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For The Common Good The following is the full text of the address delivered by Claris Adams, president of the Ohio State Life Insurance Company, at the meeting which opened the civic phase of the Diocesan Development Fund Campaign, June IS, 1953. 1 am a Protestant. 1 am a Protestant by in heritance and conviction. 1 hold religious views from which not only Catholics but earnest men of many faiths vigorously and conscientiously dissent. However. I have never found that to be an insurmountable barrier to personal friendship, mutual re spect. sympathetic understanding, or effec tive cooperation in a good cause However freedom entails obligations. De mocracy imposes rei'ponsibilitie.s. The strength of our institutions derives from the strength of our people. Self government requires an enlightened citizenry. It follows therefore that education of the young is a national problem of paramount import ance. Many times in the story ol the human race des tiny has rested upon leadership, and leadership has its roots in knowledge. There can be no equality where there is not equality of opportunity, and there can be no real equality of opportunity with out general access to education. The very genius of Democracy depends upon an enlightened as well as a free electorate. However education without character is as futile and fruitless, even as dangerous, as material strength without commensurate spiritual stature. The Father of our country, in his famous Farewell Address, warned all generations of Americans that the strength of the nation would rest finally upon the moral quality of our people and that the ultimate source of morality is religion. America is committed to free public education. Much of our resources are invested this project which ue conceive to lie a process for the perpetua tion of Democracy. However, from the beginning of our civilization on this continent much of educa tion has been initiated and supported by the church es of the nation. Church schools at every level have always supplemented public education. We all will ingly pay taxes to support education for every one as a necessary function of government. However there are those who firmly believe, and they are not confined to the adherents of any one faith, that moral and religious instruction should go hand in hand with the attainment of knowledge. They be lieve that education should inculcate character and minister to the spirit as well as the mind. In my opinion neither concept has any just quarrel with the other. The (atholic Church has made a major contribu tion to the education of our young throughout the. history of the Church in this country. Its parochial schools and its higher institutions of learning have enriched the culture of our civilization and con tributed to the character of our citizenry. To the extent that they seek to make better men. they serve the whole community and through the community the whole nation. I can conceive of no reason why any citizen should have any prejudice against parochial schools, nr indeed against any private educational institution supported by the adherents of any religious faith. It Is a valid form of private enterprise. At the present time 12,000 pupils are enrolled tn the Catholic schools of this community. Our pub lic school system even now inadequate, could not accommodate them with present facilities. The school tax rate already high, would he much greater were It not for parochial schools. Their existence represents a distinct economic advantage to every tax payer of every other faith. It results in a double burden to the devout members of the (atholic Church. Tt seems leasonable to me that the principal part of this burden should be borne by Catholics and it is one which they cheerfully hear. However the parochial school system does represent a personal advantage to everyone which 1 think men oi good conscience and men ot good will might justly recog mze. It is a cause to which men of means, who are interested in good works, might well want to con tribute. In my opinion, it is a project in which business enterprises which serve the whole public Catholic, Protestant, and .lew the personnel of which is composed of men and women ot all faiths have a valid reason to support. No man was ever a poorer American because he was a better member nf his nwn Church. No man ever served his own religion well by a disservice to any other. No man should turn his back upon any good that flows Irom any source. Included also in this appeal is funds lor St. Vincent's Orphanage This is one of the institutions In this communitv whose ministrations of mercy to the helpless orphan has been outstanding. Surelv there should be no partisanship, religious, political, or otherwise, in service to humanity. There aie many differences oi opinion between atholics and Protestants. There is none concerning atholic charitv In hospitals correctional homes and or phanages. its ministrations to the needy and the poor, makes the whole population directly or indi rectly. the beneficiary of its good works. Its phil anthropy has not been confined to its own faith It serves all, it deserves the support of all. Mercy makes all men kin. Compassion is the mark of our kinship with the Son of God. Therefore I believe that in good conscience you ran present this good cause to all men of good will. Its success will redound to the benefit of everyone, ft is n common oroject. in kind if not degree, for the common good. It will help make Columbus a better place in which to live. The heath ol FEP The Ohio legislature has done It again Fair Employment Practices legislation was killed in hr Senate Committee on Commerce and I «hor luring the pa*t week If it is any consolation to those who hoped tn sec a hill passed this year the vote was rinse f-ive tn four. One vole was enough to doom further consideration (nr this session. The regretablc part of the whole matter is that the hill never reached the floor of the Senate *or consideration and a vote. This is haro to undnr stand since the House had passed the hill by a sizable majority. It is no secret that FEP is a hotly contested issue with pressure brought from both on ponents and proponent» on the legislators. As ha* happened in the past, the opponents again carried more wcij-ht with the representatives nf the people. Much has been made of party leadership apd regularity in the session. Roth arc necessary to as jyire the smooth functioning nf the legislature and to get laws passed We wonder what happened in this case. The platforms nf both parties during the past election earned pledges to promote FEP leg fslation. It can he legitimately asked what platform pledges mean and how reliable they are. This time it seems to mean that the electoiate has been duped, once the votes are in all obligations immediately cease. !-et the voter beware, would be s good slogan lor future elections. The Senate Committee killed a hill which was much softer than bills considered in past sessions. It placed enforcement in the hands of local com missions and local courts. These had the pow ?r to enforce anti discrimination rules by discussion con ciliation. persuasion and finally by compulsion if the local commission and court thought it necessary. It is hard to see what there is to object to in that procedure. Perhaps nothing. Perhaps the objection is to the fundamental principle underlying the law, that all men are equal and should have equal oppor tunity for jobs. If that be true, the legislature should work doubly hard on their anti-subversive bills Mr there are some who arc attempting to make a mockery of that section of the Constitution which declares all men equal. FEP is dead for this session. So be it. There are many who should be congratulated, particularly in the House, for the earnest effort they expended in its behalf. let us hope it is not wasted effort hut that in the future, no matter how remote, it will bear fruit. Just Among Ourselves Patting Comment Conaidorod or Ineonaidorafo Something over a month ago when the month of May called for the June issue of all magazines, some of the faithful were somewhat shocked to find Queen Elizabeth II looking graciously at them from the front cover of a Catholic missionary pub lication. At least one subscriber wrote to the editor for an explanation. And the editor was a bit crusty about it. The editor said that the Holy Father had sent a representative Io the coronation of the Queen, and that services for the Queen would be observed in all Catholic churches in England. Hence, said the editor, it is clear that there is nothing out of line with Catholic Action in printing the Queen's pic ture on the front cover of a Catholic magazine. This editor likely studied the art and science of logic long ago probably he has forgotten. The Holy Father is the Vicar of Christ. He is also the political head of the state of Vatican City. He has diplomatic relations with governments and heads of governments. His representative at the coronation was a political representative. Indeed, this representative made quite sure that people would not mistake his function as religious: he did not enter the Abbey.—as he might have done without scandal, even as a Catholic may enter a non-Catholic church for a funeral oi a friend,—but remained in a specially prepared place outside while the politico-religious service was going on. That services are conducted in Catholic churches for the head oi the government is nothing new nor startling, nor does this fact have anything tn dn with the publishing of pictures on the cover of Ca tholic magazines. We all pray, and pray publicly, for the President, Governors of Stales, and other public officials. But we do not set up these officials in pictures, nr otherwise, as personages identified with an anti-Catholic form of religion. We can view our statesmen personally, impersonally, or officially, without any implication of heresy. We cannot do that with England’s Queen. The head ol the British Monarchy is the head of the Established Church. She swears solemnly to God to uphold “the Protestant reformed religion.” She stands in the place and office of those who, but a generation or so since, took blasphemous oath against the Mass as against idolatry. Elizabeth the Queen might have been given a place on the cover of any magazine, even a Catholic missionary maga zine, without any offence other than that of good judgment, if she were only Elizabeth the Queen. Rut she is also Elizabeth the head of an anti-Ca tholic religion. And it certainly is an offence to Catholics for a magazine devoted to the spread of the atholic religion to give honored place to the photograph of one who is officially, and by oath, an opponent of that religion. Me must leave entirely aside all considerations that can be called personal, or perhaps the better word is emotional. Elizabeth has “won the hearts.” as the papers say. of almost all the people: certainly of almost all Americans. The human race loves a lord: and the great democratic heart of America never beats taster than v hen it can have a glimpse of royalty. Besides, all America loves heroes, ai.d heroine'. We must have somebody to be “America's sweetheart.” whether it be Mary Pickford, or Shirley I einplc. or Grandma Moses. We are particularly susceptible to feminine figures in the political field witness the place in public affection of Margaret Truman and “Mamie” Eisenhower. We all like the new Queen of England. She is personable, modest, dignified without being stuffy. She is calm and capable. She is kind and considerate without condescension. She represents decency, good home life, motherly and wifely affection without an overplus ot .sentimentality. In her personal life and in her public or official capacity she appears to he always interested, competent, and full of good com mon sense. Therefore, Elizabeth II is highly esteemed. Rut when there i* question of her position as head of the Church of England as by law established, vic must entirely omit from consideration all these pleasing things, and fix our attention solely upon the fact that she is the head of a church. And it is an anti-Catholic Church the Queen opposes, and by oath promises still to oppose, the Catholic Church. Iherclore. it would he just as reasonable to put upon the front cover of a Catholic magazine the picture of Henry Vlll, or, for that matter, the picture of Martin Luther, or of John Calvin, as to print there the picture of Queen Elizabeth II. We wonder what the editor of the offending magazine would say to justify a picture of Henry VIII He could say much more than he has said for the picture of the new Queen. For the Pope did not send a representative to Henry’s court he had a cardinal living there, and high in the affairs of state. \nd of Bishops no end. even after the trouble good hut mistaken men like Stephen Gardiner. And there were atholic church services for Henry all over the place. Yet none of these things would justify, in Catholic eyes, even the eyes of an editor of a mis sionary magazine, the printing of Henry’s picture in the most honored place a Catholic magazine can otter. One thinks here of something Arnold Lunn men tinned in one of his first books written after his conversion. He said that a young woman, discussing what a more clear-sighted generation called morals hut which modern people like to call social relations, remarked that marital infidelity could not be so had because so many nice people practised it. The fact that people are nice” is an excuse for any thing they do. Lunn replied that there must have been a good deal that was “nice” ahout Judas, or the other Apostles would not have tolerated him. That England's young queen is “nice” has noth ing to do with the question we are here discussing What we 'ay is that she is. in undoubted fact as plain a' her undoubted quecnship. the head of a non atholic and an anti-Catholic church. A id that surely eliminates her from (atholic consideration when it comes to printing pictures in or on Catho lie magazines, missionary or other. The editor says crisply to his correspondent. “In the future, do not confuse prejudice with principle.” He ought to hang his illogical head in shame, let him in future, nnt confuse emotionalism with pnn mple. THE CATHOLIC TIMES, FRIDAY. JUNE 19. 1953 I WASHINGTON LETTER LATHER CRONIN In the meantime the war in Korea broke out. Inflation once again became a pressing problem in American economic life As costs of living rose, wages rose under the famous “escalator clause.” To this extent, the con tract was working beautifully. At the same time, however, other unions were getting cost-of-living increases. In many important cases, these were outright grants. They could not be cut down, were living costs to decline. The resulting situation posed a problem for the U.A.W, Costs of living stabilized early in 1953 and even started to decline. Were the drop to continue, the auto workers would find then wage scale dropping, in compar ison with those in other mass production industries. Their leader, the brilliant Walter Reu ther. now head nf the whole 1 O fared a real dilemma Fortunately, from Reuther’* Getting Better, Boys? •Serfs’ Look To The WASHINGTON The Com munist Party in the United States, as in other countries, re lies heavily upon education to produce its future Reds This is a point that has been emphasized over and over in re cent testimony before Govern ment agencies here It is not new in itself, but it may indicate that the communist educational process in this country is more extensive than once was thought. Among recent developments have been these: 1. A witness told a congres sional committee that the influ ence of a communist on a school faculty is even greater among the students in their extracur ricular activities than it is in the classroom. 2. Senator William E. Jenner of Indiana, chairman of the Sen ate Subcommittee on Internal Security, charges that the “com munist conspiracy” not only re cruits teachers into the Commun ist Party, “but staffs its own training schools with teachers who have been shown to gain their livelihood from tax-support ed colleges and private universi ties.” The Senator said there had been testimony that there are "communist training schools” in New York and Boston. 3. At least one witness before the Subversive Activities Con trol Board testified that Com munist Party members sent their children to “communist schools.” This point seems not to have been developed at the time, but it created I he impression in some minds that children might receive communist indoctrination at age levels lower than those of the reported New York and Boston schools. This might em brace some of the Red camps which have been revealed in tes timony about communist activi ties, but some think it might even include more formal schools. 4. Herbert A. Philbrick, who infiltrated the Communist Par ty as an undercover worker for the FBI, told the Jenner sub committee that he discovered something of "great signifi cance,” namely "that the Young Communist League was actually a training school for the Com munist Party.” Reading to the Senate subcom mittee from a book which he said was actually used in a com munist school. Mr. Philbrick quoted Lenin as saying: “The whole point here is that simultaneously with the trans formation of the old capitalist society, tuition, the training and the education of the new' gener ation that will create the com munist society cannot be con- A Living Document When General Motors and the I nited Automobile Workers re opened their five-year agreement last month, they again made la bor history. The original agree rnent was widely considered as historic. Two powerful organiza tions had gambled that economic conditions would be sufficiently stable to permit a five-year con tract. There was some flexibility in the wage provisions other wise there was no reopening for the duration of the contract. G.M. was widely criticized in business circles for its daring. U.A.W. likewise was under fire from other unions. viewpoint, a change in the gov ernment statistics used Io com pute living costs occurred at this lime. This event offered an excuse for asking that the con tract be reopened. Mr. Reuther pleaded that even an ironclad contract should be considered a living document, and not a rigid and unyielding formula. At first, General Motors was unwilling to accept this thesis. However, after three days of ser ious negotiations, the contract was modified in favor of the union’s demands. Most of the wage increases were “frozen” in to the agreement. Auto workers were now on a par with other mass-production workers. This much is history. It might be useful to examine the results from the viewpoint of social eth ics. Is this a useful precedent from the viewpoint of justice, equity, and the common good? Should we hold to the rule that the pledged word is sacred, re gardless of consequences? Or should we accept the idea of a living document? Papal Reasoning A parallel situation comes tn mind, when Pope Pius XII of fcred words of warning during the second World War. He noted that the future treaty of peace should not he an unyielding con tract, incapable of easy revision. Mindful of the mistakes of Ver sailles, the Pontiff warned that no group nf statesmen can plan fully fnr the indefinite future. The unforeseen is normal in hu Schools ducted along old lines. Only by radically remoulding the work of instructing, organizing and training the youth, shall we in sure that the results of the ef forts of the young generation will be to create a society un like the old, that is a commun ist society, and that is why we .must deal in detail with the question of what we should teach the youth and how the youth should learn it it really wants to justify its title of com munist youth, and how it should be trained in order to complete the building of what we have started .” Mr. Philbrick also quoted Len in as saying in the textbook that "the whole subject of the training, education and tuition of the youth of today should be to imbue them with communist ethics." The former FBI agent told the subcommittee that when he joined the Young Communist League he was told by one of the leaders that he should keep his membership a secret. When, later, he received his Commun ist Party card, Mr Philbrock testified, he was instructed that, if he were charged with being a member of the Communist Party, he was to "swear on a stack of Bibles.” that he was not and never had been a member of the organization. man affairs. We might well apply this rea soning to a labor contract. The virtues of a five-year contract, terms of labor peace, are un deniable. The whole nation has benetited from the foresight and courage of Messrs. Reuther and Wilson, who signed the original agreement. But had Mr. Cortice. successor to Mr. Wilson, insisted on rigidity, there might be no other long-term labor contracts for decades to come. General Mo tors showed industrial statesman ship in recognizing this fact. A workable labor agreement must avoid the two extremes of rigidity and laxity. The spirit rather than the letter must rule. On the one hand, we must recog nize that no group of negotiators can forsee every possible contin gency. There must be some lee way for adjustment. On the oth er hand, a loose or careless con tract invites conflict over inter pretation. There is too much dan ger of conflicting applications in different plants or even depart ments of the same company. Happy Augury Enduring labor peace springs from a mixture of good will and discipline. There must be good will and tolerance, to avoid countless petty frictions and mis understandings. But there must also be discipline and order, to insure steady production an rea sonable rules of behavior. We think that such patterns are he ing worked out in our major in dustries. This is a happy augury for the future. INQUIRY CORNER works. Must Children Have Christian Names? Q. Are parents bound to give Christian names to their chil dren at Baptism? A. According to Canon Law (('anon No. 761) they are. There are pamphlets available with suggestions for parents, listing hundreds of acceptable Chris tian names. The Missal (Daily) offers a perfect choice in the name of the saint oi the day on which the baby is born or baptized. The priest baptizing can suggest a name if the par ents lack any other source of information. Q. Are not separate schools un American? Granted Catholics have the RIGHT to their own schools why isolate themselves from other people in this way? A. The first American schools and colleges were religious schools. For over two hundred years all the colonial schools were church schools and many of them especially in the French and Spanish settlements were Catholic schools. The modern system of tax-supported public schools dates only from 1850. It is just one of many systems, ap proved by tradition and by the Constitution As the Bishops of the United States stated in 1919, Catholics feel it is a duty to supply this form of education for their children: “They realize that the omission of religious instruction is a defect in educa tion and also a detriment to re ligion.” Conformity and uniform ity are found in dictatorships, not in democracies. We Cath olics rejoice in our American citizenship and our record of patriotic service and insist upon unity in diversity. Q. How can unthinking ba bies receive Baptism? According to my Bible faith and repent ance are required (Mark 14:15 Acts 2:38, 8:12-37, 16:14-31). A. Baptism makes us children of God by the power of God. not by our own efforts. All Christians agree that an adult seeking baptism must have faith and sorrow for sin as a condition for receiving God's gift. There is no definite mention of infant baptism in the New Testament, but it is implied in the baptism of families (Acts 16: 15 I Corin thians 1:16). Lt is clearly neces sary for heaven (John 3:5) for all who have original sin and that certainly includes babies. The early tradition of the Christian Church is reflected the teach ing of St. Cyprian and the Third Council of Carthage (253 A.D.) that children should be baptized as soon as possible after birth. RICHARD PATTEE Q. What does “Dow” mean A Dangerous Method Two Polish airmen landed re cently on the Danish island of Bornholm with MIG planes and delivered themselves up as po litical refugees. In neither case has any finan cial considera tion been in volved. nor did the flyers give any indication that the moti vation behind their actiop was anything else than total despair with com u n i s and all its This ought to demonstrate how toolhardy and dangerous is the offer made by American mil itary authorities in the Far East cf a huge bribe to any commun ist flyer who brought a MIG in tact to a western base. 1 have read nothing to indicate that this offer of money has been with drawn. The left-wing press has seized on this offer of a bribe to prove nnce more that American polic. is entirely a material one, and that the United States proceeds invariably from the assumption that anything can be secured if one wants to pay enough (or it. In a word, that dollars can de (eat communism. This idea has prevailed altogether too much in Europe since 1945 when eco nomic aid was construed as the sufficient answer to commun ism. It underli s the thinking of many in connection with the Point-Four program, those who conceive of standards of living as the sole harrier against the advance of Marxism. But never before have we descended to the low level of ethical conduct demonstrated in the bribery of fer. Wrong Assumptions Not only is the morality of the,thing extremely dubious, but the assumptions are wrong. It presumes that all communists are the gangster type—a larger “stake” wmuld induce him to abandon his position. Nothing could be further from the truth. The quicker people realize this, the better. The overwhelming ev idence from the testimony of former communists is that if there w*ere ever totally “dedi cated” people, willing to sacri fice materially for their belief, they are to be found in the ranks of the communists. It is a very serious business when one un derestimates this fact. It is nn par with the assumption that be fore a priest's name? A. This title is given to pro fessed monks of the Benedictine, Carthusian and Cistercian order* and some others. It is a contrac tion of the Latin word dominus, meaning master. In the form of “don” it is applied to all cleric* in Italy except friars and clerk* regular. Q. What is the difference be tween major and minor orders in the Church? A. Major orders include th* priesthood, diaconate and sub diaconate. The first one receiv ed in preparation for the priest hood is the subdiaconate. When the seminarian receives this or der he is bound to celibacy and recitation of the Divine Offica. The minor orders precede th* subdianconate and consist in door-keeper, lector, exorcist and acolyte. Formerly these wera distinct careers in the Church, but now they are stages to th* priesthood. The minor orders, with the subdiaconate, are not sacramental and were instituted by the Church. (Cf. Catholic Dictionary-Attwater) Q. May a Catholic believe in ghosts? A. The Catholic Church doe* not reject the possibility of an apparition of the dead. It is cer tainly within the power of God to permit departed souls to ap pear on earth to fulfill some good purpose. There is a refer ence to such appearances in the Old Testament (I Kings 28:14) and in the New (Matthew 27:51 53). The Church also recognizes the possibility of apparitions or illusions caused by the devil. Q. What is the story of the canonization of saints. A. From earliest times the Church has venerated saints. Public official honor always de pended upon the approval of the bishop of the place. Martyr* were the first to be so honored. Beginning with St. Martin of Tours (died 397 A.D.) other holy men. called confessors, were so venerated. The first instance of an official canonization by the Supreme Pontiff for the whole Church was that of St. Ulrich by Pope John XV in 993. Canoniza tion was reserved to the Holy Father by Pope Alexander in in 1171. The present procedure is outlined in Canon Law (No. 1999-2141). Send questions to Rev. Edward Healey, The Inquiry Corner, The Catholic Times, Box 636, Columbus (16) Ohio. communists, somehow or other, are incapable of heroism or ideal ism or even common bravery. Nothing can do our cause quite so much harm as the cynicism in herent in the bribery offer. It will win only the most thorough contempt from the enemy and v.ill lower to a disconcerting de gree our own, prestige. Mr. Churchill was certainly not par ticularly felicitous when he re plied to parliamentary criticism of this situation—for which the I nited Nations is collectively responsible even if made by an American commander that it is “very much better to be brib ed than killed. I suppose fundamentally there is nothing more reprehensible in bribing an enemy airman to bring his plane into one of our bases than it is to buy informa tion from agents or bribe ven ial officials to disgorge data re garding the enemy. But as a mat ter of public policy, and par ticularly in the light of the wide publicity given this matter, it is certainly no great contribution to the strategy against communism. II even makes one wonder if our side really has any method at all in mind to deal with the situa tion. Close to Bankruptcy We talk glibly about taking the initiative away from the Rus sians, about putting Malenkov on the defensive, about thinking through a tough, realistic policy toward the Soviet Union, Then we come up with a grotesque thing such as the bribery air men. One wonders, indeed, if the West is not preciously close tn bankruptcy when we can do no better than this. It is equally important to re member that every detail of Western conduct and policy is grist for the communist propa ganda mill. Tactics of this sort, with their underlying assump tion. can serve no other purpose than to make us ridiculous in the eyes of the people we aim to impress and. if possible, win over. I can readily imagine the scorn and contempt in the na tions of the Middle and Far East when the news was blazon ed forth that the supreme com mand in Korea hoped to entice an enemy flyer by promising him a hundred thousand dollars. To many it must have looked very much like the buying of a conscience. I hope for our own sake that the next time we give publicity to a bit of policy for fighting the communist evil, we will do bet ter than thia.