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Su Franci® de Sales, Patron of the Catholic Pres® and of the Diocese of Columbus, Pray for (J® 1 This Paper Printed by Lmon Labor Genesis And Science With the appearance of the first volume nf the new Catholic translation of the Old Testament, ’here will no doubt be a renewal of interest in what is perhaps the most difficult portion of the Sacred Scriptures the first eleven chapters of Genesis Here almost every verse bristles with problems and obscurities. Genesis speaks, for instance, of days of creation where astronomers reckon in millions and billion of years, the sacred author pictures God as forming man's body directly from the earth while many biologists regard the human body as the re sult of an evolutionary process, the biblical Deluge covers all the highest mountains everywhere under the heavens and thus seems to dema no a mass of water that is inconceivable, the confusion of tongues at Babel is a divine punishment while students of linguistics hair shown that languages multiply through natural processes of migration and isolation. As Catholics, we believe that the Bible is di vinely inspired, that it is the very word of God. And if an infallible God is its author, how can it possibly contain error’ But if it is free from error, how explain the passages which seem to con tradict the natural sciences’ This is a problem which every Catholic must honestly face. It is impossible, of course to consider each question in detail here, but there air a few general principles which will point nut the direction in which the answer lies. Before all else, it must be understood that truth cannot contradict truth for God is the final source of all truth, and in God there can be no contra diction. True faith can never he al odds with true science Whatever contradiction appears must net essarily he only an apparent one. in that a then logian proposes as a matter of faith something that is not of faith, or a scientist proposes as a matter nf science something that is not science at all In ’he past both iheologians and scientists have fallen into this error From this principle it follows that we must he 'em sure of precisely uhn' the Scriptures teach be fore we pronounce judgment Mi loo often it has happened that uninstructed readers have read their meaning into the Bible and made God's word re 'ponsihle lot the things it does not teach al all. \’ow the discovery of the true sense of the Scrip mres ihe meaning which they realli intend to con vey. is not as easy a.s the layman sometimes sup poses. When God inspired the Bible He had per force to make use ot human speech and human nodes nf speech Mid the modes of speech were of necessity those that prevailed in the time and place n which the Hooks were written Here we fair the major difficulty of interpretation As Pope Pius XII puts it l'he ancient people of the East in or der to express their ideas, did not always employ hnar forms of speech which we use toda, hul rath er those used hy the men of their times and conn tries What those exactly were, the commentator annof delermine as it were in advance but only aflei a careful examination of the ancient liter ature of the East In short the student ol the Bible must foigrl that he is an Occidental ol the twentieth centurv he must train himself to think a.s did an Oriental of 2 000 and more years ago. Herein lies the solution of the problem of the Bible vs science Difficult a.s it may be for us to believe the ancient Hebrew was not al all intci rated in science as wc understand it today. He looked upon the world through eves different from our own Wh-if wc see a host of secondary causes and natural laws in operation and make them the object nf mquirv hr saw all things as caused by God the First Cause For him thunder was the voice" of God, a plague was the hand" of God. sun and moon were lamps set by God in the luma ment to regulate days ami seasons. II he had been tnld that thundet was the result of an electrical phenomenon that a plague was due to the activ i’y of certain bacteria nr that the moon was in all probability a part nf the earth which had been flung into space eons ago his answer would have been hnred indifference Written in such an atmosphere, then, the Bible ‘hould he the last place in the world to look for scientific information Its concern is with other, infinitely more important matters It speaks to us nf God and God s way with man As the saying, usually attributed Io Cardinal Baronins neatly puts it “The Bible intends to teach us how to go to heaven not how the heavens go Oi St Au pustine hrist came to make us Christians, not astronomers Therefore to speak of scientific er rors in the Bible is as senseless as to speak of his ’oncal errors in Shakespeare’s Hamlet or to com lam that Keats’ Ode to a Grecian Urn is not an ,-stc treatment of the science of ceramics in of idea, hut there can objects arc on two alto ether different tracks This is precisely the case rith the Bible and the natural sciences Hamlet omplains of his “too, too solid flesh," and no lencc will stand up to explain itn being solid, is mostly empty atom whizzing about here and and no ichthyologist will protest ew point of science it isn’t a bass the sunfish family. Even an as in an easy chair will say that he will tell him that astronomically thing nf the kind that he is actual Ihr most complicated set nf mo about the galaxy s center of rotation’ Hamlet, the fisherman, the astronomer each is right from ^inbah*ali Of III Will Th Church population is al gather a handful even if they have, to Mid speaker near the If this were all, it could he laid to fanatic teal But the zealots go tn the extreme of preaching the vile and wicked attacks upon the Church that have been disproved times without number. It is to be expected that when some of these lies are broadcast in the area w'here people know better from actual experience that they are not going to take it without resentmemnt. It would be a very poor American that would long endure the lies of Communists about his beloved country. We have laws against people who preach sedition and strive for the overthrow of our government. All good citi zens understand and approve the just anger which rises against such traitors. One of these “sore spots’’ of Protestant mission ary activity is Colombia in South America. Another is in a small Catholic town in Italy where American led Church of Christ worshippers have caused trouble a number of times. New' incidents have oc curred. and as before, adequate publicity is being given in American newspapers. Proper questions to ask are these: How' do these people rate such publicity, and why do American newspapers give it to them unless the American newspapers also don’t like Catholics? (God forbid that they should so contribute to divisiveness in this country.) Again, why is it that this publicity al ways puts these Protestant missionaries in a favor able light when it is the Catholics of the area men tioned that deserve credit for their forebearance? Can the reporters not get the truth? Another ques tion: Can these missionaries not find enough people with no religion at all to convert right here in America without going overseas to attempt by in temperate means to "convert" Catholics? It could be hoped that Protestant loaders in America will show their good will by denouncing these ambassa dors of religion and national ill will. Just Among Ourselves Patting Comment Considered or Inconsiderate Among the hundreds af apochryphal stones about the late President Coolidge is one that tells of his remark to a group of clergymen who visited the White House. Your church believe in prosely tizing?" asked the President. Then, without giving time for an answer. he added dryly, “Mine does." What is this thing called proselytizing? In its simple meaning, it is an effort to make converts. In this sense, any man who sincerely believes or clearly knows, that he holds essential truth and tries to bring others to his way of thinking is a proselyter or proselytizer. In this sense, the Apostles were proselyters. And in this sense, every person who offers explanation or argument to show the justice of his own position is a proselyter for, manifestly, th? whole purpose of explanation and argument is to win dissenting minds to assent and agreement, that is, to make converts. But there is another and meaner sense in which the word proselytize is used. It is used to signify a dishonest and underhand method of weaning peo ple away from an allegiance The true and honor able proselyter makes his position clear for all to see he shows his wares and calls open attention to their genuineness and value, or at least offers them for test and assay. The tricky and dishonorable proselytizer is not so much interested in showing his wares as in damaging the people he considers competitors. The Catholic Church, from the first mission of the Apostles, has spared no effort to spread the Faith among mankind. She has shown herself as the city set on a hill that cannot be hid. the city of truth and salvation. She has proclaimed the doc trine of Christ she has offered proof of that doc trine a.s the unique religious truth,- the proof of reason, the proof of saintly lives, the proof of en during history, the proof of martrydoms, the proof of supernatural sign and grace and illumination. The heresies, and the sects opposed to the Ca tholic Church, have often been proselyters in the dishonorable sense. Consider the story of religious freedom in our own country. The New England col onists, victims of persecution in their native lands, were prompt to persecute others who disagreed with them in this land Only in Catholic Maryland was there true religious freedom. The Catholic Church in Maryland, as everywhere and at all times, was eager to have all men “come to the knowledge of the truth:" she was eager for converts. Rut she was not blinded by this eagerness she W'as not moved to persecute, by law or deed, those who were outside he.r pale She permitted all to follow conscience not by any shallow philosophy of toler ance (which is mere cold indifference) but hy the sound philosophy nf the love nf (Ind and man. which knows that “the Spirit hreatheth where Hr will," and that converts arc not made hy force or by meanness or hy bitterness. Th? Church proclaims truth, expounds it. mani fests it. urges her children to let it shine through their truly Catholic lives, prays for its extension among men, spares neither means nor lives to hring it io the attention of mankind The Church never seeks merely to draw people away from something tn put upon them economic pressures, or social lim datums. or to harry them with petty inconveniences, or to nag them with nastiness and meanness, a.s, for instance, in the matter of school buses. The Church ptves and does not merely deprive she seeks to win souls to truth and grace, not merely to poison minds against an old allegiance All this comes to one thing: the hurch is always a true and hon orable proselvter, her enemies are often tricky and dishonorable proselyters In the Latin countries of South America, the people generally are the inheritors of long ages nf Catholic culture They have the Faith. Like their co religionists everywhere (and perhaps more than their coreligionists in some places) they need to he stirred to renewed zeal in the practice of what they sacredly believe. Rut. whether zealous in practice or careless and lax, they arc Catholics, and they rightly resent the coming of anti-Catholics among them with lures or threats to draw them away from their Faith This is a plain fact which some myopic non Catholics "cannot sec Perhaps they could see it if thev would face another fact, which is this: the Catholic Church is never merely anti Protestant, while Protestant sects (notably in Latin America) arc definitely anh-Catholic. Proselyting of the mere anti variety is never honorable proselyt ing. In the meeting nf representatives of the World Council of Churches in Sweden last month, the Exarch Archbishop of Central and Western Europe (“Greek Orthodox") addressed some stern words nn this matter of dishonorable (or anti) proselyting. Said he “I take the liberty nf recomrtienriing to all of you to respect our church, and. ’above all, to condemn in your conscience the tendency of any Protestant group to exercise proselytism in the bosom of the Greek Orthodox country, and to resist it Such proselytizing, if not stopped, might cause enmity among the Orthodox people against all th? Protestants, and this would be disastrous to any ecumenical movement The sects or groups which ardently carry on the anti variety of proselyting are never very clear in their own minds, or in their words, about the doctrines which they would have people believe In fact, they are against clear-cut doctrine They are noainst the “hard saving" nf the Catholic Church. They want unity, but unity tn a general rejection of truly authoritative teaching, of precise belief, nf understanding, appreciation, and allegiance. In a word, they seek to destroy, not to build up they are not for something, but they are against Some thing And hv that token they are bad proselyters, unworthy of respect. WASHINGTON LETTER WASHINGTON There is general agreement on both sides of the Atlantic that only a “unit ed Europe" can stop the advance of communism and create the conditions that eventually may lead to the liberation of the countries overrun by the Soviets. Of course, the old saying that “there is many a slip ’twixt the cup and the lip" is warmngly recalled hereby all those who have not fallen prey to the (Pop ular habit of mistaking a slogan for an accomplished fact—par ticularly when the fact to be hoped for is such an enormous ly complicated thing as the res toration of unity among the di vided peoples of a continent. However, even cautious souls have been gratified by the news from Strasbourg telling of the meeting of parliamentarians from six western European coun tries linked together in the Schu man plan coal and steel com munity. They hail this step as a move in the right direction. They equally welcome the joint maneuvers of the NATO powers as indications of growing west ern unity. Yet, without in any way un derestimating the importance of such concrete developments, ex perienced observers of the Euro pcan scene here cannot quite rid themselves of a feeling that “something" is still missing to EAT HER HIGGINS Obviously the T.G.W U. is one of the most influential orgam zations in contemporary Eng land. It is capable of doing tre mendous good or tremendous evil depending upon the integ rity and the wisdom of its lead ership and depending also up on the extent to which the rank and file participates, from the bottom to the lop, tn the process of hammering out the official policies of the organization. To what extend does the rank and-file of the T.G.W.U. actual ly participate in the policy-mak ing process? To w’hat extent, in other words, is the T.G.W. a “democratic" organization? Not Adequate Guarantee A young American econom ist, Joseph Goldstein, attempts to answer this question in a new book entitled “The Government of English Trade Unions" (George Allen and Unwin, Lon don). Goldstein's answer, for whatever it may be wmrth from a scientific point of view, is somewhat less than encourag ing It is difficult to avoid the conclusion, he says, "that the Transport and General Workers Union is an obligarchy at every level of its structure, failing to THE CATHOLIC TIMES, FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 19, 1952 Ao Man's Land in the Cold War Right Atmosphere Needed spark this movement toward European unity. They sense that political and economic and mili tary agreements are not enough to create that kind of higher unity which is far more than a mere expedient arrangement. They declare that genuine west ern unity must be. principally, of a spiritual nature if it is to serve as an effective counter-w'eight against the ideological claims of communism. In connection with such ap prehensions, it has been noted here w'ith much interest that His Holiness Pope Pius XJ1 in one of his recent discourses put his fin ger on this intangible element which cannot be expressed in the paragraphs of solemn treat ies but is, nevertheless, indis pensable for the growth of real unity. Addressing a study congress nf Italian Catholic Action on the theme "Catholics and Interna tional Life." the Pope referred to the need of a proper “atmos phere," without which, he said, “a common international action can have neither consistency nor prosperous growth." By using the term “growth," the Pope made it clear that uni ty is not a mechanical or materi al thing or something that can be manufactured, but rather an organic thing, something living that requires sunshine and rain Rank-And-File Conviction The British Transport and [General Work ers Union, with [a membership of approxi mately 1,500, i000. is hy far he higgest un ion in th? vorld. Even in he United States, in spite of the fact that our population is triple that of England, our largest unions (e.g, Steelw'ork ers and the UAW) ate no more than two-thirds the size of the T.G W.U. elicit th? active participation of its members." He emphasizes mor? than once that “the T.G.W. U. has many great achievements to its credit and has trained many leaders who have contrib uted their services to the com munity in an effort to improve the general welfare." He ad mits that the constitution of the union is sufficiently democratic, but this, he argues, is not an adequate guarantee of democ racy in practice. “In becoming an efficient service organization," he says, “the T.G.W.U, has lost sight of one of its major objectives The individual member has not been taken into consideration he has not been kept informed through a free and adequate ex change of information he has not heen consulted. Consequent ly. he has failed to achieve as an individual in his own Trade Union community the status and respect which Unions have sought for the worker in the community at large." The present writer has nn way of telling whether or not Mr. Goldstein's conclusions are ac curate. The Union's president, Arthur Deakin, has suggested that some of them are not. Mr, GoHstcin. he says, "has misun derstood what he has seen or. at any rate, failed to access its sig nificance." Be that as it may, Mr. Goldstein has performed a use ful service by asking some nf the right question, about the T.G.W U. and. by inference, abnut the rest of the British la bor movement. Fortify Democratic Base The same questions ought to be asked, and scientifically an swered about American unions and American employers' associ ations Presumably, all of them are sufficiently "democratic" in theory, but to what extent, pre to grow and prosper. Few will deny that this “at mosphere" of which the Holy Father spoke is still absent to a very large extent. Clouds of na tional resentments, distrust and suspicion veil the scene where the work toward unity is taking place. The Holy Father has reminded Catholics that theirs is a partic ular opportunity and duty to help dispel such clouds and cre ate the “atmosphere" of mutual understanding, respect, sincerity and benevolence which form the real basis of unity. A unity which disregards this basis, a spurious “unity" which is only manufactured to suit temporary conveniences and achieve material advantages, is doomed to failure. It could nev er ward off the dangers of cul tural and social disintegration which Christopher Dawson an alyzed in his latest book, "Un derstanding Europe.” Perhaps, those vaguely feeling that “something is missing” in the European movement toward unity will come to realize, as Dawson said, that the sources of Europe’s inner strength and uni ty are "those fundamental spir itual principles which are in separable from the Christian faith and which have been the foundation of the w'hole develop ment of western culture." cisely, ar? they democratic in practice? Do they honestly de sire—and if so, to what extent have they actually succeeded in eliciting rank-and-file partici pation at the policy-making lev el? Or, to put the questio.* more realistically, ar? the rank-and file members in American un ions and American employers’ associations really interested in controlling the policies of these organizations. A Moral Obligation Our own casual observation w'ould lead us to conclude—sub ject. of course, to correction— that rank-and-file apathy is prob ably just as pronounced in American unions and American employers’ associations as it seems to be. according to Mr. Goldstein, in the T.G.W.U. What to do about it is another mat ter. Dr. Goldstein’s recommenda tions. in the opinion of at least one British Catholic economist, are somewhat less than adequate (“Apathy in the Trade Unions" by R. P. Lynton, The Tablet, July 26). This is probably true. Our own recommendations, on the other hand, are even less ade quate than Goldstein’s. But of one thing we are absolutely certain: the problem is basically a spirit ual problem A revision of the co istitution or changes in the organizational structure of the T.G.W.U., or any other union or employers’ asso ciation. will not accomplish very much unless the rank-and-file are convinced that they have a mor al obligation, in justice and charity, to assume their share of responsibility for the poli cies of these organizations. As the Bishops of Australia pointed out in their 1950 Social Justice Statement, no man may trade his conscience to any po litical party or to any secular organization. INQUIRY CORNER RICHARD PATTEE Will The Good Alone Rise On Last Day? Q. Will the good alone nse on the last day? A. While most of the empha sis in the New Testament is placed upon the glorious resur rection of the good the wicked certainly shall rise too. Clearly from Christ’s own description of the I-ast Judgment (Matthew 25:34-46) those W'ho have chos en themselves rather than Christ will be present and judged: "De part from me, accursed ones, into the everlasting fire "St. John's Gospel records the fact too: "And they who have done good shall come forth into resur rection of life but they who have done evil unto resurrection of judgment.” (John 5:29) Q. What is restitution? A. Restitution is the logical consequence of the seventh commandment (“Thou shalt not steal" Exodus 20:15) and means restoring to the owner stolen goods or their value. If the owner is dead, stolen goods must be restored to the heirs.- If he cannot be found at all the goods are to be given to the poor or pious causes. No one may be forgiven in the Sacrament of Penance without the sincere promise of restitution, including the repairing of damage done to another’s property. In the Old Testament the law was much stricter: "If any man steal an ox or a sheep, and kill or sell it: he shall restore five oxen for one ox. and four sheep for one sheep." (Exodus 22:1) Why was devotion to St. Joseph so long neglected by the Church From what Tve read it seemed to be overlooked for cen tum et. A. It is true that the Fathers of the Church have little to say of St. Joseph and that the de votion did not develop fully un til modern times. There w’as ob servance of his feast day as ear ly as the sixth century, however, and he was always honored with the Holy Family. As Father Fi las points out in his recent book (“Joseph and Jesus”) there were good reasons why St. Joseph did not receive great attention. The remarkable fact of the Virgin Birth and of Christ’s divine son ship was difficult to present to the pagan world, St. Joseph’s vocation was one of obscurity, and even during the first five centuries the same problem re mained. It would not do to em phasize the "father” of Jesus, while explaining to the world that He was the Son of God. An other reason is the fact that the saints honored in the first cen turies were martyrs—except for First Impression First impres sion is not lit erally true. It was in the year of grace 1931 that I came to Denmark for the first time. At that time tourism was not in a flo u i s i n state. Steam ship lines were competing with each other to get the meager trade that trickled through during the depression years. The Hamburg American Line offered a round trip from New York to Germany which included, among other things, travel to Norway, Den mark and Sweden with hotels and rail transportation covered by the steamship line. I there fore spent a few splendid days in Copenhagen, visited Elsinore and devoted most of th? time to sitting in Tivoli Park, the show place of the Danish capital and one of tbe most delightful spots in all Europe. Denmark today has changed extraordinarily little. The war and occupation left marks that are psychological and economic rather than physical. Copenhag en is still the uncommonly fas cinating place it always was, by far the most extrovert of the Scandinavian capitals. There is something far more south-Ger man than Scandinavian about Copenhagen or at least what we generally assume te be Scan dinavian. It's more Vienna or Mu nich in the days before they w'ere so frightfully blighted than a city that has lived cheek by jowl with Prussia and might reasonably have absorbed some of its character. It is not unlike the Netherlands externally, with its bonhomie, bicycles every where and total flatne s. There is a sense, however, or less stol idity and perhaps a less acute feeling of insatability than in Holland. Tonic For War Jitters I am not going to treat of Danish reconstruction since th? occupation, nor of the various problems that beset this little land. Some of these questions weigh very heavily on the Dan ish conscience. The Soviet Union is dangerously close. For long months the island of Bornholm was occupied by the Soviets and might very well have become another of those countless posi tions from which the Soviet the Blessed Virgin—and the ven ration of confessors came later. The Apocrypha, unreliable leg ends for the most part, helped diminish St. Joseph’s position by making him an extremely old man or the father of other chil dren. an inconsequential part of the scenery’. Q. When the Holy See ap proves the proposed World cal* endar, how does it justify tht insertion of one day (in leap year, two days) not regarded as any day of the seven-day week? A. There is certainly scriptur al authority for the week of sev en days. Certain authors point out a natural fitness to this num ber as opposed to the ten-day week of the French Revolution, because of the seven days de scribed in Genesis (2:3). Some also consider it to be of the natu ral order, pointing to changes of the moon every seven days. At any rate there is no prob lem for the Church if it accepts a convenient calendar with a special day once a year. As the Church was empowered to change the Lord’s Day to Sun day, so it may accept this minor adjustment. The principle in volved is that the Lord’s Day be kept as required by the living Church. Q. Who was the founder of the Retreat movement? A. In a general way Christ founded the movement by His teaching and example, as in His forty*days in the desert. It was continued by the Apostles (Acts 1:14) and the Fathers of the Church. St. Jerome exhorted Celantia to “Choose to thyself a suitable place, remote from the noise of the household.’’ and to make a retreat. St. Peter Chry sologus urged the faithful with this famous invitation: "We have given a year to the body, let us give days to the soul.” The founder of the lay-Retreat move ment, as Pope Pius XI points out in his Encyclical on Retreats, is St. Ignatius Loyola, with the Spiritual Exercises. St. Charles Borromeo used these Exercises in his diocese and built the first Retreat house. Since then Re treat houses have sprung up throughout the world and near ly every diocese in the United States has facilities and an or ganization for Retreats. In 1922 Pope Pius XI named St. Ignatius Loyola as patron of those mak ing the Spiritual Exercises. Send questions to Rev. Ed ward F. Healey, The Inquiry Corner, The Catholic Times, Box 636, Columbus (16) Ohio. "liberators" cannot be handily ousted. The Baltic has become in many ways, except for Swed en, a Soviet domain. Along with East Germany and the Baltic States, plus strategic positions in Finland, Denmark looks down the length of the Baltic to what has become her extremely dis agreeable neighbor. Recent tug ging and pulling with the Unit ed States regarding the construc tion of a ship for the Soviet Un ion reveals how delicate the bal ance between her position in the North Atlantic Pact and her recognition of precarious rela tions with the USSR: But nothing in Copenhagen gives any evidence of fear, or even anxiety. I have not been to Berlin sihee the war, but ev ery one who returns from that oasis in the midst of Sovietland reports that the most nerveless people to be found anywhere in Europe are the Berliners. Den mark in her own modest way might be construed as a tonie for war jitters. There is little talk about war or its Immediate danger and extraordinarily lit tle about the Soviet Union. Below The Surface The experience of the past seven years seems to have taught the Danes that since it is necessary to live fairly close to this very obnoxious power, there is rfo sense in spending one’s time in hopeless frustra tion or a turmoil of nerves. Therefore the only sensible thing is to go about one’s business as normally as possible. During my brief stay here I shall be interested in seeing a little bit below the surface as to some of the characteristics of Danish life, and especially of the status of the Church in this country—I mean the Catholic Church, not the officially es tablished Lutheran Church. Ex ternally Denmark has a placid, bucolic sort of appearance. Mod ernistic flats in Copenhagen, workers’ dwellings in the cap ital and smaller cities give the appearance of prosperity. The lush countryside would seem to indicate that here is a land of veritable milk and honey. My particular concern will be to find out something about the state of mind in Denmark, -nd especially its religious state. In two succeeding articles, I shall attempt to describe very rapidly some of the most salient facts and impressions about Catholic ism in this almost completely Lutheran scent.