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EVENING BULLETIN INDUSTRIAL EDITION: HONOLULU, T. H., 1909.
SUGAR PROPERTIES OF THE ISLAND OF OAHU EWA PLANTATION COMPANY That Controls the Plantation of World Wide Fame With a Wonderfully Productive Soil. Till: Lvvu Sugar Plantation Is oiiu of tlio largest In thu Islunds und Is funiuus tbu world over fur Hh productive will anU finu sugar fuctory. Thu Lvvu Plantation Company was formed In 190 by Messrs. S. N. Castle, W. It. Custlu, J. 1). Castle, Uco. 1'. Custle, J. II. Athertuu, W. A. How on, 12. I). Tcuney, C. M. Cooku, 11. F. Dillingham and W. J. Low-rlu. Tlio propuiiy Is 18 miles rrom Honolulu and Is reached over tbu railroad system of tlio O. 11. &. L. Co. It has n total acreage of 8,oC3,25 ncies, of which approximately 7,400 uro suitablu for cauu culture. Of this ucro ugu T.UUO ticies aiu under cultivation upon lauds which uro all leased. Luhuluu cane is thu principal cane grown, though Yellow Caledonia and Demeruru No. 11 f are planted In Binatl quantities. . Steady Growth. Thu llrst cane planted by the company was on September 23, 1890, all of thu Luhu Inu vurletj Duriug this jeur ubuul 40 ucres were planted for seed. Slucu then the plan tation has grown by leaps and bouuds, not only In the extent of cauu area, but In the number of tons of sugar produced to the ucio. The gioutest elevatlou ut which cauo is pluuted Is 200 feet. Thu churacler or Hie soli vuiles from u light red upon thu uplands lo a bl.itk loam on the low lands, mid may bu classed lis good and extra good soil. A complete imiiljsls uf the soils lu thu vunous lleldH Is leguluriy kept, lu order that It can bu readily ascertained Just what amount of leitlllter muy bo requited. lielow is given u table showing tlio pro portion of plant and rattoons. Plants 1,098.14 ucres. Long l'Trst iluttoons 979.24 ucres. Iing Second Iluttoons 1,708.32 ucres. Long third Kuttoous 5i9.78 ucres. loug Kourth Iluttoons 1,014.49 acres. Lung Fifth Iluttoous 413.88 acres. Short Iluttoons 010.15 ucres. Total 7,000.00 acres Dig Irrigation Plant. Thu Irrigation system ut Kwn is an Im mense one und Is curried out on thu usual scheme, common to thu islunds. During 24 hours 80,500,000 gallons of water uro used, being entirely obtained liom artesian wells at thu varluus pump stations. The pumping sjstcm of thu plantation with Its plpu-llnes, reservoirs und water wajs, reiiresents un investment of approxi mately $8S0,OOO, thu machinery having been procured entirely from thu United States. Theru aiu eight pumping stations contain - ing eleven pumping engines uggregutlng 2700 horsepower, und flfty-uinu artesian wells, each 12 Inches in diameter. Thesu are capablu of delivering 80,500,000 gallons of water In u day of 24 hours. Thu water in thu wells rises about 2G feet above sea level, and is pumped by thu engines to vari ous holghts us required for tbu purposes of irrigation. For use In elevating water there mo four miles of plpu lines. Cultivation. hands aru prepared fur cultivation by the use of four sets containing eight steam plow engines. All plowing is performed twice, the first to a depth of sixteen inches, the second to u depth of thirty Inches. Thu great depth of tillage hero shown will glvu un idea of thu strength of thu machinery re quired for tills work. Following the steam plow Ing machinery is the survejor, who lays out the, field iu fur lows live feet upuit. All furiows tun on thu level following the contour or the laud. At Intervals of thirty feet apart small cross lines are run, thus dividing Hie level fur rows in thirty feet lengths. These cioss lines form the water courses which deliver the waters of Irrigation lo the furrows Thesu wutor courses receive their supply from thu largu nuppl) ditches which traverse the flcld ul convenient places, Planting. I'lanlliiK consists In placing cuttings of c-aue, six or eight Inches iu length and about two inches apart, lu the bottom of thu fur lows mentioned und covering with a thin covering of earth, Fertilizer. Fertilization Is an extremely Important factor In plantation work. The Uwii Planta tion Company expends annually from $175,- 000 to 200,000 for this purposu. Of this thu larger portion is of mixed or complete fer tilizer; that Is to say, u fertilizer containing the three Important ingredients of nitrogen, potash and phosphoric acid. The remainder of thu fertilization is by tlio usu of Chile salt-putru applied Just before or in thu sum mer months when the growth of cane Is most rapid. It is to thu generous sjstcni of fertilization that a large imrllon of the Immense jlclds obtained ut l'.wa plantation uro due, Force of .Labor. . Iu the various departments, 2.61G men aru cmplojcd us follows: Manager and Department Heads Ill Skilled Workmen, 53 Semi-skilled ..Wurkmun 100 Common Workmen 207 Field "Workmen .'....;..'.....' 2,274 Total i.. 2,040 Cultivation lu fields is ns u rulu performed by Asiatics. A few 1'ortu ltlcans engage lu this class of work. Portuguese uru general ly skilled or scml-sklllcd workmen or team sters. The nationalities employed uru given below: Americans , , . , . , SO Poituguesu 172 Spaniards .' 40 llnwulfanR '. ...'.; 7 l'orto ltlcans 174 Hindus 1C Japanese 2,001 Chlnesu CO Koreans .' 101 Other Nationalities 14 Totuf : 2,fi4 For Social Comfort. For thu housing of this largu furcu of workmen on this, Kstntu theru uru lu thu neighborhood of six hundred dwellings, which number Is being added to annually In order to glvu Increased comfort to the work men. A Hospital and Dispensary Is located on the Plantation, under the charge of a rest dent physician with six assistants. In this hospital, medical attendance and nursing Is dtsiieusod free of charge to thu laborers. It contains 44 beds, C wards, operating room, modern plumbing. Roentgen Hay Apparatus, and all scientific appliances for an upto dute Ii6spltat. A Free Kindergarten Is carried on by the Estate, and theru is u Public School Bltuated at a central iolut for thu education of chil li ren of workmen. The railroad system Is qultu elaborate und Ib laid over the estate so that one side of every field borders on or Is in close proxi mity to thu tracks. With these main tracks portable trucks are connected whenever nec essary when a field is harvested. Cars cap able of holding 4V4 tuns each of cane are by this system delivered on portable tracks (ISO feet apart) alongside the cut cane throughout the length of each field for con vcnlent handling. After cars are loaded whether by machine or olherwlso, they are hauled to the main track and taken In trains by Ilnldwln locomtlves to (he factory. Thirty mites of pennant nt ami eight mllci of portable track are In use, supplied with GOO cane cars, 7 box cars, 4 flat cars and 34 of other kinds. 8lx llaldwln locomotives are used. Tho 1908 sugar output, amounting to 34, 7S3.234 tons, was taken from 3,937,37 acres of cane. Tho 1909 crop, estimated at 32,000 tons sugar, will come from 3,793.74 acres divided between plant and rattoons as follows: Plant Cane 644.04 acres Long First HattooiiR 637.24 acres. Long Second Itattoons 1,285.-18 acres. Long Third Itattoons 21G.T.1 acres, Long Fourth Itattoons 538.91 acres. Long Fifth Itattoons 38.38 acres. Short Itattoons 010.15 acres. Total 3,795.74 ncres. of Louisiana. Its bolters are largely of the Babcock and Wilcox Co. make, and Its tools, as lathes, planers, drills, etc., etc., are en tirely American. In short, a large modern sugar factory like the Ewa Mill shows the great part taken by the manufacturers of the United States In the equipment which represent hundreds of thousands of dollars of Investment. The details of equipment of larger mill machinery follows: Crushing Machines 2 of Gregg's cane unloaders; 2 of Fulton Iron Works 11-roller mills, with all necessary engines, gearing and carriers: total horsepower, 700: total enne crushing capacity, 2,400 tons In 21 hours. Tho milts are arranged so that either 2 11-rollcr mills or 1 15-rollcr mill enn be used ns desired. Hollers for Generating Steam 8 mtillltuh ulnr boilers; 5 Uabcnck & Wilcox boilers; total hnrseKiwcr, 3000. HPT .-! '.,! - : , . ,r-,. , .... 33jH Ewa Plantation Company's Sugar Mill, Island of Oahu. High Cane Yield. During 1908 275,145.175 tons of cane were milled, uv erasing G9.88 tuns of cuuu or 8.83 tons uf sugar per acru. The principal rea sons for this high yield are us follows: (1) Depth or soil. (2) Wnrni cllmatu and sheltered position. (3) Generous fertilization. (4) Liberal irrigation. Sugar is delivered at factory doors on curs of tho Oahu Hallway & Lund Co., which take It to thu O. 11. & 1., Co.'h warehouse at Hono lulu or deliver It direct to ships' tackles at tho wharves. Vessels deliver product at New York or San Francisco, as required. America's Modern Mill. The mill Is modern In every respect and Is as large In capacity as any In the Territory. It Is capable of manufacturing 2SO tons to 300 tons sugar per day. This mill Is practi cally new, Its erection having been complet ed In 1902. The mill building Is entirely of steel and built by Mllllken Brothers of New York. Its large crushing apparatuses were furnished by the Fulton Iron Works of St. Louis. Its vacuum pans were made by Kllby Mfg. Co. of Cincinnati, Ohio, its evaporators by the Walburn Swenscn Co, of Nebraska and the Sugar Apparatus Manufacturing Co. of Philadelphia. Its centrifugals and cen trifugal engines are from the American Tool & Machine Co. of Boston, and Its "Mersey" dryers from the same city, Its clarification apparatus was manufactured by "Demlng" Quadruple Effect Evaporators 1 Swensou evaporator; 1 Lllllo ovaporator; total eva luating capacity, 500,000 U. S. gallons In 24 hours; 14 Drlx to G6 llrlx. Clarlflers 2 of Demlng's clarlflers; total capacity, 500.COO U. S. gallons in 24 hours. Settling Tanks 24 tanks of 1,000 U. S. gallons each. Fitter Presses 27 filter presses, with all necessary pumps und tanks. Vacuum PatiB 2 Kllby pans of 25 tons each; 2 Honolulu puns of 20 tons each, with all necessary vacuum pumps, tanks anil pipes. Centrifugals 32 belt-driven 30-Inch ma chines, with CorllBs engines and all neces sary shafting and pulleys; 13 belt-driven 40 Inch machines. Sugar Dryers 3 Horsey sugar dryers; to tal capacity, 300 tons In 24 hours. Water Pumps on Artesian Wells 2 com pound Hlodler pumps; 1 Illake Pump; 1 Cen trifugal Pump; total capacity, 10,000,000 U. S. gallons lu 24 hours. Molasses Tanks (of wood) 22 tanks of 50,000 gallons each, Total horsepower used for driving ma chinery In mill estimated, 1500 horsepower. Ewa Plantation Company headquarters are situated at the mill, eighteen miles from Honolulu. It has large and spacious offices, with a force of head bookkeeper and eight clerks. Adjacent to the office Is tho general plantation store In which staple goods are kept for sale. In convenient locations on LalalalalalalalalalalalalalW kalafl IBiiiiiiivsdHfLaT-'uBiiiV siiiiiiHiLiLLLBI QEORGE F. RENTON Manager Ewa Plantation. ANDREW ADAM8 Manager Kahuku Plantation W. W. QOODALE Manager Walalua Plantation. VS a1M"