Gathering the Cocoons. started In rows three or four Inches
l the end of eight davs after the npart. In ground cultivated by deep
commencement nt the cntoons they plowing and harrow lug. They should
may be taken from tin- ladders or be about six indies long and should
arches and the "tloss" removed. The lie cut above n bud In every case
cocoons or pods aru graded c ordlng. They should bo almost entirely burled,
tu color firmness and texture. The Th pruning may lie done In February
soft and Imperfect nues an- separated or March eiery )cai, or fiery oth-r
from the strung and firm ones and )er. From tho seeds only enn spe
sold ns second quality. 'rles he reproduced.
St Louis Fair Ground Sold
For Carnegie Library Site
Whili Midi i iv Cnrnigio Is Uvnt..KUi niu n t on ul hi in llluns t nth. lest w.
upon tin vfliicus iininlnpalltles of vni rl a and iriighnid the mllllriii.ilie phi Iniitliiup'st Is not neglecting In gratify
Tils own pandiui lui hooks. At the im uf iihuu: ;-,n. In- is aiii.nsing a t ol lei iluu or bunks at Skllm Castle that
will artiiirt the envy ol uver) hlblonunlat who Is foituu.ite eiiougii to get n glimpse uf them There will he
MI00 volum-w In all and they have bce.i ihnen strirtly rur theli worth, an I not toi theli looks.
Just .halt ns much again.
At somo points the tunnel will bo Tho workmen employed number
more thaw a mile below tho surface of 3o00. Tbo method of construction is
tho mountain. This fact at once pug-1 original and Ingenious. Instend of a
geBts one of the difficulties, of the doublo track tunnel, as at Mount Co
work. The temperature of borings In nls and Mount St. Qothard, there will
level countries rises a degreo for each 'bo two single track tunnels about six-fifty-five
feet of descent. In mountain ty fec't apart. These aro being pushed
borings the Increase Is less rapid, butlforwnrd simultaneously, bill only ouo
the most favorable estimates predict
a temperature of 104 degrees Fahren
heit for the deepest part of Iiie tun
nel. In the central part of tho Gothard
of them Is being enlarged to Its ulti
mate dimensions, lined and finished,1
Tlib other serves for the present as a
working tunnel, for ventilation, drain
age and the removal ot wreck. '
Porter Furniture Co,
First-class FURNITURE of all descrip
tions. Upholstering Department un
equalled in the City. Now located in the
Port Htrcet, opp. Love Building.
Liberty of Poet
Once uikii a tliin. thrro was a mint
Ing and toulututu of somo ut tin
greatest nnd most interesting ribjert
"We own nitnii to tho pod." snld
the little Slur "btcutiso ho has given
us permission to do many of thu
things that we d( light in. It he hud
not given permission, what would we
tlo? To me ho wild, 'Tvvlnklo, twinkle,
little star' mid I have been twinkling
ever since "
"That's rlylit," answered the Sun
"nnd think how glad I am and how
thankful the tnith diould he that
Shake sp" nre talri. 'Arise, fair sun'."
'Hut whtio would I be, uud what
! would old Earth do, asked the Spring,
i "if Thomson had not halil, 'Come, gen
) "And think," tald tho Ocean, "how
quilt and flat 1 would bo if Dyron had
1 not wiitten, '(toll on, thou dark and
deep blue ocean, roll'."
I "And," chimed In tho Unfile, "when
Tennyson said, 1)low, bugle, blow,
whnt a grand chanio ho gave to my
' "Talking clout blowing,' snld tho
Winter Wind, "what nn opportunity
Shnkespiaro gave rno when ho enter
ed tne order, 'Wow, blow, thou winter
i wind' "
Moral Nntuio owes much of her
liberty to tin pod
Ping Pong Played
Down in Maine
Jim iluvlns lives In Dlxmnnt, he
Hiln'.ss In- know a heap.
You'll often find him prowling while
his nelghbiirs are asleep.
He's uwful luteresteil in, t-wr) thiiig
An' when the) started Plug putig. .Jim
he started tew.
Depew's Joke and
Mark Twain's Drivel
t'haiiiicny M Depew the rteiuitur
I nun New York, and Samuel I.. Clem
ens, the humorist, were crossing the
ocean uu tin- same steamer. One even
lug, after dlnnei. It was suggested
that, following (lie time honuicd cus
tom In the t'nltcil Stales, the dlueis
make speedies, Mr. Clemens made u
th.irui tetlstlc address, such ns might
have been expetted from line whose
writings are so well known under the
mini de plume uf Mail; iwalu
"It was understood," said Senator
SI Louis. Mil) Id The St Louis
Kvposlilon property has been nTd nt
notion fni j:.sti ouo I, j l. () Stuuurd.l
tuMtec fur the lnuulhulili rs nnd wns
bnllght I i.i Flederiek Lehllinilll. It p j
ifstutliig tin- Si Louis t'nlon Trust
Ciiinpaii) trustee fur the l'uhlli LI
The pinpcrty snld lllduiles the '.
position lliilhllng. nil Its rights and
the property In It. and also the piop
iTty nt the noi tin ast corner ef Thir
teenth and Ijitust sheets, in which
are the engines iisi-d in connection
ullli the Imposition.
The ground on which thn engine
T rw"l?- "?-"2iX-iS-S-?wf
lion i htaiuln us also tilt- muihtinii
Is Indud'd The sale was made in sat
lr n bonded indebtedness uf $iiiiiiih
and a Hunting debt ol nbout as mm li
Ml Slniiaid. after reading tin nn
Iluiiiiceineiit of sale lllluei the trust
deed. Hilled for bids There wns onl)
one. After repented tails fur a higher
figure Mr. Stanard knocked the pro
ert) down to Ml. Lehniiinn. The Int
ter. In compliance with the terms of
tin- sale, handed Mr. Stanard u check
for 123.000. I. II. Orr. attorney for thu
St Louis Union Trust Company, at
tended the sale.
season Mazzantlnl tool; part in n.
fights nnd killed 1G8 bulls. Ilevertn
That a good bull fighter can make n took pnrt In "1 nnd killed lfiU, and
fin time in a single season recent sta-, (luerrlta took part In 76 nnd killed
tlstles'show' 1 147 As a reward Mazzantlnl obtained
Here Is what Mazzantlnl, Hoierto . .lOB.OODf.. Heierte 2"(!.000 and fJucrrl
nnd (luerrlta have accomplished In one tn STifl.QiiO
You'd aiighter see him ling-pong
that new-fungled st)e. J
It makes the )oung folk? snicker, .mil
It makes our Deacon smile; I
linen .urn ne gits ec.neu an rusnes !),.,,, . ,ai( pn to speak.
rite ulnng. "(liut Mr. Clemens and I shoulil wilte
He often gits things muddled, an' he 1)l( (lr ,,.,.(.).,, fr t,H uttaslun n
ta't tell Pint from Pong. advuiiu- and then exchange manu
l scripts. We have done so, hut I le
His hair Is long an' hush), an' he's grH, , Ka). thnt hllu. rorgottcn Mr
wa) off in Mile; Clemens' speedi."
When he tramps nroun' In llangor he T,1(. S(.nil,nr ,j.n tfl0iv 8 s,.at. s
makes the )oung folks smile, iuudltors roared In sonn-clatlon of the
PORTER FURNITURE CO., LTD,
, l?xpcrlUM;i- Indicates that accidents
nre fnr more llablo to occur to the
right arm nnd ltg than to the left. Fur
ther evident i of tills fact Is supplied
by the makers ot artificial limbs; the)'
'dispose of many moie nppendages to
But Jim don't care a tinker, he hlpers
rite along, I
He's so mighty Interested In that new
game Ping-pong. I
When Jim gits down tew business, his
head Is prltt) cfcar, I
He never gits it muddled with whisky,
gin, or beer,
He wants us all tew understand that
ho Jus' knows It alt,
Of ull the qualities be lacks, ho never
lacks for gall.
When Jim Marts In tew Ping pong
you'll find all uf us there,
Wo make all such occasions n fnmilv
Prom the hliihvvn)H un' the bwa)s
we'll bundle rlto along.
The next da) an Rngllshman met
Mr. Clemens on deck.
"I say," he remarked. "I have nl
navs litnril that Senator Depew was
rcmurl nbl) clever, but what wretched
diivtl of his thnt was which you were
obliged to recite Uht night!"
t - -
that new gnme Plng-puiig.
You'd oughtei see him Ping pong In
that nev.-fiingled ht) le.
It makes the young folks giggle, .in' It
makes our Deacon smile,
When Jim he gits excited an' rushes
He allei-b gits things muddled, an' lm
can't tell Ping from Pong
A M T
Hampden Me April 20 ,
Suhwrllwm to Hie HI I.I.I 1 IN
art tYingrrwiiritrtletmytl-i) in
lherrk ! imt only rrceuliiK
jll th? Utrht IikjI and (nrtifcti
nrMWwIUSit liutalMMii --nut
IiijC (he lit oJMf it i rain la
keep n torn t w itli All the I rati
Ins Hiuinrsi Monr in the
Territory ihtnuch the ailtcrtli
injj- columns Tn rprite lliii
re an) r our yxt i tut.
wriin (nr (tie
I IN1M. Itl I I i:riN U(i
SI Nl, l jj
the right side ol tho body than to the , ?JW IM Jm 1I(;(,l)8 Ilol.UrIllt(i ,,