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EVENING BULLETIN INDUSTRIAL EDITION: HONOLULU, T. H 1809.
Hawaiian Island!. Year. Aden. Tous of Yield per Sugar. Acre, Lbs. 1895 47,399 5 153,119 5 C.472 1891! 05,729 227,093. 8,148 1897 63,825 5 201,120. 9,331 1898 05,235.5 229,414. 8,300 1899 00,308. 282,897. 9,378 190U 03,8111. 289,644. 9,071 1901 78,018.5 359.133. 9.130 1902 80,954. 353,950. 8,741 19U3 93,350. 438,054. 9,385 1904 91,797.00 307,405.07 8,005 1905 95,41.1.51 427,305.08 8.955 1900 90,229.0 430,308 2 8,915 1907 99.910. 410,934.10 8.820 In considering nt tiro present tlmo tho tremendous Increase In production shown b tho above figures, It is Interesting to nolo BOiiio of tliu remarks or predictions made In tho ourl dun as to the possible output or BUgar lu tho Hawaiian Islands. In 1882 (lie following statements and estlmutes weio made up by "gentlemen thoroughly con wisunt wllli Hie subject, and me reliable:" Name of Acres of Cane Island. Land Present Possible. Hawaii 30,000 40,000 Maul 12.000 14,000 OallU 3,000 3,600 Kauai 10,000 15,000 Total .... 65,000 72,500 Former Ideas of Limit of Production- lu 1S83 wo find tho following "reliable' statement In reference to tho limit of pro duction lu the Hawaiian Islands: "From an estimate which we have obtain ed from a most reliable source, tho Hawai ian Islands huve only about 100,000 acres which can bo termed sugar lands; but own of such lands we cannot make full use, cith er on uccount or our scanty water supply or on account of location. On tho Island of Hawaii for Instance, though as far as soil Is concerned there me some tracts of laud which to the uninitiated seem ndmlrabl) ntted for cane, they nro useless; If over 1000 feet above the sea level they will )Ield a crop lu 30 months, and few men are bold enough to face such a lengthy period bo foro they get any return for tholr money and work, let alone the ordinary risks which a planter Is exposed to. On tho samo Isl and, as n rule, to plant cano below 400 feet from the sea level Is dangerous on account of tho drought. Thus on our Island, the ono offering tho broadest tracts of land for cano cultivation, the area where (his In dustry can bo successfully carried on is con siderably narrowed by mere position. "At tho present time we have 40,000 acre under cultivation for cano; and of this about 20,000 ucres are cropped each year. Could wo, which Is as far as wo understand practically Impossible, but for the sake of argument wo may say, could wo cultivate tho whole 100,000 acres we could not crop moro than 52,000 acres each )ear. Now from last year's crop of 20,000, there were produced 60,000 tons of sugar, or about two and one sixth tons to the ncre, taking things by. and largo throughout tho group A great deal of nonsense is written about the productiveness of our soil; truu that In bomu exceptionally favoieil spots, rich val ley bottoms, and even then only for tho first crop planted, as much as live or six toiiB to the acre have been obtained, but such places aio exceptional, and the stutls tics or the yield or 1882 conclusively prove that the average )leld or (ho cano lands In these Islands Is very little better than It Is an)whcio else. The very utmost, then that we could get from our BUgar linds would be ubout 100.UI0 tons a year. Pructi cully we can never obtain nuy such crop for though tho land may bo there tho eleva tion nnd tho lack of water are an Insuper able barrier to our making use of them Ah n fact Hawaii has very nearly reached her limit of production, and what she produces Is not u drop In tho bucket when compared with what tho United States consume." liven as luto as 1893 It was authoritative ly stated that the limit of production of tho cntlro group was 150 000 tons. Prediction of 1899. In view of all these predictions It Is some what of u relief to quote from u leport liy Ilr. II, W. Wiley In 1899. who states: "From the most reliable Information accessible It may bo said that under tho stimulus of American enterprise tho Hawaiian Islands will produce, for export to (he United States about 600,000 tons of sugur In 1910," tho total production of the Islands then being 282,807 tons, For general statement of development as compiled by the Iluieau of Census 1900, seo Ilillletlu No. 109 of tho 12th Census of tho United Stntes Issued May, 1902. Causes that Developed Industry. Causes of Increase. Tho great develop ment of tho sugar Industry of Hawaii since 1870 Is duo tn n great runny causeB, of which the following are the pilnclpal factors; Picturesque 8ugar Cano Fields of the Pioneer Mill Company, Lahalna, Maul. Steam Plows Cannot Be Uced Here owing to the Huge Rocks In the Soil. Acres Annually Cropiwd Present Possible 12.000 18,000 0,000 7,500 1.000 2,000 4,000 0,000 Annual Yield of Sugar In Tons Present Possible. 29,000 40,000 16,000 20,000 3.000 1.000 9.000 10.000 23.000 34,000 07,000 84,000 FIRST, the granting by the United States of the reciprocity treaty of 1876 fol lowed by annexation of the Islands In 1898. SECOND, improved machinery and Im proved methods In cultivation, Including the use of fertilizers. THIRD, Irrigation: conservation of moun tain water and the development of the arte sian well supply. FOURTH, the co-operation of the var lous plantation Interests, both In the forma tion of an association of the planters and the organization of an experiment station. Reciprocity. Reciprocity Treaty. In 1850 n reciprocity treaty wbb negotiated by V. L. Marcy, Sec retary of State for tho United Stnte and Judgo Lee representing the Hawaiian gov ernment, but though the Committee on Foreign Affairs approved of It, tho treaty failed of ratification In the Senate. Later, In 1807, (ho treaty was again ratified 'by tho Hawaiian government and approved by President Johnson and V. I, Steward, Sec rctary of State, only to fall once more or Senato approval. At last In January 1875 tho United SlntPB entered Into a treaty of any other great power from acquiring a foothold In the Islands, which might be ad verse to the welfare and safety of the Pa cific Coast In time of wnr. Fear of Hindus. From tho report of the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Untied Slates Sen nte In 1894 Is taken the following excerpt which contains llio statement (hat one of the controlling considerations In making the treaty was that Hindus weru to be Im ported Into the Islands to supply needed labor, which under llrlttsh regulations would have meant a certain measure of llrlttsh control of Bald laborers, and which might have lead oven further. Tho statement Is as follows: "Tho Islands prior to tho treaty wero de clining In. populallon, nnd owing lo the de cay of tho vvluilo fishery, were declining In wealth. Their soli Is, perhaps, the most productive for sugar raising of any known In the world. Hut tho high tarllf on sugar nnd the exceedingly low wages which must be paid In tropical countries for raising sugar to supply the United Stales rendered the Industry dlfllcult. In 1875 a muvemeul uroso In the Islands for the Importation of Hindoo coolies lo supply tho reipilsllo cheap labor, and the consent of Kngland was promised. Tho growth of tho Australian colonies had gradually developed an Improv ing market lor Hawaiian sugar, nnd, after n trial of It by some of the Hiwallan plant ers. It was found that better prices could lie obtained tn tho freo-trado port of Sydney than in San Francisco, and return cargoes could bo bought there milch more cheaply. . . - A 'Sty $ " CAiKkfeA 1 llnKIBBIBBHsBW ssssssssS'BeSEtHsWSaWrsHsHBiissssssB Laborer's Homestead Cottage on Ewa Plantation, Island of Oahu. commercial leciproclty with tho Hawaiian Islands, which afler some delay went into operation September 1870 and remained in forco until annexation of tho Islands to tho United Stntes. Ily tho terms of this tienty tho leading agricultural products of Hawaii Including rice nnd raw sugars, (known In Sail Francisco na "Sandwich Island Su gars") wero admitted free Into all ports of tho United Stntes; and nearly all tho agrl ciiltmal products ami manufactures of the latter nation wero admitted free Into Ha waii for tho term of seven years from the date at which it went Into operation and further, until twelve months notlco of termi nation should be given by either of tho con trading parties, after the end of said term of soven yoarB. The commercial advantages to tho United States weie considered hut llttlu lu tho grunting of tho treaty, political or stuto considerations being tho controlling reasons Tho measuio was supported by both tho Hopuhllcana and Democrats In Congress and was granted, so far aa tho United 8tntes was concerned, for (ho puriMiso of secur ing political control of tho Islands, and mak ing them Industrially mid commercially n part of the United StnteB, and preventing Preparations wero making for sending there tho entire crops of 187C-'77. These matters came tu tho knuwledgo of the Senate Do paitment, Thu Huwullnus had been press tug for many years for u commercial treuty with the United States, but without success. It was now folt In tho Stuto Department that the question was assuming graver Im portance, and, as political supremacy In the Islands must inevitably follow tho com merce, Is was recognized thut this country must maku favorable concessions to them or else let them follow tho Inevitable tend ency and drift Blowly Into the stutus or uu Kugllsh colony. Tho result was thu nego tlatlon of the existing treaty and Its rutin cation by tho conseiK or (ho Senato." First Great Impetus. Tho (reaty of reciprocity gave Hawaii Its first great Impetus In trade and duv eloped a tremendous activity lu production, which Iiob continued to tho present day. Tho Im petus which tho treuty gave to tho sugar business has produced results which wero not anticipated, and which have been most fiir-rcachlng, both In tho ofTect upon Hawai ian Industry and trade and upon the Indus tries and shlppliiE of tho mainland. New life wns Infused Into every branch of business In the Islands, capital from the United Stntes was attracted nnd Invested tho population Increased, tho commerce or the United States developed to a remark able degree, and tho American Influence In the Islands Increased and predominated to n very gient extent. America Profited, As trade giew and prospered It was demonstrated that the balance was not nil on tho side of tho Hnwaltans, Hawaiian production (principally sugar ntid rice) as shown In the tables (o follow, within n short tlmo Increased fourfold, while imports Into Hawaii of the piodiicts and manufactures of tho United Stales Increased lu almost u like ratio. A large number of vessels both sail nnd Btcam wero built lu thu United Stutes for trade between the Stntes und tho Islands und also for Inter-Island trade. It wus not long before a new line of steamers was established between San Francisco and Honolulu, nnd a line of snlllng vessels be tween Honolulu and Now York. Tho devel opment of American shipping due eutliel) to tho production of sugar Is one of the to markable and permanent results or thu ml mission of Hawaiian sugars Into the United States freo of duty. The development of the sugar mills ami tho Improved machinery used by thu plan tations, nearly nil of which has been obtain ed from tho United States, has given large returns to American factories and has af forded emplojnient to thousands of Ameri can mechanics and laborers. To go Into the details of tho elfectB of the tieaty and of annexation, upon all the various lines of business directly relating tu the production of sugar would mako tills leport too voluminous, Trade of American Ships. lu 1880, during one of the periodical ef forts made by mainland Interests tu obtain abrogation of tho treaty, the situation was very well summed up by the United Stntes Consul General at Honolulu In u repoit to his (lovernment, us follows. "As the tablet! herewith given clearly show, the benefits of reciprocity do not nil c o to tho peoplo of the Islands. Tho 2(10 ships which havu cleared fiom this port during tho enr wero built by American shipbuilder nnd are tho property of Ameri can cltlzeiiB. Thu loss of tho treaty Is n certain loss of (he business of these vessels and n lnrgo per cent, of tho capital Invested In them. Two-thirds of the capital Invested In plantations and the facilities for tho pro duction of sugar Is tho capital or Ameri cans. Three-fourths of tho money borrowed for tho prosecution of the BUgar business lu tho Islands comes from American banks. All tho immense Investment in the two great refineries lu San Francisco Is Ameri can. Seventy-five per cent of (ho Insurance on vessels nnd cargoes Is placed In Ameri can companies. Three fourths of all the Imports Into the Kingdom are tho produc tion of American fauns and munufactorles and after the expenses ure paid and the dividends struck, almost tho entire profits flnil their way to the States for perni'ineiit Investment Hut this is only thu dollais and cents view of (lie matter." A majorlt) or tho Senate Committee on Foielgu ItclatlonH In 1HSI lepoiteil ugalnst nbiogatlug thu tienty, and, In their conclu sion, stilted that "whatever objections Irive been found to tho working or tho rosulu of this tienty aio greatly overbalanced by the advantages we have acquired In a na tional sense; and by the benefits to our people of a profitable (rude with (he Hawai ian pdijlc. und by the dilt we owe (lie peo pie of both countries to give certain!) and permanence lo (lie grillrylug prospoilty vvlilch this tieaty has eieited" For detailed statements showing the operation of tho treaty from u commeiclal standpoint, see tho following: Report of Committee on Foreign Rela tions, U. S. Senate, 1894, Vol. 1, page 103. Planters' Monthly Vol 1, p. 188, 245. Planters' Monthly Vol. 2, p 328-335. Annexation. Annexation to the United States. Annex ation to tho United States In 1898 has been tho greatest single factor lu tho develop ment or the sugur Industry of Hawaii slneo tho reciprocity treaty. Tho Sugar crop of 1897-1898, the last before annexation, nmomited to 229.000 tons. Ily 1901 It had readied 300,000 ions, and for (ho pioscut ear, 1908, will bo 620,000 tons Tho Immediate effect of annexation was to establish confidence in the stuhlllt) of Hawaiian government und a flee protected market ror sugar, both of which elements had theietoroie been lacking As u result of this confidence thero was a boom lu establishing sugur plantations; Olaa, Puna, the Portuguese Mill, tho Kona Sugar Company mid Puako. being establish ed on Hawaii; Klhel and Nnhlkii on MiiiiI; .Mnunalel on I,nnnl; K main nnd Ameilraii Sugar Company on Molokal; Honolulu uuil W'ulaluii on Oahu, and Mcllrydo on Kuuiil. Onhu plantation was started Just befoio annexation. In addition to tho nbovo named now plantations, uvery plantation on thu X ''mimumi.mkm-t