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EVENING BULLETIN INDUSTRIAL EDITION: HONOLULU, T. H., 1909.
12 miles In IcnKtli, was opened In June 1006, with a llow of 20,000,000 gallons er day. The ditch Is 18 miles long, with a dally capacity of 70,000,000 gnllons. This ditch Is also of the "tunnel variety," approxi mately nlno of the twelve miles' length of the ditch being tunnels eight feet wide and seven feet high. The Walluku -Walkapu Ditch. The Wal luku Sugar Co. and Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Co. Imvo Jointly constructed a 12 mllo ditch from Walhce to Walkapu. This ditch Ib largely through tunnels. It has a dally capacity of 45,000,000 gallons. Oahu Sugar Company Ditches, The Oahu Sugar Company, although mainly a pump ing plantation, lins constructed over fifty miles of ditches which Intercept the storm water and a small regular flaw from a num ber of valleys extending back Into both the Koolau and the Walanae mountains. Storage Reservoirs. Incidental to both the ditch and pumping stations, Is the sys tern of storage reservoirs for collecting storm wntcr from the ditches and night water from the pumps. The first reservoirs of any considerable capacity were con structed In connection with the Hnmakun and Hawaiian Commercial ditches; but It Is only slnco annexation that reservoirs have taken the prominence that they now occupy In connection with c.ino Irrigation The Island of Hawaii has practically no reservoirs for storage purHses, except at Kohala, but a number will bo built In con nection with the Kohala nnd Hamakua ditches. Maul early took the lead In this adjunct of Irrigation, but Oahu nnd Kauai havo now waked up to the possibilities of water storage on a large scale and nn In crease In tho number of storage reservoirs Is planned on almost ovcry plantation. On the pumping plantations the reservoirs ure used to store the night and Sunday water the pumps working continuously. It Is not good economy to Irrigate at night, and only necessary work Is dono on Sundnys. Tho method of construction of tho great majori ty of these reservoirs Is extremely simple. A shallow gulch or swale Is selected, and Into or across this, dirt Is hauled by carls, scrapers, or by sluicing. No core Is built. This typo of dam Is BeMom over thirty feet high (there Is nno ut Walalun (50 feet high), and costs from $1,500 to $15,000. Dams of a greater height generally huve a concrete coro wall extending down from tho original surface of tho ground for from ten to forty feet. Into bed rock; a wooden core wall Im bedded In the concreto nnd extending down from the original surfaco of tho ground for from ten to forty feet, Into bed rock; a wooden core wall Imbedded In the concrete and oxtendlng to tho top of tho dam helps to hold tho water from soaking through tho dam until tho earth rill has had tlmo to scttlo and harden. The Wahlawa Dam. Tho great Wahlawa dam, furnishing water to tho Wnlalua plan tation, on Oahu, Is of the latter typo of construction, but Ib imln.no In that It has a stone backing, on tho down stream side of tho dam. containing 2C 000 cubic yards This dam Is 400 feet long, 100 feet high, 420 feet thick at the bottom and creates a reservoir with a capacity of 2.500,000,000 gallons, tho largest In tho Islands. The earth dam of tho largest capacity In the Islands Is at Koloa, Kauai, where a long dam only eighteen feet high encloses nn old swamp, giving a storage of 1,500,000,000 gallons. Number and Capacity of Storage Reser voirs. The following nro tho number and capacity of tho storage reservoirs on the soveral plantations, so far as statistics have been obtained. No. of Capacity In Plantations. Reservoirs. Gallons. MAUI. Maul Agr'l Co 25 150,000,000 Hawaiian Commerc'l. 18 730,000,000 Klhel 5 50,000,000 Pioneer 14 75,000,000 OAHU. Honolulu 20 247,000,000 Oahu 3G 300,000,000 Kwa 10 C4.000.000 Walanao ,.. 1 200,000,000 Kahuku 4 75,000,000 Walalun 15 2,750,000,000 KAUAI. Koloa 7 1,6(i5,000,000 McDryde 35 1,220,000,000 Hawaiian Sugar Co.. 5 108,000,000 Makee Sugar Co 200,000,000 Kllauea 5 HAWAII, Kohala 7 30,000,000 All of tho other Irrigating plantations have storage reseivolrs, but on u smnller Hcalo than thoso ubovo enumerated. Irrigation by Artesian Wells. The first artesian well was bored at Iloiioulliili Oahu In 1879 and fo'lowed by n number of other wells In und around Honolulu, In 1882 tho editor of the Planters' Month ly Issued a solemn wnrnlng against further borlngB. Ho stated, "It would appear that .the sources of supply to tho great subter ranean reservoir liavu already been taxed to their utmost, or more than that, that the demand is already greater than the sup ply, and If artesian wells contlnuo to be bored It will be but n few years before tho wells at the higher levels will cense to gjvo forth flowing water." Notwithstanding this wnrnlng tho devel opment of artesian wells progressed very steadily, and In 1889 the borings on tho Isl and of Oahu had reached the total of 103 wells. One of the largest stations of this kind Is at Klhel, on the Island of Maul, where the rhaft is 300 feet deep nnd two pumping engines of n combined cnpacltp of 17,000,000 gallons of water per dny lifted 400 feet high are situated In a very largo chamber ex cavated In tho rock; an abundant wntcr sup ply Is found nt sea level, but tho expenses of operation nro very heavy in comparison to those of surfneo pumping stations deliv ering wntcr through long pipelines. Coal costs from $7 to 9 per ton de livered nt the furnace, although now a largo number of pumping stations are ope rated with California crude oil as fuel, which Is provided nt a prlco about equal In vnluo to coal at $6 per ton, nnd tho economy In labor by using oil Instead of coal Is very marked. In 1906 the cost of Irrigation systems In stalled on 26 plantations was $14,069,804. Vfc BBBBBLf ' IbBBBPBBBBBBBBs t;fr Tvs3 4HMHB2 aCaWKaBBBBBBBBBu) Immense Wooden Syphon Pipe In the Irrigation System of the Kekaha Sugar Company, This pipe runs down a deep gulch and over the opposite ridge, emptying Into the main flume above the plantation. At the present time the dally amount of water pumped from artesian wells on tho Island of Oahu reaches about 300,000,000 gullons, soino being lifted upwnids of GOO feet. The artesian supply as found on Oahu does not appear to exist on auy of the othei Islands In the group, and when pumping Is resorted to, open wells or sumps nro exca vated, tho underground supply resulting from rainfall on the mountain sides per colating through an upper broken stratum and retained by a lower stratum of Imper vious rock. These sumps are excavated to about 20 feet below sea level, tunnels are then driv en on tho lower stratum directly inland opening up the water bearing rocks, and tho supply thus obtained Is pumped from tho 'sumps through vary long pipe lines to the levels required on the cultivated areas. To avoid tho heavy expense of long pipe lines, there aro three Instances of shaft sinking at tho upper levels of the cultivat ed lands down to sea level, and under ground pumps of mining pattern Install ed, but these have proved so expensive In first cost nnd upkeep that there Is nn encouragement to repeat tho experiment. The machinery Installed in the various pumping stations Is of the most modern and complete make obtainable at the present day, and as In no other part of the world are such mechanical Irrigating plants In existence, a more than pasting notice may be of Interest. Tho plantations that pump all or part of their Irrigation supply are sltuuted as fol lows: Island of Knuat, 3 approximate delivery, 24 hours in gallons, 75 millions. Island of Oahu, G, approximate delivery, 24 hours In gallons, SCO millions. Island of Maul, 0, approximate delivery. 24 hours in gallons, 150 millions. Island of Hawaii', 2, approximate delivery, 24 hours in gnllons, 10 millions Total delivery per 21 hours, gallons, nbout C9G millions. Tho average height to which tills wnter Is pumped Is about 200 feet, and tho total power developed to deliver this enormous quantity of water Is over 20,000 horse power. Tho yearly expenso of these pumping plants Is enormous but the figures nro not available What Irrigation Does Tho relative yield of Irrigated and uulrrl gated plantations slnco 1895 is as follows: Irrigated Plantations. Tons Yield per Year. Acres. of Sugar, Aero, Lbs 1895 .. 23,454.5 89,943.5 7,009 189C .. 25,950. 117.449. 9,032 1897 .. 23,101. 117.30C. 10,151 1898 .. 24,507. 137,595. 11.269 1899 .. 27,380. 1GC.425. 12.167 190U .. 27,090.5 160.002. 12,254 1901 .. 34,740.5 215,190. 12,388 1902 .. 38,987. 227,721. 11,681 1903 .. 42,097. 200,525. 12,377 1904 .. 42,809.99 239,987.9 11,212 1905 .. 48.CC8.12 295,797.99 12.156 190G .. 50,112.6 288.78C.5 11,526 Unlrrlgated Plantations. Tons Yield per Year. Acres. of Sugar. Acre, Lbs. 1895 .. 23,945. C3.476. 6,310 1896 .. 29,779. 109,644. 7.3C3 1897 .. 30,724 5 133,820. 8,710 189S .. 30,728.5 91,692.5 5,934 1899 .. 32,928. 116.382. 7.068 1900 .. 39.C82.6 124,257. 6,262 1901 .. 43,878. 143,943. 6,661 1902 .. 41,966. 126.229.26 6,015 1903 .. 61,253. 177,529. 6.927 1904 .. 48.987.67 127,417.16 6.202 1905 .. 46,775.39 131.5C7.C9 5.C25 1906 .. 46,117. 141,581.70 0,140 Cane Unloader In Field Work, Co-operation of Plantation Interests Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, In February, 1882, various flrins interested in sugar production Issued u circular letter lo all persons and corporations directly en guged In tho Industry lu thesu Islands, urg ing concerted action In mi effort to secure u renewal of tho reciprocity treaty with the United States, which treaty was then about In expire. This letter dwelt upon two Hiihjects. as be ing the particular matters demanding united action through an organization of planters. First, that powerful opposition to a contln iianeo of tho treaty of reciprocity had devel oped In the United States, and that the time was upprotMiliig when the United States government could terminate tho treaty; Second, labor ami Immigration problems vitally affecting the industry In passing, attention might bo culled to tho great similarity of conditions in 1882 und 1908, At this date wo aro facing u pos sible reduction of duties on sugar, mill the lubur quusttou Is uu important factor.