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On numerous occasions during the past months that have seen the proposed Diocesan Fund Drive become a successful reality, Bishop Ready has em phasized that the monetary goal of the drive was not the only objective that the successful conclusion of the campaign would include. Just as important is the lesson taught by the dedication of the workers and all those who aided the drive in any way. The great and hard-to-exag gerate importance of religious education in the community. Mirroring this realization by the community in general arc the following editorials, reprinted in full from the Columbus Citizen and the Ohio State Journal: Yesterdays reports on the Catholic high school and orphanage fund drive indicate the goal is in sight. The diocese seeks to raise $2.5 million to build two new parochial high schools and a new St. Vin cent's orphanage to replace the venerable orphan age buildings on Mam-st. Amounts donated and pledged up to yesterday totaled $2,163,000, so a little more effort by the army of 6000 campaign workers, and a little more response by members of the diocese and also by their non-Catholic friends, will put the drive over the top. The high schools and also the orphanage, are badly needed. Columbus is one of the fastest growing cities in the country. The Catholic seg ment of the population has increased in propor tion. The Catholic schools, like the public schools, are crowded and running over with pupils. St. Vincent's Orphanage’s ancient buildings need to be replaced by new buildings more in keeping with modern concepts of care for children. Most of the money needed, oi course, will be given by Catholics. They have shown a ready re sponse. But non-Catholics who ha\e the means, and the concern for the community as a whole, are also helping. This effort, in the long run. will benefit the entire community.—Columbus Citizen. Response to date in the campaign tn raise $2, 600.000 to finance construction of two new Catholic high schools and an orphanage is indeed heartening. Contributions from industrial and business con cerns have helped swell personal pledges to past the $2,000,000 mark. That the fund campaign has progressed »o well to date is an indication o| the realization of the need for more schools to meet mounting enroll ments. Success of the drive will assure Catholic families that as their children reach high school age. facili ties for providing the high scholastic and relgious training, for which their denomination is noted, will be available. That the drive is moving along so well is a tribute to the chairman. E. Faber BiRgert, officials of the diocese and the several thousands of laymen who are contacting prospective donors. Considerable work still lies ahead tor these and most members of our community will be happy to see the campaign fund swell considerably beyond the goal. By so doing it would provide a start to ward a third new high school planned by the Catho lics for Columbus.—Ohio State Journal. Do The British Like I Americans can sympathize with the demand of an English political figure that American forces be withdrawn from his country at once. Surely no real patriot li*kes to see troops of a foreign power camping on lhe soil of his country. It strikes deep into the pride which one justly has for his own nation. However, the British political figuie spoke of a widespread revulsion in England foi the American forces and for the United States, Granted that the speaker could he of definite Communist affiliation, or possibly just pink, his assertion needs investiga tion. Americans ought to know if there is any such aversion on the part of the people of England and they ought tn know just as quickly as the English man demands the withdrawal of Americans from his soil. If anyone should ask why Americans should know what the true feeling is for them in England, the answer cannot be long in coming. Have not hil lions of dollars been sent to England? Have not the very American troops about which the Briton com plains been sent there to serve as a defense of Europe and of England? Has not this financial and military help been going to England for a long time now’ .And if the result is aversion for America the U. S. Government ought to know about it and should let the American people know about it. Now. this is not a quarrel with the British it should be a quarrel with those responsible for letting our aid to our sister nation be so misinter preted as not to win the affection of these peoples one for the other. The American people do not wish any ill will to the English but the loud speaking radicals of England may be causing considerable ill will towards us on the part of a considerable portion of the British. If the English Reds can use any American act to turn their fellow countrymen against us they will do so. American diplomats and representatives should he ready for this. American aid to Britain or to any nation, for that matter should be given in a spirit of coopera tion and charity. It should be known as such. It should be stooped once it becomes evident that it is not appreciated, or once it becomes plain it is being used to further projects which are to the del riment of the United States. Nations receiving aid can understand this. They will not respect us other wise and right now the United States can stand a little more love and admiration around the world, and less of feai and hatred Money will not buy this. Where can thi man be found who will effect ually let the peoples of other nations know that the ordinary John Public of the United States would only he tno happy to have them enjoy the same standard of living and the same freedoms which are found in America’ Catholicity In Action Right in the deep South. Bishop Vincen S. Waters of Raleigh, N.C., has spoken out forthrightly and plainly about the teaching ot the Church on segre Ration of races. In a letter to all the parishes of his diocese he has charged all pastors to explain the teaching of the Church on this matter, and to tolerate nothine to the contrary The Raleigh Ordinary spoke with all em phasis. "Equal rights are accorded." he said, "to every race and nationality as is proper in any Ca tholic church and within the church building itself everyone is given the privilege to sit or kneel wherever he desires and to approach the Sacrament without any regard lor race or nationality The church does not propose tolerance, which is neg ative. but love which is positive." How could it be otherwise’ How could a member of one race refuse to kneel at the Communion rail alongside a member of another race and there re ceive the God of Ixive Who loses both with an in finite love? Could it be that such a one truly loves His Master, who died for men of whatever hue of skin? Does such a person expect to find Heaven divided into nationalities and colors? Bishop Waters explained to his flock that in the Mystical Body of Christ which is the Church, "all members, no matter of what race, what nation, what qualities of body, nr nf mind, nr with how many or how few possessions, all are in one communion if Reaching A Double Objective they belong to one Church. Anything to the con trary is heresy" ... If Christ said love your enemies, we certainly can love our friends. These are our friends and members of our own body, the Church It is our duty not only to love them but to serve them, to help them.” Some time ago Archbishop Ritter of St. Ixuis took a similar stand in race relations. Such teach ing by the American Hierarchy is nothing short of Catholicity in action. It is too bad that it is not better known throughout the world, particlarly in areas of South America and Asia where Commun ists make capital of race prejudice in the United States. Just Among Ourselves Passing Comment Considered or Inconsiderate It has been the custom, since the threat of com munism gave a fillip to our thinking, to speak much of the dignity of man. This use of the word "dignity” is not strange in atholic ears, but it surely is a surprising term on the lips of those who have long ago cast aside the old terminology of Christendom. To a modern mind, the word "dignity” suggests something of stateliness it calls up the image of an important person acting in a manner that befits his position. In a lesser sense, the word seems tn mean anything opposed to frivolity or the cutting of foolish capers. In a mean sense, "dignity” suggests stuffiness, pomposity, the pseudo-aristocratic air. 'lhe root meaning of “dignity” is worth or value. And it also means worthiness. And the term is used with reference to no earthly creature but man. If one speaks of the dignity of an animal, this is by way of comparison with a human being. A man has woiih or dignity in himself and he has worthiness or dignity in acting in a manner that fits with his value. lhe worth of a thing can be judged from what a wise person is willing to pay for it. Its worthiness is found in the way it justifies that valuation. W ha1 we call worth in a man may be figuratively indicated by lhe pricetag on a garment what we call worthiness is the quality that makes the gar ment hold its shape and wear well. And, as has been said, the dignity of a man is hoth his worth and his worthiness. What is a man's worth.’ Where shall we find the revealing price tag that tells us what a man's value is. what his worth amounts to. what he is bought for? Man has indeed been bought he has been bought back alter he threw himself away in a very bad bargain. In buy hack is to redeem. And the price of a man is what is paid to redeem him. Scripture tells us what that price is. In the First Enistle of St. Peter (i. 16-IP) we read, "You were not redeemed with corruptible things as gold or silver but with the precious blood of Christ.” God Himself became man so that He might die, pouring out the sacred blood of His veins, to buy man back from the slavery and doom of sin. and so to set his fret again in the way of virtue, and peace, and heaven. The Precious Blood is the price of a man. II is what was paid for him. It is his value. And since this price is itself of boundless value, it shows us that man's worth cannot be measured, this worth exceeds all computation. It is not to be estimated in amounts of gold or silver. It is a price beyond all earthly things. And this is what we mean when we talk about the dignity” of a human being. Is this what the modern world understands when it speaks, as is now the custom, of man's dignity? By no means. The world knows nothing of the Blood of Christ the world ignores Christ, and has done so ever since it turned away its eyes, with the obdurate Pharisees, from the Fact of the Resurrection. What does the world mean by man's dignity? Oh, some obscure sort of excellence that can be appealed Io when politicians feel the need of talking nnbly. The world does not like to be asked for definiteness of meaning: the world loves words and hates definitions. It justifies the remark of Joh of one "that wrappeth up sentences in unskillful words.” But despite the world's ignorance and vagueness, the dignity of man consists in the fad that he is a child of God redeemed hy the Precious Blood of Christ. The Church knows this, for the Church is wise the Church likes clear meanings, for the Church loves truth. And thus the Church knows, as sound human reason knows, that every human being, from the great leader and teacher down through the rank and File to the diseased, the criminal, the twisted and screaming idiot, is of a worth that cannot be discounted or ignored, even for the sake of saving or promoting all the slates and governments of the whole world. That is why the Church stands square ly, as human reason stands.- against all such things as human regimentation, birth prevention, mercy kill ings. and all the rest of that evil litany which is luted in the table of contents of a modern book of sociology or political science. The dignity of a man is the worth of a man. And the worth ot a man is the infinite worth of his price which is the Precious Blood. And. in the second place, the dignity of a man is the worthiness of a man. And this dignity is achieved by right hu man conduct inspired and supported by the grace of God. The worth of a man in no wise depends on his own will. The worthiness of a man does so depend it depends upon a man's voluntary cooper ation with the grace of God. The thing tor all to ponder is human dignity in both its senses we cannot appreciate worth with out an effort at worthiness. There is a fine meaning in the phrase noblesse oblige a man's position im poses obligation. We hear the slangy admonition. “Act your age.” We might make another. “Act your price show your true value.” We do not like to see the Hope diamond in a Woolworth setting. We are not inspired to behold our kings and presidents in dirty and slovenly attire, or to hear from then lips uncouth and profane speech. To bring worthiness into line with worth.- to put the diamond in proper setting to have our great leaders clean in person and speech,—we must live the life indicated by the price paid for us. The price itself gives power as well as instruction. “For,” says St. Paul, writing to the Hebrews about the sacrifices of the Old Law. "if the blood of goats and oxen sanctify ... to the cleansing of the flesh, how much more shall the blood of Christ cleanse our conscience from dead works to serve the IninR God?” To serve the living God with clean conscience. This is man's worthiness. This is the second and com pleting phase of human dignity. The Church always leaches and urges her children to appreciate the worth, and to strive for the worthiness of human life. Thus does the Church uphold and impart the essential lesson nf human dignity. And now. during this month of July, she points up her teaching and urging by consecrating the season to special devo tion in honor of the Precious Blood. THE CATHOLIC TIMES, FRIDAY, JULY 3, 1953 WASHINGTON LETTER What with the Congressional committees in operation, with the Subversive Activities Con trol Board functioning, and with witness alter witness refusing to say whelhei oi not he or she has ever been a communist one might have had the impression that pro-communist propaganda was on the wane. People here who make studies of such things say this is not the case One can recall that in the hey day ol the communist fronts in this country, people and organi zations who opposed them were frequently embarrassed, often frustrated, and sometimes seri ously harmed by the lavish use of slogans and catch-phrases on the part of propagandists. Be cause we don’t near such words as “isolationist” and "reaction ary” nowadays, one might think this form of propaganda has died out. Quite the contrary people in a position to know say that it FATHER HIGGINS A well known Protestant theo logian, Dr. Walter Muelder of Boston University, recently crit icized the Catholic theory of pri vate property as being inade quate and es sentially con servative. It is "mediaeval in its frame of e 1 erence. he implies, a n has lhe effect of keeping the worker in his place. Pope Pi us XI. Dr. Mueider mistakenly concludes (in a new hook en titled "Religion and Economic Responsibility”) has no adequate doctrine of the communitarian natural right to property, but only an individualis’ic natural right doctrine. it would be difficult to gne an adequate definition of Dr. Muelder s personal theory of property for his treatment of the subject is rather unsyste malic and therefore cannot be neatly summarized Obviously, however, he is not a socialist in the accepted sense of the word. While he favors a limited amount of public ownership (which is amply provided for. by the way, in Catholic social teaching) he does not advocate nationalization for its own sake nor does he regard it as a pana cea. Primarily concerned with the distinction between property lor personal use and what he refers to as "property for power," he particularly emphasizes the ne cessity of regulating the latter type of property in the interests of the general welfare When this is impossible, he concludes —quoting favorably from an authoritative Protestant publica tion—encouragement should be given to the further extension of cooperative and public ownership 1 Month Of The Precious Blood Get Set For The Blast WASHINGTON lhe weath er has begun to get hot here, but the "times” are hotter. 'lhe issues at hand are tre mendous, and there is every in dication our Government offi cials will not be permitted to deal with them in an atmosphere of thoughtful calm. A feverish era of propaganda and pressure is expected to develop. still goes on, with other words substituted "labor-baiter,” “imperialist.” etc. On the day that the Supreme Court held its extraordinary ses sion to pass upon the stay of ex ecution Mr. Justice Douglas had granted the day before to Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, the con victed atom spies some thou sands of individuals descended upon the city to swarm about the Supreme Court building and the Capitol in demonstrations in their behalf. Thev got on the telephone, too, and it was said that the switchboards in the Capitol, the Senate and House office buildings and other places were jammed with calls. Observers here, took this to mean that this particular “pres sure lactic.” so common only a few years ago, has not yet been discarded, and can be expected to be brought out and dusted off tor future use. There are real indications that shows of this sort, and the technique of showering more or less pre-writ ten telegrams and postcards up on members of Congress, have much less effect than they used to. But the Rosenberg demon stration. observers say. means that they have not been aban doned. The reason why Washington Ethics Of Private Property and to the direct ownership of many economic units by all the persons who operate or use them. Analysis In a Vacuum Allowing for differences in terminology and differing shades of emphasis, we would tentative ly suggest that Dr. Muelder's theory of property has more in common with the Catholic theory than he himself is inclined to think. This is merely another way of saying that his under standing of the Catholic theory is regrettably inadequate. He has made this mistake, it seems to us, of attempting to analyze the encyclicals more or less in a vacuum without beneiit of suf ficient collateral research. His bibliography would give the im pression that he has hardly scratched the surface ot Catho lic social teaching, for it does not include a single authoritative commentary on the general sub ject of Papal teaching, oi a sin gle authoritative Catholic trea tise on the specific subject of property. More extensive research would have made it appaient to Dr. Muelder that the Catholic theory of private property is noi at all "conservative" in lhe pejorative sense of the word, and does not have the effect of keeping the worker in his place. On the con trary. as the late Cardinal Su hard of Paris pointedly empha sizes in an authoritative pastoral letter on private property, the Marxist theory of property is "a weak doctrine" compared to that of the Catholic Church. (The same comparison can also be made between the Uatholic the ory of property and other non Marxist varieties of statism.) Suhard's remarkable pastoral on private property (reprinted in The Church Today The Collected Writings of Emanuel Cardinal Suhard. Fides Publish ers. $4 75) says everything that Dr. Muelder says and more— can look forward to stepped-up propaganda campaigns this sum mer is that it is expected to he a period of heavy negotiation If a truce is brought forth in Korea it will not mean peace, but will pave the way for what is feared will be a long period of negotiation looking to a final settlement. It was expected that there would be talks, oi some form of negotiations this sum mer over a considerable number of problems in Europe, including lhe future oi Austria lhe unifi cation ol Germany, the NATO build-up. and other points. Re cent developments in Europe, especially those behind the Iron Curtain, have only added to the importance of whatever comes to pass in Europe in the next few' months. 9 With so much at stake, and with the decisions to be taken probably shaping the future of large areas for some time to come, observers do not believe the communists and their friends will lose any opportunity for fa vorable propaganda Moscow may feel now that it can gain more by propaganda than it can by fighting, whether it takes a front-line part in the fighting or not. If that is so the propa ganda theme will be played for tissimo. about the necessity of regulat ing "property for power" in the interests of the entire common ity Not Conservative, Not Mediaeval Muelder implies that the Cath olic concept of property is "mediaeval” in its frame of ref erence. by which he means to suggest that it is unable, if not unwilling, to meet the challenge of 20th-century industrial capi talism with its tremendous con centrations of economic power. Cardinal Suhard disagrees. His point of view is anything but "conservative", his frame of ref erence anything but “mediae val.” “Whoever.” the Cardinal says, “will compare the teaching of the Church on property with ex cesses of modern Capitalism or with Marxism will be obligated to conclude that change is nec essary.” He goes on to say that this is not a matter of changing a few details: "We are speaking ot a whole new structure In the place ot Capitalism we must substitute an economy which is henceforth at the serv ice of men—and not of a few men only but of all men. Materi al goods, natural resources and manufactured articles are made for all people.” Quoting Pius XI and Pius XII, Suhard advocates a tempering of the wage contract by a part nership contract, especially in big corporations, and in this con nection favorably refers to a new type of "communal property” which, in his opinion, can be rec onciled with the fundamental principles ot Uatholic social teaching "The pure and simple wage contract,” he says, "was just, but it was free: no one has the right to impose it on those who no longer want it. 1-et us seek new solutions with a generous and prudent bold ness.” INQUIRY CORNER Is Missing Mass A Mortal Sin? A priest in confession told me not to mention that I missed Mass. Isn't it a mortal sin? A. Certainly no priest would tell you not to mention a mortal sin. No doubt the particular cir cumstances made it no sin, so that it did not have to be con fessed. If it is impossible to at tend there can be no sin. Those who are seriously ill or caring for one who is, and those who live an impossible distance from Church or are detained by some urgent work (eg. farmers in harvest time) are not guilty of sin if they miss Mass Good Catholics seldom accept excus es and they attend Mass even under great difficulties, but we are speaking here of serious sin. Q. “The scientist must reject all authority in truth or falsity since accepting authority means rejecting inquiry,’' states a sci entific friend of mine. What can I answer? A. Does a scientist re-examine and prove every fact he uses? Does he not quote scientific au thorities? Does he not accept materials e.g. chemicals for ar. experiment without testing them if they come from a reliable source? Does he analyze the food he eats, the bridge he cross es? Does he renounce all history and all reporting of news events he has not personally seen? Practically all scientific facts, unlike truths of reason, are sub ject to revision. The existence of God is not. It is an absolute truth, which carries overwhelm ing evidence based on reason as well as faith. If God exists, the problem of authority does not exist, for the teaching or command of God cannot be un true or wrong. The unbelieving scientist may insist upon proof that God has spoken, but he must see that IF God has spok en we have the truth Q. What is meant by the ap pearance of bread and wine in the Holy Eucharist? A. By the appearance we mean their color, taste, weight, shape and whatever else appears to the senses. The substance of bread and wine has gone, re placed by the Real Presence of Christ. So when St. Matthew re lates that Jesus "took bread and blessed and broke and gave it to his disciples, and said. ‘Take and eat: this is my body’ we see that under the appearances of the bread His Body was pres ent. (26:26-28) Q. What are the duties of par ents under the fourth command ment? 4 A. Parents are bound under the fourth commandment to care for the body, mind and soul of the child. They must respect his choice of vocation, and issue rea sonable commands They must exercise authority for the child's welfare, neither commanding too harshly nor dealing in a lax way with him. Parents must take reasonable care of the child's health and physical wellbeing, RICHARD P.4TTEE Salazar Portugal is celebrating this year the twenty-fifth anniversary of the regime of Dr. Antonio Oliveira Salazar This tribute reveals certain I’ i u Riie^e I e a w Inch ought Io be e in hasized. Hailed in many circles as CL.* the 9 ii i n tes s e n e of the hi i s tian W s okesman in '.p o I 1 Hi al and iJi1111111 i Ol II' I "i lll liberal persua sion) he is classified as another Franco or Mussolini clinging to power with a tenacity which would do justice to a better cause. 1 think there can be little doubt that Dr. Salazar does rep resent. if not the totality of the Christian ideal, at least the sub stance of it. He never sought the position he now holds He has resigned it more than once. He was chosen by his peers at a time when he himself was re luctant to leave the halls of Coimbra University He has never sought personal advantage of any sort—financial, social or otherwise. He is no ambitious seeker after power, insisting that greater and greater authority be placed in his hand, nor has he ever had to indulge in any of the practices of the dictatorships— purges, suppression, ruthless de nial of personal and collective liberty and the like. Most People Prefer Peace There is. in this heartfelt trib ute to a great statesman, an odd mixture of awe and affection. Dr. Salazar is not a man whom people idolize as though he were a pugilist, bull ftghtei or cinema star. His self-effacement and ret icence make anything of that kind impossible. But there has been an outburst of what comes very close to being personal love in the Portuguese people's re action tow aid their leader. The case of Portugal seems to demonstrate that most people prefer peace and order to con fusion that political passions the development of his mind at home and in school. Above all else they must protect his soul from harmful books, places and companions, and develop his soul in moral and spiritual per fection. "And you fathers do not provoke your children to anger, but rear them in the discipline and admonition of the Lord.” (Ephesians 64). Q. Does not St. Paul permit divorce among Christians (I Cor inthians 7:12-15)? A. No dissolution of the Sac rament of Matrimony is possible among Christians. St. Paul is speaking of what is known as the Pauline Privilege. Marriage be tween upbaptized persons may be dissolved by the Pope using the power which Christ gave to bind and to loose. (Matthew 16:18-19). Although natural marriage is in itself indissoluble it can be dis solved by God. The conditions are strict and difficult to meet, revolving about the fact that one party refuses to accept or tol erate the Christian faith of the other. Q. In view of the many Catho lics who are bad examples ho to can we prove that the Catholic Church is holy. We use its holiness to prove that it is the true Church, but many non Catholics find this a stumbling block. A. The holiness ot the Cath olic Church is not proved or dis proved by the life of one Cath olic or another. Since there are over found hundred million Catholics it would be difficult to make statements about the proportion of holy men in the Church to those who are not. What an honest observer should expect, however, is evidence that the Church is basically holy its teaching and its practices. He should expect the typical Catholic to be holy and there should be evidence of great numbers of holy Catholics in the history of the Church The evi dence for this holiness is over whelming. The teachings of the Catholic Church have met with vicious opposition down to our own times, when it insisted upon Christs teachings and ideals eg. regarding marriage The power of the Mass the Sacra ments, the priesthood and re ligious life has been acknowl edged by many unbelievers. It has never been shown that greed, lust or cruelty has been rein forced by Catholic teaching. Catholics w-ho have lapsed into these sins have been relatively few' and have been found in practically every instance to be careless Catholics. The countless sacrifices of Catholics for the poor, the sick and the unmstruct ed joined with the extraordinary holiness of Catholic saints prove that the Catholic Church is holy. Send questions to Rev. Ed ward F. Healey, The Inquiry Cor ner. The Catholic Times, Box 636. Columbus (16) Ohio. can be re-educated and party extremism curbed that even the most desperate situation holds some promise of redemp tion if the will and the intensity of purpose is there Portugal ought to be an example every where in the world where men are led astray by the absurd idea 4hat nations can be mad* automatically happy if a parlia ment is set up and free play giv en to political parties Sanity Out Of Reaction It is unfortunate that in so many places in the world the passion for independence goes hand in hand with a violence of rhetoric and declamation that promises very little for the fu ture. Portugal went down that road once and found that it led to disaster. Forty-eight govern ments tried to rule the land be tween the revolution of 1910 and the establishment of the Salazar regime—a record which surpass es in sheer instability even th* most spectacular efforts of con temporary France. When eco nomic misery, chronic chaos, so cial disruption and religious apostasy had al! reached their natural culmination. Portugal re acted. Out of the reaction came sanity in the person of Dr. Sala zar. Nations, like individuals, find it hard to confess to incapacity. It is particularly difficult today to assume that any people, no matter how ill-prepared or un endowed, is not entirely capable of running a parliamentary de mocracy successfully But it is high time that the example of Portugal be recognized as far more realistic than this starry eyed millenianism in which w* are indulging. No Solo Political Panacea Portugal took the unpopular rpad and has followed it ever since to its very great honor and happiness. A few other nations in the world might profit from this case history and recognize that constitutions and systems of government must be adjusted to political experience and histori cal background that there is no universal political device ap plicable to all peoples at all times.