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THE CATHOLIC TIMES Published Every Week by The Catholic Times, Inc. Columbus, Ohio NOTICE: Send All Changes ot Address to P. O. Box 636 Columbus. Ohio Executive and Editorial Otfices: 246 E. Town Street. Columbus 15. Ohio Telephones: ADams 5195 ADams 5196 Address all communications tor publication to O Box 636. Columbus 16. Ohio Price of The Catholic Times it S3 per year Al) rubscr»ntKns should be presented t© our office through pastors of the parishes. Remittances should be made payable to The Cath- This Paper Printed by Union Labor Rent Controls The unresolved battle over whether people want governmental controls may reach some kind of a solution within the next few weeks. Some 2.300 bated question, whether or not they want a contin nance of rent controls. Production Act Amendments of 1952 which ex tended the authority for rent stabilization for three I taking responsibility i by passing the decision Schooling for ^Social Contacts" The governing body, us bus have extended controls. In case the extender is the area classified as a critical defense area by Federal action This will be attempted in some com munities should Council fail to act. There is a tendency on the pari of some to con demn all controls as as unwarranted interference on the part of government. Interference is un warranted i' the market process through supply and demand operates equitably for all and works no hardship on either buyer or seller. In abnormal situations, such as arise out of war, demand may so outstrip supply that if the market operates on hindered prices will go so high that the consumer and the common good will suffer a real injustice. Controls cannot overcome every inequity hut they will protect the great majority. This was the justi fication for price controls of the past war. There is no question but that there was a general shortage of housing during and after the last war which justified controls According to the 195(1 ten sus ot Housing of the Department of Commerce Columbus ha* a vacancy rate of two percent This i below what is considered normal. It is up to the local community to decide now whether the housing situation is normal and on the basis of that decision to continue or lift controls. Private good and vested interests have no say in arriving at this decision for it is one that affects the good of the whole community. This is the time of year when some parents de ride where to send their children to school. For some fathers and mothers it is just a mat ter of fulfilling the law that children under a certain age must be in school For others it is a matter of routine, sending their child to the proper public school or, in the case ol a thnlics, to the parochial school of their own parish. But there ai some parents who leel that th*ir child is ripe lor something special. Hence they look for a select" school Not all parents can enjoy such a luxury, if it can be called that. It is appropriate here to give some thought to the duty in conscience which all Catholic parents have. They know that their first obligation is to rear their children in the fear and love of God, making as sure as possible that their sons and daughters hare every safeguard in their vocation to he saints. Now there may be many reasons used by sonic par ents for not selecting a Catholic school. Bir none of them are valid in the face ot this solemn obliga ion Most of them aic not valid in the lace of facts. Take lor instance, the one that some parents ad rance saving that they wish to 'iid then child tn a school where he will make proper social on tacts which will be invaluable later in professional or business life. Now this is plain nonsense. It would be interesting to know how many sue cessful men have had to rely on social contacts made in school dar^ to e-lablish themselves su essfullv If one's training character and personality arc of such instability that he needs contacts, then it would not tie foolhardy to assume that his success would be short lived When those people speak of "social contacts" they moan simply the socially prominent people with whom they aspire to he on friendly terms. If it is proper contacts that a Catholic parent wishes to make for his child, then he should he thin1 in«? of the Divine Mastet Himself How often does fhr child come in contact with his Redeemer in a s hool where there are "social contacts Xnd if the child turns his hack upon his Church and his God, could it not he expected that his character is such that he would also turn his back upon some fundamental principle of decenty” Can a traitor tn (,od always bo loyal to others and to himself Or is the area of social contacts made up of this snrt of people’’ We believe not But we do believe that good people ot social standing, people of re snectahilitv arc not footed by those who would send their children to a particular school just be cause of social contacts for Catholic students, let fhp contacts he with God first of all then with Christian learning and culture When his educa tion is completed in this fashion he will he welcome in the best circles, and we do mean host Mother’s Calling Twn vrars have passed since an anxiouslv await Ing world heard the Holy ather proclaim that the Assumption of (,ui l’J s-cH Mmhci into Ilea’ en v a- a dogma of our Holy Catholic aith Again, and in no spirit of rancour it is pleasant to contemplate just how wrong were those who predicted a devas fating rend in the fabric of Christendom if this action were taken by the Pope Need we point to all the arguments that wore aligned at that time, and which are still valid rf course to prove that nothing could be farther from the truth' No there is no such need The history of the intervening time is proof enough. Events of the na-t few weeks would be enough to disprove any such fear that might -till be har bored among men Tlw most heartening news nf the past decades, the consecration hv our Holy Father nf Russia to the Immaculate Heart of Mary n answer to Her request at Fatima presages more ’han anv happening nf recent times the return of peace to the world. And then there is the recent interchange and acceptance of invitations to observe the meetings of each others Church groups. Three priests will attend when the Faith and Order Commission of the World Council of Churches meets in Lund Switzerland to assist the delegates in understanding the Church’s doctrine two leading Protestant clergymen have accepted invitations to attend the great “Katholik entag” in Berlin. It is pleasant to realize that the former meeting in Lund Switzerland opens on Friday, August 15— the feast of Our Lady’s Assumption, The place of Mary in the economy of God’s plan for the salvation of mankind is part and parcel of historical record and Catholic theology. In the very beginning of the Old Testament. Her place in the final conquering of the powers of darkness was fore told. It was Her Divine Son who was to redeem suf fering mankind from their sins and His wishes for His Blessed Mother’s continued cooperation in this work of redemption become increasingly clear with the passage of each year. It has been through Mary that God's wishes for us have been most lately revealed, at Lourdes, La Sallette and at Fatima. In celebrating this glorious feast today, our Dio cese looks back on nine days of fervent prayer re quested by our Bishop. Who can tell of what answers there will lie in the near future from Mary, the Mother of us all? Events prove that Her voice is being heard with ever-growing intensity calling all Her children home. Just Among Ourselves Passing Comment Considered or Inconsiderate The art of argument, or perhaps one should say the art of discussion, is one that has few masters in our day. If there are masters, they keep in hiding. TV’s selected experts who keep us posted or reveal the unimpressive relations of author and critic are something less than inspiriting. And statesmen,— or politicians,—who enter the lists of public discus sion are as shifty as welterweights dancing about in quest of an opening they exhibit rapid footwork but land no telling blows. When the specialist can get at a typewriter to do a boxed in column for one ot the reviews, he is wonderful indeed. But this is Hhg punching. The opponent is merely an imaginary person, and his arguments are not his own they are the specialist’s way of interpreting them. The specialist is in the advantageous position of a fighter who sets up his inanimate opponent for a knock-down. The punch ing bag takes many a wallop from the specialists. Unilateral discussion is powerful stuff. 4 But unilateral discussion is not discussion. It is exposition of a biased and unreliable kind. True dis cussion coines when mind meets mind, and both stay on the subject. And this sort of discussion is an art. This is the art that is markedly absent in this our glorious day. Now, there are more names for discussion, and more abortive attempts to produce discussion, in our day than in any other day, perhaps, (’(infer ences, clinics, forums, workshops, par.el discussions, round tables, and common hull sessions are going on all the tune. But all of these are certainly of a very low and imperfect*order, if we are to judge by the samples we are furnished by radio and TV, as well as by actual meetings lor debate. Many a ques tion is raised. Few are answered. Few are even held squarely under the attention of the disputants for five minutes together, If there is any choice among disputants, the booby prize should go to the lad who employs no argument except a list of authors. He strives to overpower an opponent by citing authorities. The force of argument is not directed to he proving of the point at issue it is turned against the qualifi cations of the opponent. The booby prize is con stantly asking, “Have you read .?” He wishes tn indicate that the opponent is unworthy of his steel because he has not read two dozen books on very pha.sc of the point if any) that is under ussion. Now. the old business of "swearing by the word of a master” has its place and value But the more listing of authors or books has neither place nor value in sane discussion Manifestly, it is an open door to the charlatan. For what is to prevent a man hent on impressing all hearers with his ponderous learning from citing any names that come to mind, whether they are names of authorities or not? It is important here to pause and consider that there are two distinct typos of argument argument about established truths and argument about opin ions. The Isatins used to say there is o arguing with a fact: contra factum non datur ai*jnmentuin. Dis cussion or argument as an art may be used in establishing truths or facts, or in manifesting to the unknowing the existence of such truths or facts. But discussion is usually a matching of opin ions. And the point here is that opinions are not bolstered or proved to be of value hy the mere piling up of names of men or of books. The value of opin in is the weight of reason that lies behind it, not the weight of tomes read by the disputant. The tail disputant docs not merely ask his oppon ent whether he has read Smithers or Jenkins. He tells what Smithers or Jenkins have said and why they said it. Or,- more charitably, so that the op jmnent's lack of reading may not he insultingly thrown in his face, the fair disputant puts the opinion ot Smithers or Jenkins in his own words, and then allows his opponent to do what he can to confute it. But the current fashion is for the disputant (hoohy prize man) to overwhelm, or seek to overwhelm, the poor opponent by running through a litany of proper names All this is expressed in a ballade, done by some neglected poet of the current century, not likely to he known bevond it Let us quote: RAI.LA DE OF A ROOR Old Roresby is a Cultured laid (The upper case initial kind), His countenance is wan and sad When he encounters common mind To be informed, to bo refined, Is all his purpose (it is said): He often asks, with nose inclined, "Ah, yes. I sec, but have you read Let him be booked in Dunciad As dolt, as oaf, as sodden hind. Who nlays the intellectual cad And foists his reading on mankind With lofty mien and air designed To make his hearers all fall dead. And says, with fingers intertwined "Ah, yes, I see. but have you read What conversation can be had When Roresby readily may find Odd names of Paris or Bagdad To cripple speech, to thwart, to bind? Go pitch him on a fork well fined Who poses so, and nods his head, And says, with elephantine rmd, "Ah, yes, I see. but have you read .?’ Prince what avails it to have dined. Or warsomely with Wallace bled, When Boresby may Sneak up behind, "Ah, yes, 1 see, but have you read .. jBELLM (DODD THE CATHOLIC.TIMES, FRIDAY, AUGUST 15, 1952 U-S. Gone But IV ot 5 VPASHIKGTOK LETTER All Eyes On Berlin WASHINGTON Probably no Catholic event in years has com manded the attention of this and other world capitals so thorough ly as the Katholikentag to be held in Berlin, beginning Tues day, Aujjust 19. Kat hoi ikentag means Catholic Day. In fact, it is a National Catholic Week of stud}r and dis cus on. This year it i planned to extend over six days, August 19 to 25. The theme ior 1952 .s God Lii,es. Eminent speakers, clerica 1 and lay, are i ss this theme scheduled from the viewpoints of dogma, he Bible, liturgy, heology. philosiophy and literatun Interest in this histoiric meet ing was stirred hy the very first announcepinent of the 1 952 Rath ering. It was stated that it was to be heId in both the East and West sectors ol Berlin. Observers asked if this could me an a soft ening of the communist attitude toward religion. They sat back and waited. Since then the situation has de teriorated noticeably. As of this time the meeting is still sched uled to he held on both sides of the dividing line in Berlin, but many arc wondering how' that will work out. There have been very real signs that the com munists have not improved their LOUIS E. HI DEM Some folks seem to have an infinite ca pacity for self dec eption. 1 have in mind Randall Gould, former editor of The Shang a Evening Post. As "an old China hand,” which he calls himself, Mr. Gould formerly looked with something like favor on the ad vance of the Chinese Commun ists. As editor of an outstand mg English-language newspaper in China, he was no small fac tor in persuading the American business colony in Shanghai to root for the Chinese Reds. American members of the Shanghai Chamber of Com mercc. up to the time that the city was taken over by the Stal mites, inspired news dispatches to their homeland favorable to Mao Tse lung. Plainly, they hop ed to do business with him. Despite all these friendly ges hires. Chinese Reds confiscated all the large foreign holdings in Shanghai, and promptly im prisoned Mr. Gould. Report has it that he was mistreated. It is certain that he could not get out of China until his employer, C. V. Starr, had paid a large ran som. It is therefore surprising to note that Mr. Gould, in The Christian Science Monitor ot June 21, is inclined to take an optimistic view of what is oc curring under Red rule in the Orient He states that nowhere has collectivization in the coun tryside "actually taken place so far as can be learned." Vassals of Communist Regime Only a few days after this statement, The Daily Worker attitude toward religion. In fact, there are fears that Moscow may have ordered an all-out war against the Catholic Church in East Germany to be started at once perhaps along the lines of what has been done in Czecho slovakia. Several months ago, now, the East German communist regime began to drop all show of friend liness toward the Church. Bish op Wilhelm Weskamm of Ber lin was denied regular and per manent access to that part of his diocese which lies in com munist-controlled territory. It has been estimated that there are nearly 400 000 Catholics in this area. So far, the Red action means that the Bishop no longer has a permanent pass to visit his spiritual charges in communist territory,hut must apply for a pass each time he wishes to cross the dividing line. Of course, the Reds may not refuse the Bishop his pass during the Katholiken tag, but they can, and he must Fpply each time he wishes to cross from one zone to another. And, he is the host to the great Catholic meeting. "In view of the ever-widening separation of Germany through the peace pact," Walter Ulbricht, deputy prime minister of the Mao Teaches Red Tactics ran a glowing account of "a model collective farm” in Man churia Rut the objective of Mao Tse-tung—despite Mr. Gould and The Daily Worker—is to make vassals of the Chinese peasants just as Stalin has done with the Russians. The best authority on that is Mao Tse-tung himself. In 1950 he wrote: “The salvos of the Oc tober revolution (in Russia) brought us Marxism-Leninism. The October revolution helped the progressive elements of the world, and of China as well, to apply the proletarian world out look ... in reviewing their own problems. The conclusion they reached was that they must ad vance along the path taken by the Russians." That declaration was publish ed in a pamphlet and issued in English translation by the New Century Publishers, the Red or ganization here. It is referred to favorably in an article on "People’s Democracy" appearing in the May issue of Political Affairs. The article explains how Mao-Tse tting is tn carry out this imitation of Soviet Rus sia. It will be done by stages, the tactic used by Lenin and Stalin in Russia. The cry of the Bolsheviks was “Land to the peasants!” Under that cry they came into power. Through it they could create that division among the farm population which would make possible the final step to slavery under col lectivisation. The Communists explain to themselves, in Political Affairs, that the first stage in China is “the agrarian, anti-feudal, and a n i i mperialist revolution." Those words are a cover-up for the deception involved in the division of land among the peas ants and in the consequent fas Eas German (communist) re gime, shouted at a Red conven tion, “the Church can no longer camouflage its attitude with a masque of ‘neutrality’.’’ “The Church in the German Democratic Republic (meaning the communist regime in East Germany) must decisively sep arate itself from all America! and English agencies. The Chris tian morality of humanity can not be reconciled with the pol icy of enslavement pursued by lhe Adenauer government (of West Germany) and with the domination of the American, English and French occupiers in West Germany and in Western Berlin," he added. And so, while the peace pact presents the Reds with a very flimsy excuse indeed for attack ing the Catholic Church, the Reds do not shrink from using it. At the same time, the hobbling at tacks upon the Church provide the minions of Moscow with the means of showing the Western Powers that they are going to do everything they can to fright en the people of West Germany out of their peace pact with the Western Powers. That is why the political capitals of the w’orld are watching what happens in Berlin next w’pek. tening of Stalin's rule over Chi na. since the Kremlin dictator is the master “anti-imperialist.” Meanwhile, the beginnings of forced collective farms go on? It will be speeded up as soon as the Communists find it feas ible to do so. Fastening Stalin’s Grip From his ^lack of knowledge of this Communist technique, Mr. Gould draws the conclusion that Americans should not hold a "perpetual fear and hatred of the label ‘Communism’ in Chi na." There will come a time, he predicts, when the “people's government “will be unable to provide food and clothing. Then it is that Americans should step in—of course, without any con cern about the label “Commun ism." Presumably the former editor of The Shanghai Evening Post still wants us tn do busi ness with Mao Tse-tung by loans or other financial aid. We bol stered up Red Poland in that w’ay, the argument may go, so why not Red China? Such a view and program will only help to fasten Stalin's grip on the Chinese nation. Tf there is famine, Moscow can do as it did in Russia: starve out mil lions of the general population but always feed and train a strong army. If the United States aids the Communist regime by funds or recognition, as with Poland, the Communists will take our money and use it against us. A much better solution is the realistic one. Not merely the end of all thoughts of recog nizing Red China but action to induce Great Britain to with draw recognition. Unless that is done. Japan will follow Britain's lead—and that will be a tragedy for Asia and America. INQUIRY CORNER GRETTA PALMER Why Must We Fast Before Communion? Q. What is the reason for the fast before Holy Communion? A. The law of fasting from midnight is a grave law of the Church requiring abstinence from food and drink. Exceptions for the sick and for men in serv ice indicate the fact that it is not essential to the Sacrament. In the early Church there was a meal before the Mass. St. Paul refers to this and points out: .. at the meal, each one takes first his own supper, and one is hun gry, and another drinks over much ... In this I do not com mend you (I Cor. 11:22). With the change to Sunday for the prin cipal Mass (Acts 20:7) the depar ture from evening Mass joined to make fasting practical. It was designed to prevent any unwor thy approach to Holy Commun ion, and to add a note of pen ance to our preparation. Q. Is the doctrine of the As sumption of Mary into heaven a new one? A. When Pope Pius XII pro claimed the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary as a truth revealed by God and a matter of faith he stated no new doctrine. November 1, 1950, saw merely the fkiaf definition of a truth held fast in the belief and pray er of Catholics since the Apos tles. As Catholics know, Tradi tion, the record of belief of the early Church, contains necessary explanations and facts taught by the Apostles and not includ ed in the New Testament. It was taught by St John Damas cene. St. Gregory of Tours, St. Jerome and St. Augustine among others, and the feast day was celebrated in Palestine before the year 500. One decade of the rosary has been dedicated to the Assumption for nine hun dred years and it has been uni versally accepted by Catholics. St. John Damascene (676-770) refers to it as “an ancient tra dition" and the Council of Chai cedon (451) refers to it. Q. Why do we pray in the Our Father “lead us not (in ducas) into temptation’’ Does God ever lead anyone into temp tation? A. St. James (1:13) states: “Let no man say when he is tempt ed that he is tempted by God.” We pray that God may not per mit us to be tempted beyond our strength i.e. we ask His grace to make us strong enough to resist temptation. The ex pression is used because the Greek of the New Testament in St. Matthew’s Gospel (6:9) and in St. Luke’s (11:2) has the meaning of “carrying into” and the Vulgate follows it. It is a matter for scholars to explain the exact shades of meaning in Psychiatry Among the very hot pota toes of modern theology is the question: ‘‘Just how much help should a Cafh o 1 i receive from a psychi atrist when he finds his mind in trouble?" There are Tones in this de bate who are apt to ask, “Could the Doctors of the Church—en gaged in studying and healing souls for twenty centuries—have overlooked so important an ele ment as the ‘subconscious’, if such a thing were actually in existence?” Hardly, they reply, and con clude that the very premises of much psychiatry are fictions, legends and medical myths. More practically, this group points out that “psyche" and “soul" are indistinguishable words, at least in origin. Why, they inquire, should the doctor invade the realm of spirit over which the priest presides? The Other Side But there are also Catholic radicals who are on the other side of the religion-psychiatry issue. They contend that mental illness is no more the priest’s affair than physical illness is. When they are reminded that Sigmund Freud expressed a vio lent hatred of all religion, they answer that his attitude and his personal prejudice bear no rela tion to the methods of treatment he laid down. They argue that a psychiatrist's moral concepts have no more to do with his fit ness to treat a believing Catho lic than the moral concepts of a surgeon have to do with his right to remove a Catholic ap pendix. Both Tories and radicals may now rejoice. A book which will provide each of them with im mense and valuable data has been lately issued. Its authors are Father James Van Der Veldt of the Psychology Department and Dr. Robert P. Odenwald of the Psychiatry Department of Catholic University. They have been brave enough to publish a 422-page discussion of the moot matter. Their four hun dred-odd sticks of dynamite are bound together in a volume call ed “Psychiatry and Catholicism. One enormous boost the au- translation, but the Church fol lows the literal wording of the Scriptures. Q. If Christ is the Mediator how can the priest forgive sins? A. One Mediator redeemed us. The priest is an accredited agent of the one Mediator. Confession is the way of applying Christ’s merits to the person who has sinned after Baptism. Clearly Christ gave the Apostles power to forgive or to retain sins (St John 20:19-23) explicitly saying “as the Father has sent Me I al so send you.” Q. Is not prayer directly to God better than one through Mary? God loves us more than Mary does A. God is the best judge of effective prayer and His Church has always approved devotion to Mary and the saints. God loves Mary a great deal more than He loves any one of us, so her pray er for us is more pleasing than our own. Actually there should be no conflict, for if we follow the Mass and other public pray ers together with approved pri vate prayers we pray constantly to God directly. When we pray to God through Mary we do not re move God from our mind and in tention. We have added her in tercession to our prayer, and shown due honor to Christ’s mother. St. James tells us that “the prayer of a just man avail eth much" (5:16). Mary is the most just and close to God, and her love for us is most “prac tical”. Consider her care for the people at the wedding feast and her power to obtain an unusual favor from her Son (St. John 2:1). Q. Do non-Catholics have guardian angels to protect them? A. St. Thomas Aquinas says that God denies to no one the general helps toward salvation. Christ indicated the existence of guardian angels in His state ment: “Their angels always see the face of my Father in heav en’’ (Matt. 18:10). There is no reason why this should not ap ply to every man. The devils certainly are permitted to at tack all men, and it is reason able to believe that all are pro tected by opposing angels. Q. What is the Douay Bible? A. It is the Catholic English edition of the Sacred Scriptures. It takes its name from the place where the exiled English Cath olics published this approved translation. The New Testament appeared in 1582 and the Old in 1610. Send questions to Father Ed ward Hpaley, Inquiry Corner, The Catholic Times, Box 636, Columbus (16) Ohio. And You thors give the Tories comes in discussion of the “neutral" psy chiatrist—the man who, in the ory, refuses to take sides in whatever conflict may be agi tating his patient’s mind. He is the man who says, “It does not matter what I myself believe. I am a neutral umpire between the repressed desires and moral conscience of the patient.” This “neutralism” is the much-favor ed plea of non-believing psychi atrists who assure the world that they can treat a Catholic without in any way doing dam age to his faith. The authors simply do not believe that “neutralism is pos sible or that, if it were possible it would be acceptable to the be lieving Catholic. Neutrality Rare So much for the psychitarist who really is neutral. He must, by his own principles, sit pas sively by and watch his patient decide on suicide or murder, broad-mindedly eschewing any criticism of the choice. But few psychiatrists are as neutral as all that. The atheist, then, the man who has no reasoned belief in the natural moral law, will, whe ther he wishes.to or not, draw his patient’s beliefs closer to his own before the treatments have been ended. Atheist psychia trists are a threat to the Faith. No Tory Hand-Book But the book is not, by any means, a Tory’s hand-book. The authors condemn all morally “neutral" psychiatrists they do not condemn all psychiatrists, even for Catholics. “Religion” they say, “is no substitute for psychiatry." They recommend pithily, “Once a person has a serious mental breakdown he may—if he wishes—go to church and light a candle, but right after that it would be a sensible thing for him to visit the office of a psychiatrist.” To them the crux of the mat ter is the question: "What psy chiatrist?” And it is a question that concerns the theologian in a way that the question, “What surgeon?”, is not apt to do. It is only in a few cases, mostly obstetrical, that the moral atti tude of a surgeon is of vital in terest to a Catholic patient. But no patient can spend a single hour in the office of a psychia trist ^without being in some way affected by his fundamental moral and religious beliefs.