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The Catholics of the City of Columbus tin look with satisfaction on the present progress of the fund campaign for new high schools, a new St Vincent’s Orphanage, and diocesan missions. By their generous response to the plea of Bishop Ready for adequate facilities for* youth, members of the city’s 37 parishes and many sympathetic non Catholic neighbors gave evidence of their desire that a Catholic education be provided for these young people, and that sacrifices for the cause are not to be avoided. Donors to the campaign for Catholic youth take their place with those of other generations who sacrificed, and sacrificed much, in the early days of the Diocese, when churches and parish schools were built as the number of the faithful increased. Un questionably, future generations will look back to our time, and will pay reverent tribute to those who were liberal in their obligation to youth. Evidently some peoples of the world think other wise. We had an example of it in the Italian elec tions of this month. The Italians came perilously close to putting a coalition into power which would have been anti-democratic and anti-American. Considering the rest of Europe the Italians have had a stable government. Primier de Gasperi with the full support of the Christian Democratic Union and the help of other Center parties was able to gel a new constitution for Italy, pass a land reform law and go along with the West in foreign affairs. Productivity is up to such an extent that a wit ness before a Congressional committee last week recommended that all future Mutual Security Ad ministration funds be cut off to Italy for she could no longer be basically helped by such outlays. What, then, is the answer which will explain the loss of about twelve per cent of the electorate on the part of the Center parties to the right and left parties? There seems to be several answers. The land reform law which had so much popular support is still largely that: a law. Where ever the law was put into el feet it wax with loud popular approval. While it is true that productivity is up, the fruits of this increased productivity have not yet reached the working people. Production is only one half of the economic picture, the other half is dis tribution, The standard of living is going to have to increase quite a bit before the ordinary man realizes personally the strides made in productivity. Democracy in this government has given us the things the Italian man wants from his government. If he were receiving the same things we are. per hap* he would be as much dedicated to it as we. It is a hard lesson for us to learn that many people in the world are going to support that form nf government which sees that they get the basic necessities of life. Choose Your Own Method So much has been written on the necessity of •very one donating hi* blood for the common good that only the heartless (no pun intended) can re mem unmoved. We would merely like to point up the methods available in making this donation: 1. Some may choose to shed their blood by ex posing themselves to the ravage* of enemv fire. 2. Others may choose to expose themselves tn ♦he sterile point of the doctor needle. You can choose your own method. The important thing is, though, to choose! A Community Good The following editorial, reprinted from the page* of the Columbus Dispatch, points out clearly and succinctly the good accruing to the whole com munity from the present Development Campaign being conducted by the Diocese of Columbus. We bring you the editorial in its entirety: Enrollment in Columbus' Catholic schools has Increased from 6012 in 1940 to 9777 during the current year. More than 90 per cent of parochial school students enroll in Catholic high schools. Catholic high schools in the city, operating at full capacity, now' accommodate 2445 students.. All factors point to an enrollment of 5000 or more hy 1963. No new Catholic high school has been built here since 1929 Pray First, And Then.......... The credit for the accomplishment of the cam- The Italian Elections It is always a shock to Americans to discover that there are others in the world who are not so convinced of the values of democracy as we are here in America. It is difficult for us to understand that if someone were given his choice that he would deliberately choose a candidate not only not sympa thetic to democracy but actually hostile to it. Democracy is one of those self evident truths for most Americans that need no proof and most of us are prone to regard as poor ignorant fools who know no better those who would reject it. The values of democracy are so clear to all of us that we cannot conceive of anyone refusing to embrace them to his bosom if given the chance. These are the figures behind the $2 500.000 campaign for construction nf new Catholic high schools and expansion of St. Vincent’s Orphanage launched a few days ago. This drive has stirred a great deal of interest both among Catholic communicants well aware as they are of their .stake in their children’s educa tional future, and among non-Catholics as well. Mr. Claris Adams, himself a Protestant, put his finger on the relationship of the community as a whole tn the effort in an address to one of the meetings opening the diocesan development cam paign. M" ooinicd out that while th" United States is Committed to free public education, church schools a* every lex cl have always supplemented public edu cation and that in this field, the role ol the Catholic Church has been major. While he sees support of this drixe as primarily a Catholic responsibility, he al*n envisages it as a cause to which other individ uals and organizations of mean- and interest in good work* will wish Io lend support We echo this sentiment and wish well to an undertaking which if successful will contribute substantially to effective meeting of the common ity’s overall school facilities problem THE CATHOLIC TIMES Published Every Week by The Catholic Times. Inc. Columbus. Ohio NOTICE Send All Changes of Address tn O. Box 636 Columbus, Ohio Executive and Editorial Offices: 246 E Town Street Columbus 15. Ohio Telephones: ADam* 5195 ADams 5196 Address all communications (or publication to 0. Box 636 Columbus 16. Ohio Price nf i s» i i' •»beeription• ahmiM b* orrannied our offin* through th* eeatoro »r th* parlabM Rennittaneco ahoulil «n»d« paraol* to 1 h* Catb «*M Tim-. Anonymo.a ro«anuni«-*ton» will b* *iar««aria* We 4o noX hold r*enon»ihi* for any *■.*«« ar npiniori* *wpr*»»«i th* enmnumeatioa, of our eorr** ponder te Entered a.« Saeot.d Claet Maaar at Poet Offiee. Cotumbu*. Ohio. Si Franrte da Sale* Patron of the Cathohe Freae Md nf the Dtoeeee of Columbus, Pre, for Let This Paper Printed by I mon Ijibor paign cannot be assigned to any one individual, not even to a small group of individuals. The mobili zation of the large army of workers required the leadership and guidance' of the pastors, parish* chairmen and local consultants. Along with the human skill's and energies applied to the task, there was, first of all. God's blessing and grace that came in answer to the devout per severing prayers of men and women and especially of the youth of the city’s parishes. Hence, gratitude to all who gave and to all who worked must be based firs’ on thankfulness to God Himself. The success of the drive can well be the object of prayers of thanksgiving, as the pre-drive effort was the object of prayers of petition. Just Among Ourselves P«*«ing Comment Comidered or Inconsiderate Now that full summer is upon us. there is much running about on land and sea and in the air. This peculiar human activity is called travel. All the transportation companies with vehicular space for sale urge travel upon us. and so do all the compan ies that sell cars and tires and anti-sunburn lotions. But. apart from this call of the advertisers, there appears to be in modern man himself a kind of urgency, as of a duty, to travel a bit. The inner urge tor travel is a restless eager ness to be from here to there. Whence comes this widespread superstition that "going pieces” has a value in itself? How is it that a man will scrimp and save to amass money for a trip that proves.- as he well knows it will prove,-—an exacting and trouble some experience more full of irritations and fatigue than of any real enjoyment for body or mind? Why will a person afflict himself, and pay fancy prices for the privilege of doing so. and then call the bothersome thing a vacation, or even recreation and relaxation? it is a mysterious thing, this travel business, in an olden day. there was adventure in it and a dash of danger. Such things attract imaginative man. One can understand this. But there is no adventure in riding plush seats in a Pullman car there is no ad venture in arguing with a hotel clerk. “Yes, I did make reservations: 1 wired this hotel last Thurs day. and—what? No. of course I haven’t any con firming telegram from the hotel I’m on vacation: 1 can't sit around waiting for some hotel clerk to make up his mind. But I sent the wire. What do you want- the endorsement of a congressional com mittee?” This sort of thing comes at about $25 a day. H’s vacation. It's travel. What, alter all. is there in it? How shall we explain the rush of millions to throng the Pull mans. the roadways, and the airways, not to mention the more prominent sea lanes? Years ago people used to talk grandly of travel as a thing to broaden the mind. There was culture in it. and some mysterious sort ol soul polish. Many a man with out a mind at all went abroad to widen its scope. Nothing, except perhaps Elbert Hubbard's Scrap Book, could so fit a man for polite conversation as having seen the pyramids or smelled Venice. This mind broadening business was mostly swank. Tw'o wars took al. the tuck out of it. Eight of ten men you meet in the street have seen more of the world than any of the culture-travel lads could think of seeing, and those eight men are not pol ished to any noticeable extent. Their minds aie noi recognizably broadened. But the man who tries to impress hi* taxi driver with an account of an ex citing airplane trip to Indianapolis is likely to get some remniscences return that will make him crawl under the taximeter. One such taxi man told his fare how he and a fellow soldier had heen rowed all around the island of Capri (and he didn't call it Ua-PREE, either, as Ed Sullivan does, who ought to know better) by a swarthy oarsman, and had visited the Blue Cave, and all for two cartons of American cigarettes. What would an oldtime traveller have given for an anecdote like that? How he would have charmed the champagne circles as he told the tale, orna menting it as he went on with an artistic fringe of fictions! Is travel accounted for by the deep desire that drew the bear over the mountain? Dn people go abroad to see things? Perhaps. But more likely they go lor the reputation of having seen, and to bring back proofs of their seeing in snapshots, transpar cncies. and color films with which to create a small hell lor their friends and neighbors for months after they have come home again. II people merely wanted to see faraway places which, in essentials, are much like those close at hand near home. they might do fai better to ruddle up in a Morris chair with a copy of the National Geographic. is done by motor ride. But if this A thundering amount of travel car. Sonic people say they like to he so, why is there such a feverish effort to get the trip finished” Why rush so quickly through what ii enjoyable? Most of the people who travel long distances by automobile are free to confess that a long day's driving is a haid day’s work. And work without pay. mark you. This work is called vacation. Why, nobody knows. But a man must get away. Why must he get away? ur grandfathers would not have understood that remark which is so often on the lips of modern man. Of course, grandfather lived in a more placid time his nerves were not kept taut as the strings of a violin that's sweetly played off key. He never felt the need of "getting away.” Nor would he have thought a person mentally balanced who would leave a comfortable home and a comfortable bed and an available cool front porch, to ride like mad over hot concrete, breathing in the aroma of new burnt oil, to hire a bunk in a motel and eat hasty meals al counters or at the smudgy tables of com merer. A change will do you good How? It will give you new things to think about. The people who rush over h'll and dale in traffic lit to unnerve an arch angel are hardly storing up invigorating thoughts. No, an honest man who considers this business of travel for vacation, will he forced to reject, the old theories, and the new ones too He will not agree that travel is "broadening or that it gives needed change or that it is good (or a person. Take a walk: it will do you good. Maybe. If you like that sort of thing, perhaps. If you don t. it w ill tu.st he a trouble. But walking, say the walkers, builds up the physique, Ixmk at the mailcarriers! If the walking theory is correct, the mailmen ought to be a race of Charles Atlases. But the walker is the sanest of travellers: he gets home again the same day. The universal urge to go far and fast has to have an explanation somewhere. Maybe it is indi cated for us by St. Augustine, in his famous phrase which is not only a pious statement but a scientific fact. Next time you see a sweating vacationer toiling and moiling in the quest of a good time, and having a pretty miserable time doing it. realize that the impulse back of all the fuss is actually religious! The poor goof has chosen this most unconscionable method of getting to heaven! THE CATHOLIC TIMES, FRIDAY, JUNE 26, 1953 Eye Korean WASHINGTON The truce negotiations in Korea have stir red a great deal of thought and speculation here. Some of the points brought out are these: The international dickering ac companying the truce talks must be enormous. Perhaps more tru ly than ever before it can be said that the whole world is directly involved. Not only are the East and West arraigned on well defined sides, but such in bet ween countries as India Switzerland and Sweden have been brought into the midst of it through their parts in the ex change of war prisoners. The Korean truce talks, cou pled with Russian overtures to some of the more important Eu ropean countries, are believed to be a part of a general Red plan to break up the alliance of the West and leave the United States virtually alone. 11 is not general ly thought here that Russia has any intention of calling off the "cold war”. The lighting, not yet designat ed as a war, has been among the bloodiest in human history. When the Korean fighting started it was understood (hat it was heading off a communist in vasion of Japan Communist de signs on Japan are not discount ed, but at the time of the truce negotiations the future status of I AH /.s KI DEM II Proudly the Daily Worker pro claimed in a full column editori al on June 1: "Our crusade hits home.” The Red organ openly ack nowledges that it has been the "ini tiator” of the clamor against "McCarthyism'’ that is. against all Cong res sional invest) gat ions It calls the roll of those who have "followed” the Communist leat and demands the political de struction of all who declare that Communism is a conspiracy. •A iu this direction Since the Soviet tilth column feels its position is so strong that it can boldly assert the true origin of the campaign to kill inquiries by Congress into sub version, it is time to inquire: "What are the Reds trying to suppress?” And, "What are their friends or those whom the Communists influence seeking to conceal”” Something To Conceal Dr. Charles J. Turck, Minne sola lawyer and president of Macalester College at St Paul, helps us out there. On June 1, at one of my classes at Seton Hall University in New Jersey. 1 read a special dispatch to the Newark Evening News contain ing an address hy Dr Turck scoring all investigations of sub version In that stand, the pres ident ol Macalester College was doing a bit of special pleading, although the news story gave no indication of that. He was a prominent participant in the Communist-created Mid-Century Conference for Peace, held in Chicago in 1950 He has also been often found on Commumst- Food For Thought If S /A/VFST $OA)£ or IT FOR 4 B£TT€* TOMORROW Red China looms up as the big gest single point. It is accepted here that, when peace comes to Korea, terrific pressure will be exerted to have Red China admitted to the Unit ed nations. Great Britain is ex pected to lav or it, and to urge us to go along. There is a feeling here that, with a truce in Korea, the pos sibility of an invasion of the Red China mainland by the National ist forces on Formosa will drop sharply. This is expected to give the Red rulers of the China mainland a better opportunity to consolidate their conquest. Sentiment is being developed in this country to have the Unit ed States recognize Red China. One proposal is to accord this recognition only after peace ha:? come to Korea, and upon these conditions: The unification and rehabilitation of Korea the ar rival at a working agreement be tween Red China and the Chi nese Nationalists on Formosa, and sincere efforts on the part of Red China to stop the fight ing in Indo-China. It is doubted that anyone fore saw at the outset how tremen dously important to world af fairs the Korean "police action” would eventually prove. What ever the outcome, the whole hat They W ant Suppressed front lists. Dr. Turck decidedly had something he wanted con cealed—his own pro-Communist record. When we delve into the print ed reports of the most recent Congressional hearings, we dis cover much that the Stalimtes wish kept from the light of day. Among these we can take notice of the following: Dr. Dorothy W Douglas, until last year full professor at Smith College, a woman of wealth and also of considerable influence over the students, refused to tes tify whether she is now a mem ber of the Communist Party. Be yond that, she pleaded that it would tend to incriminate her if she answered as to whether she had given $6(M per month tor three years to Robert Wil liam Weiner. Weiner is the il legal alien and Soviet subject U'ho continues to control the fi nances of the Communist con spiracy in this country and in whose possession is the notor ious "secret fund." Communist agents are sent illegally to La tin America. Moscow, and other places through cash payments out of this fund. List Would Shock America Had Dr. Douglas told the truth about her contributions, the door would have been open ed for others to come forward. If the full list of those who have aided Communist espionage and infiltration financially were dis closed. it would rock many weal thy homes in this country. It would shock America. Professor Maurice Halperin, head of the Latin American de partment at Bostor University, refused to say whether he is a member of the Communist Par ty. What is more to the point, he refused to state whether he had been a member of a Soviet U.S. GOVERNMENT WAREHOUSE _______ NO. II 41 Truce Negotiations world is now involved. An amendment to the United Slates Constitution has been pro posed under which this nation would recognize "the authority and law 61 Jesus Christ” The amendment has been in troduced in Congress by Sena tor Ralph Flanders of Vermont, who announced that he was tak ing this action at the request of a minister and some lay peo ple in Vermont. The proposed amendment says “the Nation devoutly recognizes the authority and law of Jesus Christ. Saviour and Rulei of Na tions through Whom are bestow ed the blessings of Almighty God.” The amendment also says that “this shall not be interpreted so as to result in the establishment of any particular ecclesiastical organization It also says there should not be any abridgement of the rights of religious free dom, freedom of speech, press or peaceful assembly It is provided that "Congress shall have the power, in such cases as it may deem proper, to provide a suitable oath or affir mation for citizens whose re ligious scruples prevent them from giving unqualified allegi ance to the Constitution as here in amended.” espionage ring (as charged by Miss Elizabeth Bentley) while en gaged in widespread and import ant functions for the United States government. In turn, he has been chief of the Latin American division of the Office of Strategic Services, adviser to the United States at the United Nations Conference in San Fran cisco. expert for the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations in Europe, and adviser to the chief of the Department ot State. During all that time and in each specific instance— Mr. Halperin acknowledges indi rectly that he was a member of the Communist conspiracy by pleading that it would tend to incriminate him if he made any answers on such questions. Professor Paul Harvey Aron of Sarah l^awrence College reveals by his testimony (through his re fusals to answer and the conse quent introduction of documen tary evidence by the research director of the Senate Sub-Com mittee) that he taught at the Communist-created School for Democracy and Jefferson School immediately before going to the Bronxville campus. Mere all these revelations put together and added to by the many others that can follow— the American people would be aroused as they have never been aroused before. They would un derstand why this country, de spite its physical power, has suf fered such severe defeats at the hands of Soviet Russia They would know that the plea of "scholarship” cannot be a cloak for subversion, as is now com ing to be the fad. The Reds know this and so do their friends, and that is uhy they seek now to stamp out the grace discoveries on subversive influ ences that are yet to* come. INQUIRY CORNER How Does One Gain Indulgences? Q. In order to gam an indul gence must one go to confession, receive Holy Communion and say the necessary prayers all tn one day? Must one receive Commun ion to gain a partial indul gence? A. The usual conditions for a plenary indulgence include confession, Communion, a visit to Church and prayers for the intentions of the Holy Father. The reception of the Sacraments (Penance. Holy Communion) may take place within eight days be fore the performance of the ac tion or .prayer or within eight days following. To gain a partial indulgence nothing is required beyond being in the state of grace and performing the pre scribed work. Q. Is a Catholic permitted to attend any parties or such social activities given at or by a Ma sonic lodge? A. The same general rule as that for Protestant affairs holds here. If there is no reason to fear scandal and the party or activity is purely social ft would be permissible. As a rule, how ever, such cooperation is often open to misinterpretation. While we should respect sincere mem bers of other religions and of the Masonic lodge we have a real duty in their regard. The Cath olic Church is the one establish ed by Christ and we dare not imply by our actions that one Church or religious belief is as good as another. Cooperation with those of other religious be liefs would be more appropri ate in projects and works for the common good e.g. charitable, cul tural or social projects. Q. If a Catholic or non-Catho lie marries a second (first mar riage ended in divorce) time should one wish him happiness? A. If a Catholic enters into a second (unlawful) marriage we may not approve in any way. It may not be possible or prudent (i.e. for the good of bis soul) to express disapproval, but at least silent disapproval is called for. If the person is a non-Catholic attempting a second marriage we may not approve. They are hound by the law of God. too. A non-committal and purely con ventional expression of good wishes might be tolerable since many non Catholics are unaware of the moral law in this regard. Even here it seems scarcely moral to risk even seeming ap proval of an action which ob jectively violates the law of God. An important rule in both cases is that demanding that we RICHARD PATTEE hate the sin but love the person sinning. We try to achieve a del icate balance by which we disap prove of the action, hut keep the person’s respect so that we can win him back to Qod. Q. What is the meaning of the cld term “Mass-priest’? A. It is an old English term for a cleric who had received the priesthood. The word priest was also applied to clerics such as deacons and subdeacons. T-ater it was used to distinguish be tween diocesan and secular priests and religious or regular clergy. In the sixteenth century it was used as a term of con tempt by leaders in the Reforma tion. Q. Why did the Medieval Church permit the barbaric trial by ordeal or combat? A. The Roman tribunals never permitted trial by ordeal. Th« Popes from the ninth century labored incessantly to abolish the unjust and superstitious custom. It was an inheritance of Northern Europe from pagan ancestors. They tried to quote examples of intervention by God (Numbers 5:12-31 Genesis 4:4 Genesis 19 Acts 5:5) as authorization for the custom. Popue Stephen V (885 891) stated: "It is our duty to judge of crimes that are known either by the confession of the culprit or by the testimony of witnesses.” The ordeal by com bat was denounced by the Church from the earliest times e.g. St. Avitus of Vienne (518 A.D.) Q. When must a child first make his confession? First Holy Communion? A. Children are bound to go to confession at least once a year when they reach the use of rea son. The obligation does not bind those under seven years of age, which is the age at which the use of reason is presumed by the Church. (Canon No. 88) (Canon No. 907) For First Holy Communion, except in danger of Death, children are not to be admitted until they have suffic ient knowledge of the Faith and of this Sacrament. "It is the fur ther duty of the pastor to see that children who have attained the years of discretion and are sufficiently disposed shall be as soon as possible strengthened hy the Divine Food.” (Canon No. 854) Q. What is necromancy? A It is a system which at tempts to get into communication with the spirits of the dead. The modern form of necromancy is Spiritism. It is a grave sin of superstition. Alger Hiss Abroad One would think that the case of Alger Hiss had been worked over sufficiently now to merit a long and well earned silence. It a e ns however, that a new book on the subject has just been pub lished in Eng land under the title of “The Strange Case of Alger Hiss.” The author is Earl Jowett. former Lord Chancellor of England. An American edi tion was planned for this spring, I understand, but certain major errors were discovered and, at least for a time, it will be held up. I ha\e no idea whether the American public ultimately will have the privilege of reading this defense of Hiss as presented hy one of England s outstanding lawyers. A curious feature of our time is the suspicion and distress with which Britain apparently fol lows the espionage, perjury and other episodes in American pub lic life. Senator McCythy has produced a spate of hostile com ments and articles, somewhat offset by the recent analysis of Rebecca West which put things a bit more in their proper per spective. The Alger Hiss case abroad has been taken a little too easily as just one more evi dence of the facility with which the Americans indulge in this peculiar form of hysteria known as "Red baiting.” 1 read the British analysis with interest and anticipation, but after concluding it, I find it somewhat disappointing. The most disconcerting thing about the book is its constant insist ence on analogies and compar isons between British and Amer ican judicial procedures. In many ways this is unfair. Alger Hiss was not tried in England, therefore there is no conceivable reason why he should be judged by strictly British standards. It would he equally hazardous to analyse the trial according to. let us say, French methods of conducting trials, with the judge taking an active part in the in terrogation and the like. Might-Have-Been Reasoning There is not much sense in speculation on what would have happened if Hiss had been tried in Britain, or if the American murts before which he appeared had been governed by purely British criteria. One might as well speculate endlessly on what would have happened to the un happy Hiss if the moral and ju ridical precepts of the Koran had heen applied to his case. Or one might wonder what would have happened had he been tried for perjury and presumed espion age in a court east of the Iron Curtain. That, however, would not even be speculation: there would be total certainty as to the verdict. Earl Jowett finds Whittaker Chambers a difficult man to un derstand. Granted. Anyone who has read "Witness” knows per fectly well that Chambers is an extremely complex personality with a mind that is not at all easy to dissect. His eccentricities and peculiarities do not, how ever, necessarily prove that his evidence is untrustworthy or that his charges as backed up with substantial proof are flimsy. Earl Jowett* bdfromes again and again a spokesman for the defense, emphasizing—it seems to me quite deliberately—those points which are favorable to Hiss and playing down those that are not. One of his first sentences reads. "If they (the typewriter) documents produced at the trial) had been typed by Hiss or his wile, .then I see no escape from the conclusion that Hiss was guilty.” Nothing in Jow eft's study establishes con clusively that these materials were written by anyone else therefore the conclusion is in evitably that the defendant was plainly and inescapably guilty. Emotional Prejudice One cannot help but wonder tn what degree books of this kind are wishful thinking, de spite the high position occupied by th? author and the undoubt ed authority with which he ex presses himself on legal matters. There seems to be a tendency in Britain—and in the United States too—to assume that cloak and-dagger chicanery of the type described in Hiss case simply can not be true because people do not act that way. Moreover, liberals everywhere are prone to read into evidence their own inher ent passion for justifying those who presumably have stood for progressive thought and action. I read somewhere recently how Harold Laski was always caught by this sort of thing—re fusing the obvious evidence in favor of anyone accused of con spiracy, treason or perjury. I am sure something of the same thing happened in this rase.