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THE ^ATHOLIC TIMES Published Every Week by The Catholic Times, Inc. Columbus. Ohio NOTICE: Send All Changes ot Address to P. O Box 636 Columbus. Ohio Executive and Editorial Offices: 246 E. Town Street Columbus 15. Ohio Telephones: ADams 5195 ADams 5196 Address all communications for publication to O Box 636. Columbus 16. Ohio Pric* of Th* Catholic Time* i» $3 per year Al) »uhscrrt« n- ahould be presented to our offiee through ..ir pastors of the parishes. Remittances should be made parable to The Cath olic Timet Anonymous communications will be diwegarded do nci hold oursehee responsible for any views or opinions expressed in the communications of our corresponden ta. Entered a» Second. Class Matter at Post Offiee Columbus. Ohio St. hrancis de Sales, Patron of the Catholic Press and of the Diocese of Columbus. Pray for Us I This Paper Printed by Union Labor Public Moral Sentiment The Filipinos have a regard foi morality This is evident from the fact that a movie star's box ot fice falls off sharply when he or she becomes in volved in a scandal v a result the Philippine stu dios now insist that contracts with star performers contain a morality clause binding the player to ob serve proper moral standards in his or her private life. Leaders in the movie industry in the Philip pines testify already that the morality clauses have helped increase box office receipts. One Filipino producer has testified that in his country the movie goer does not distinguish between a star’ home life and her life on the screen. “A married actress,” he said, “must play the role of a married woman on the screen if she wants to hold on to her audience, and an unmarried actress must portray only an unmar ried screen heroine. Alt this is a truly admirable example tn Amej ica It is true that with us, the Legion of Decency has done a great national service in its efforts to keep the movies decent. But American public morality and sentiment is not such as to be of fended easily by the private life of a star performer. Immorality would have to become quite serious and public to affect the box office here Also, the Filipino attitude could well that of the American citizen toward those in public office. Sometimes people who are scoundrels succeed in getting elected to positions of public trust Some times, too. people in such positions give bad moral example. This seems not to disturb the American public too much. However, any thinking person can understand that people of good morals in their pri vate lives would also be honest in then tenure ot a public trust. Religion is the basis of good morals, and any pub lie moral attitude must stem from the religious con victions of the citizenry. All attacks upon any con nection between Church and State serve only to in timidate any public expression of morality. Ftelig mua convictions must therefore be strong and Icai less if we are to have any increase in honesty and decency in public office as well as in the movie and TV entertainment world. __________________ Answering Blanshard's Falsifications Sometimes one is tempted to be impatient with much of the goings on in public and social life. This is particularly so now that the political scene is so confusing. However, occasionally something most valuable come* to the patient soul. One such experience to lie treasured was the address of Dr. .lames O’Neill at the annual convention last week of the Diocesan Council of Catholn Women Dr. O'Neill is known for his splendid hook. Catholicism and American Freedom which stands as a scholarly and able refutation of Blanshards hook, American Freedom and Catholic Potter. In a clear and logical mannei Mi O'Neill exposed in his address the evil of Blanshard s volume of diatribe against the (atholic Church Ihe speaker look quite a selection ol propositions from Blanaharris book and showed him utterly untrue thev arc lie exposed the bigoted mind of the author of can Fredoin and Catholic I’oirri proviuv b\ docu mentary reference the falsity of his attack on the Church Further Mr O'Neill showed the lack of scholarship on the part of Mr Blanshard who could easily have learned the truth from documents and evidence available in any reputable library. But the sad part of the whole story, as Mr. O’Neill pointed out. is that so called scholars have praised Mr Blanshard* book Still more alarminc is thr fact that his hook has found its way into many libraries and is already referred to as a classic an thority on the mailer of alholicism in Xmerica. Has American scholarship sunk so low as this? Do college professors never think clearly and log rally'’ Have thev no integrity of learning' Are hey completely unaware of the facts of history n America’’ Do they advocate complete and im artial research in all fields except when it comes to he (atholic hurch? Has not a single one ot them aken the trouble tn verify the evidence advanced by Blanshard even if in only one two of his nears of the Catholic Church'1 If only one of Blanshard's false statements is disproved, does that not render his whole book suspect until verified’ scholarship, where hast thou tied from the \ini can college campus’’ Integrity of thought, denied n all communist lands, where wilt thou be found not in American circles of learning’ What to do? Catholic laymen should provide bundant copies of Di O Neill's book tor all lihrai s reading rooms schools and to influential people 'w have not the opportunity ot leadin'-1 Ihe .inswer •0 Mr Blanshard tug task this surely, but an ostolic one Mr O'Neill has provided the leadei hip and an adequate tool for this work Every Ca holic organization might well undertake this pro ect as most worthy of the lay apostolale. Catholic Youth cck The devise of setting aside a particular week in honor of some group or institution har become so widespread in its in that it effectiveness has largely been lost A titled ‘week’ must have much more than average merit to he able tn stand out among such wondrously labeled spans as “National Apple Meek” National Tie Week.” 'Be Kind to Animals Week,” etc The discriminating (dcbialoi most look tarlhcrl than the label when seeking a certain seven day*, in which to revel There arc some important “weeks” which deserve more (han passing attention. Such a “week is National atholic S outh Week One need not look far to find ample reasons lor taking an interest in our youth The burden of much of the news tn the daily press would give the impression that young people of the present dax are an irresponsible scatter brain segment of society about which there is little or no hope Sad to say, this gloomy conclusion does have some basts. The Director of the Federal Bureau of Inxcstiga tion, Mr .1 Edgar Hoover recently published some startling facts gathered by his office Almost 3(1 percent of all person* arrested acd years of age and they were responsible for 55 pci cent of all robberies 60 per cent ot all burglarie* 69 per cent of all auto thefts and 43 per cent of all larcenies!” than 25 The FBI chief quick tn point tn the cause of these disheartening statistics, saying, “behind these figures lie tragic stories of parental neglect, broken homes, immorality, adult delinquency, and nublic apathy—painful proof that our nation is suf fering from spiritual starvation.” The people of the nation who decry the state of our youth can only do so at the price of being hypocritical. If the youth of the nation is in a had way, it is the adults who have only themselves to blame. To neglect the youth of today is to under mine our country's future. It is only those who have no religious faith though that look upon the youths of our country and their problems and see no hope. It is a case of seeing only the bad and none of the good, and of not putting the hlame where it belongs. In his letter declaring the week beginning Oct. 19 as Catholic Youth Week in the Diocese. Bishop Ready said, “the position of youth in our society may he considered precarious and uncertain to those who have no religious faith. However, the challenge to meet evil with good, to establish firm foundations of hope, to build ties of brotherly love, to accept their share in the responsibilities of the future is unprecedented in our history.” These are w’ords of hope. And they give the reason why each person, youth and adult, should enter into the spirit of Catholic Youth Week. usl Among Ourselves Passing Comment Considered or Inconsiderate One t, our prominent Catholic magazines takes occasion from some circumstance or other of this autumn time, to exclaim that Christmas is almost here, and suggests that we do not overlook the matter of foam rubber cushions when we are mak ing up gift lists. This is what people who love a phiase will call a timely thought, while others will regard it as a peculiarly poisonous recommendation. Despite ihe advertisers, and these tiresome peo ple with the long view ever foreshortened before them, there are still a good many days between us ano Christmas and more days, one hopes pious ly, between us and foam rubber cushions. We have a good deal of important business to transact before it becomes absolutely imperative to decide what shall be sent to Aunt Belinda and what will do for Uncle Rupert. We have football to attend to, and a President to elect, and one thing and anoher besides earning Ihe year’s taxes. 4 9* We still have a fortnight nf golden October weather ahead, with its golden opportunity of get ting better acquainted with the better-eaid Rosary. And we have the whole long month of the Holy Souls. All this before Advent brings on the proximate preparation for Christmas. The month of the Rosary should have taught us to pray better, and thus prepared us for November, before the Feast of All Souls sees us fairly launched on the most stimulating and rewarding work of char ity in the book,—the helping of the souls in purga lory. It is good for us all to review’ the points of sacred docrine touching upon this great work. Our Faith teaches us two things on this point: first, that purgatory exists second, that the souls in purgatory are helped by our prayers and suf frages on their behalf. That the souls in purgatory help us is a matter of general experience, although this tact is not defined as an article of the faith. Purgatory exists. It is a state and a place in which human souls undergo cleansing punishment for the venial sins, or the remains of forgiven sins, which burdened them at the moment of then death and judgment. The souls in purgatory are helped by prayers and good works offered here on earth for their benefit. The souls in purgatory can no longer help them selves. The time ol man's meriting (always through Ou Ixud and Savior Jesus Christ) is Ihe span of his responsible life on earth If a person is not cleansed from even the slightest guilt of sin. and from the remains of sin, he cannot immediately enter heaven when he dies, for nothing defiled can enter heaven. He must first purge away the defilement, not by meriting, for the time for that is gone, but by suffering, unless we on earth come to his aid. Purgatory is a most merciful dispensation With out it, what could those souls do which arc stained, not mortally, with sin al the moment of death'.’ They simply would not enter heaven, even if entrance were offered them, until they are fully ready, fully cleansed from all defilement. Purgatory is not so much an evidence of stern justice as it is a manifes tation of (rod's infinite love and kindness. It is kind ncss to the departed souls, and it is a marvelous kindness to the faithful on earth, since it is at once a warning and an admonition for their guidance and also an opportunity to share magnificently in Ihe redemptive work of Christ. We may help the souls in purgatory by praying for them, by offering or hearing Holy Mass for them or causing Masses to be offered, by hearing trials and sufferings with patience for their benefit, hy gaining indulgences for them, by asking God Io accept on their behalf the merits we may claim, through Our Lord, for our own good works. To be eager and energetic in helping the Holy Souls is ever thr mark of a thorough Catholic. Perhaps the easiest way of lending aid tn the souls suffering in Purgatory is found in gaining in dulgences for them The Church, loving mother of all the faithful living or departed, makes this pos sible Exorcising her divinely given power of loos ing and binding, the Church attaches to certain simple prayers and practices a value of merit,— drawn from the inexhaustible treasury of the mer its of Christ and His Saints,—which we may obtain to satisfy the temporal debt of punishment due to sms. our own or those of the souls in purgatory. We may, lot certain prayers or works, gain a full or plenary indulgence. That is to say, the Church has attached to these actions, when per fectly performed with perfect dispositions, a com plctc cancellation of the temporal punishment bur dening (m fact or in sentence) the soul for whose benefit the indulgence is won A partial indulgence cancels a part of the temporal punishment due A person may gam an indulgence for himself or for the departed, but not for any other living person. A partial indulgence is expressed in terms of years or days, but we are not sure of the exact value and extent of these partial cancellations of temporal punishment Purgatory lies in thr myster ious realm between earthly time and heavenly timelcssness K is a temporal stale, but our units of time are not accurate and adequate measures of its enduring To gam an indulgence of ten days may mean that as much temporal punishment is cancelled as would be wiped out by ten days of severe penance but this is only an opinion We do not know just how much temporal punishment is cancelled by gaming a partial indulgence But we do know that God is infinitely generous, and that the value of even Ihe least of partial indulgences is immensely great. Wc nerd to learn the practice of gaining mdul gcnces, for our own sake. What better schooling could we have than by applying ourselves deligent ly to the ga'nmg of indulgences for the holy souls purgatory? THE CATHOLIC TIMES, FRIDAY, OCTOBER 17, 1952 4. WASHINGTON LETTER WASHINGTON The “trial” and “conviction” of 28 priests and 12 Catholic laymen in Bul garia a few days ago, recalls that that country has had a long and bad record in the matter of rel igious persecution. Bulgaria seems to be engaged in sort of unholy competition with its neighbors—Rumania to the north and Yugoslavia to the west—in stamping out religion and making a mockery of basic human rights. A similar phoney “trial” of 15 Protestant church leaders in early 1949 focused world atten tion upon what was already a bad situation Bulgaria. The .judicial farce drew indignant protests from many nations and made it clear that the end of all religious freedom in Bulgaria was in sight. And. it became clear, just travesties on judicial proceedings were being used to discredit and besmirch clergy men who incurred communist wrath, so the law was to he the weapon with which religion was to he hcaten to death. A national law was introduced w hich, as a sort of window-dress ing. established freedom of con science and of religious belief the first article, and then went on for 30-odd articles to make practically every phase of religious Ijfr subject to control ITHER HIGGINS I .ast week we promised to discuss some of the informal o ams ol social educat ion developed in the United States in re cent years in response to the i e tives of the Holy See. The following list, we hasten to remind the reader, is only a ran dom sampling and does not pre tend to he complete The Young Christian Worker* One of Ihe most important types of social education is that being conducted—still on a re latively limited scale in the Unit ed States—by the Youth Christian Workers, the American equi valent of the Jocists. The YCW's emphasis is on education through concrete “action in life” through an organized effort on the part of the young workers them selves to solve those social pro blems which are within their reach and which for that very reason are their own special re sponsibility. Not that the YCW underestimates the necessity of formal education for all men and women, including its own members. Not at all. But the YCW does emphasize more than our schools do, and more than the nonspecialized types of Catholic Action do, the import ance of action as a means of ef fective education in the social virtues. Those who are interested in learning more about the ap proach of the YCW and of re lated types of specialized Catho lic Action are referred to the Catholic Action Federation. 638 Deming Place. Chicago, III. Catholic Labor School* Catholic labor education in the In The Service Of The King VW hi A Sustained Bad Record and approval by the state. The very existance of a religious denomination, so far as juridical status was concerned was made to depend upon the will of a single cabinet officer—the for eign minister. Speaking of the “trial” of the Protestant clergymen three years ago, Archbishop John T. McNich olas, O P., of Cincinnati said “the sympathy of all normal men goes out to ail Christians and relig ious persons behind the Iron Curtain who are persecuted, de* graded and even liquidated un less they become slaves and tools of the perverted clique control ling the communistic govern ment of Bulgaria The Archbishop, then Chair man of the Administrative Board of the National Catholic Welfare Conference, added that “like wise, the leaders of the Ortho dox Church, as well as Catholic, Protestant and Jewish leaders who do not admit to the en slavement of Moscow must ex pect infamous defamation, per secution, exile, slavery, hard labor, starvation and death.” He called the “trial” of the Pro testant “iniquitous, shameful and inhuman.” By summer of 1949, w-ord fil tered out of Bulgaria that the Red regime had loosed an anti religious campaign that ridicul Catholic Social Education United States is beginning to catch on at long last, but al together too slowly in view of the critical needs of the day. At pre sent we have approximately 75 Catholic labor schools (evening schools for workers) in the various dioceses of the country. A thousand or more are needed to provide a reasonable minimum of Catholic social education for union members, who will be call ed upon increasingly to play a more important role in the re construction of society. These labor schools are “schools” only in the most gen eral sense of the term. Emphasis is on informality and free dis cussion, and the curriculum is geared as much as possible to the current needs and problems of the “students.” Additional in formation about this important development in the life of the Church in America can be found in Father John Cronin's book, “Catholic Social Action,” to gether with practical recommen dations as to how the movement can be extended as it must he to care for the social education of employers and professional people. Interested readers may also wish to contact the Social Action Department of NCWC for assistance in establishing pro jects of this description. Catholic Rural Education For Adult* The National Catholic Rural Life Conference under the leadership of Monsignor Luigi Ligutti. Father William Gibbons. S. J., and the diocesan directors of rural life—sponsors a number of local and regional institutes for Catholic farmers. These are supplemented or, better still, in spired by rural retreats with emphasis on the application of religious principles to the social, economic, and cultural problems ^■3 ed all religious, Orthodox, Pro testant, Jewish and Catholic, and that concentration camps already were filled with Catholic priests and laymen accused of acts of sabotage, black marketing and sedition. Of Bulgaria's seven million people it is estimated that less than 60.000 were Cat holics in 1949. The greater number of inhabitants belonged to the schismatic Orthodox Church. Great Britian wrote a note to the Bulgarian government say ing “religious freedom in East ern Europe is under a deliber ate. general attack” London told Sofia that it thought Bul garia had no intention of living up to her peace treaty guarante es of political and religious free dom. Observers in London thought at the time that the gov ernment might “take stronger steps” later. Last year, there was clear evidence that the Red regime in Bulgaria was keeping a con stant pressure on all clergymen —Catholic and non-Catholic—to bring them to renounce their religious calling. This pressure was exerted by offers of “honors” for compliance and threats of punishment for re fusal. The “trials” just reported would indicate that they are still getting refusals for their efforts. of the farm family. The rural retreat movement, like the work ers' retreat movement, is still in its infancy, but there is every reason to expect that it will ex pand rather rapidly. Those who desired further information a bout this movement may con tact the NCRLC, 3801 Grand Avenue, Des Moines 12. Iowa. Genaral Adult Education Adult education takes a wide variety of forms in the United States—parish study clubs, lec ture programs, forums, etc.—but one relatively new form calls for special mention. We refer to the efforts being made by some of our Catholic colleges and universities to extend their services to the general public in their respective communities. This development is long over due. For too many years our col leges and universities, sometimes for reasons beyond their control, have been in their respective cities but not of them. They have been “ivory towers” after a fashion, too little concerned with the problem of the com munity, too far removed from the general public. Today, more of them are moving into the field of adult education (of a non academic and informal varity) on a wide range of religious social, and cultural subjects. These feu types of informal social education are here describ ed only superficially. But per haps the mere mention of the fact that some Catholic organi zations and institutions have already broken the ice and are having a reasonable measure of success, will encourage others to imitate their example and thereby bring us closer to the goal envisioned by Pius XI: an intensive program of social ed ucation for “all classes of so ciety.” INQUIRY CORNER Does Church Approve Of Psychiatry? Q. How can you distinctly tell if a sin is venial or mortal? Give examples. A. The Catechism defines a mortal sin as a “grievous of fense against the law of God” and a venial sin as a “less ser ious offense.” For a sin to be mortal it must involve a thought, desire, word, action or omission which is seriously wrong e.g. de liberate cursing, missing mass on Sunday, a lie that causes ser ious harm, etc. In the second place the person must know what he ir doing (i.e. not asleep) and know that it is wrong (e.g. a child of three could not sin mor tally even by killing someone). The third point requires that the person fully consent to the act. A person who is forced to omit a serious obligation (e.g. if parents refuse to permit a child to at tend mass) or commits a serious act, sinful in itself, without full consent (e.g. an alcoholic) does not ordinarily sin mortally. In all such cases the proper place to settle the question where there is any doubt is the confessional. The priest is trained and or dained to help, and the Sacra ment of Penance is divinely or dained for this problem. Q. How can one find a Catho lic psychiatrist in or near Co lumbus? Does the Church ap prove of psychiatry? A The first one to consult in such situations is your pastor, if there is something involved which cannot be settled in con fession. He will be glad to refer you to a worthy practitioner or to someone who can recommend nne. Any art or science which is for man's welfare in its purpose and in its practice will be accept ed by the Church. It is not the Church’s business, however, to approve or disapprove of such sciences as such. When doctrinal or moral questions are involved the Church will speak out oth erwise the value of the use of such science is left to the pru dence of the individual Catholic, under advice from his confessor or' pastor! Q. If one breaks the fast un intentionally, has one committed a sin? A. No. The law of fasting is a grave obligation but if a person forgets or through honest mis understanding violates the law there is no sin. If the violation is a result of carelessness or con tempt of the law. however, it would be a sin. depending on the degree of malice. Q. If one should make a mistake and order meat on Friday at a restaurant or make a mistake and prepare it at home, should he throw it away, if it cannot be saved or should he eat it? A. Since the law of abstinence is a grave obligation on the con GRETTA PALMER Interest i n Mission ToMoscow and prophetic words are be ing cabled from Moscow. At meetings of the Commun ist Internation al, party big wigs from through out the world are being permit ted to make a sions unanimous as a gesture to democracy. Politburo deci Correspondents on the spot interpret the official statements as indicating that the Cold War will not be allowed to get hot for the next decade. Instead, they suggest, it may reach a sub-Arctic temperature. Given The Work* We all know that as soon as Stalin says, “I don’t want a war this year,” some American statesman with a short memory for history (and an almost en-1 dearing ignorance of philoso phy) will say, “See? We can do business with Stalin.” And our folklore will again be brighten ed by the mythical figure of Good Old Uncle Joe, the kindly eccentric of the Kremlin. Pret ty soon somebody with the best of credentials will go to Moscow to see whether the differences between the Christian and the Communist worlds cannot be ironed out by a frank, man-to man discussion. At that moment, the Catholics of the Free World will protest. And at once we shall he accused of harboring uncharitable sus picions of a fellow man when we suggest that tlncle Jot has been known to lie. We shall be re proached for taking a narrow, selfish attitude towards Commun ists simply because Marx was an atheist. It will he suggested that we have a particular ax to grind, that the quarrel between the Vatican and the Kremlin need not concern non-Catholic Amer icans. We will, in a word, be giv en the works. And at that time, I am glad to say, we shall have ready-to hand a simple and crushing bit of repartee. It is provided in the recently published book, “From Major Jordan's Diaries,” com piled by George Racey Jordan and Richard L. Stokes. For this book gives the first complete account of how just such a good will mission to Moscow began and ended. Moreover, the visitor science of every Catholic there must be a serious reason for an exception. The habit of some Ca tholics whereby they lightly ex cuse themselves is in no way justified. Based on the need of penance (Matthew 16:34 Luke 13:5) and remembrance of the Passion of Christ our obligation in this regard is more serious than the “wasting of a small amount of food. It is commonly accepted that Americans waste a great amount of food, and that certainly is not pleasing to God. The small amount that might be thrown away by observing the law’ of abstinence certainly would be negligible. If it is a grave in convenience (e.g. a workingman’s lunch where he has no chance to get something else) an exception is justified. The pastor has pow er to dispense in case some mis take occurs and a really grave inconvenience results for a fam ily. Q. How can some Catholics get away with marrying divorced men and women? I try to explain to my non-Catholic friends but many times the individual has been baptized, etc. and my an swers are not sufficient. A, Generally speaking people who bring up these cases do not know all the facts. The Catholic Church has always been a stal wart and sacrificing defender of the purity of marriage (e.g. Hen ry VIII and Napoleon). Nobody “gets away” with anything in this regard. If the evidence pre sented to the marriage court shows that a first marriage was invalid (which could be because of an impediment to that mar riage, or a defect of matrimonial consent, or a defect of form) the court simplv announces that it is invalid. The famous case of the movie actor a year or so ago is a case in point. There was a great deal of cone rn expressed because this Catholic man was married bv a priest in Rome aft er being divorced. It should have been evident to any Catholic that his first marriage, which was “outside the Church.” making it invalid as it is for any Catholic, was not a permanent barrier to the divorce be obtained but of his marriage by the pries*, ft was not a matter of recognizing proving that the marriage was invalid from the start. The Paul ine Privilege, granted bv the Holy Father in rare instances, involves dissolution of a non sacramental marriage. Only of ficials in the marriage court have the facts in such cases and most rumors about them are full of misinformation. Send questions to the Rev. Ed ward F. Healy, Inquiry Corner. The Catholic Times, Box 636 Columbus (16) Ohio. to Stalin was an American Ca tholic. More? moreover, he was a priest. Punling Question* Father Stanislaus Orlemanski, pastor of a church in spring field, Mass., early in 1944 decid ed to visit Josef Stalin. He want ed to discuss the Red persecu tion of the Church, especially in the Poland of his forefathers. He had what this book calls “ad vanced ideas” on social ques tions—with which thp Russian dictator seems to have been fa miliar, although this priest’s writings are not known to most literate Americans. So, Father Orlemanski, in Springfield, wrote to Stalin, in Moscow, suggesting that they talk it over. The priest went to Moscow. But he went against the express orders of his Ordinary, Bishop Thomas M. O’Leary. He flew across Canada, Alaska and Si beria. On April 25, 1944, he spent two and one-half hours in discussion with Stalin, Molotov and an interpreter inside the Kremlin. He was then sent, as Stalin’s favored guest, to visit the camp where 8,000 Polish sol diers, impressed into the Red Army, were in training. Here he declared that Stalin, to his personal knowledge, was “a true friend of Poland and the Catho lic religion.” He led the soldiers in cheers for the Soviet Union. Historic? Wonderful? The achievement of a lifetime? Later arrests and murders of our priests by Stalin’s followers have shown the whole world the measure of Stalin’s 1944 duplic ity. But the Church did not need to wait eight years to know the footling futility of such mis sions as Father Orlemanski’s— as Wendell Willkie’s, as Ambas sador Patrick Hurley’s, as Har ry Hopkins’ or Henry Wallace's. The Church knew the answer in 1944. For on the day when Father Orlemanski’s presence in Moscow was learned, the Rt. Rev. Msgr. (now Bishop) Mich ael J. Ready, General Secretary of the National Catholic Welfare Conference, described this mis sion as a “political burlesque, staged and directed by capable Soviet agents.” And on the priest's return to Springfield, he was ordered into seclusion for disobedience and “treating with Communists.” Yes, the Church knows how to evaluate missions to Moscow. She did it rightly in 1944. She will be right—again-—in 1954.