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Hnl THE CATH0LIC TIMES Published Every Week by The Catholic Times, Inc. Columbus. Ohio NOTICE: Send All Changes of Address tn P. 0. Box 636 Columbus. Ohio Executive and Editorial Offices: 246 E. Town Street, Columbus 15. Ohin Telephones. ADams 5195 ADams 5196 Address all communications for publication to P. O. Box 636. Columbus 16, Ohio This Paper Printed by I mon Labor A Drastic Measure The 100th General Assembly of the Ohio Senate passed a revision in the Ohio Revised Code which may have some repercussions. Known as Senate Bill 32. subsequently passed by the House and more recently signed by the Governor, it is now law. It provides for a change in Section 4511.19 ol the code which refers to the operation ol a vehicle while intoxicated and reads as follows: “No person, who is under the influence of intoxicating liquor, nar cotic drugs, or opiates shall operate or be in actual physical control of any vehicle, street-car. or track less trolley within this state. As amended this section of the Revised Code now determines that whoever violates Section 4511 19 shall be “imprisoned in the county jail or work house not less than three days nor more than six months and no court shall suspend the first three days of any sentence provided for under this sec tion.'* No one will disagree that the measure deserves approval if it will remedy the present situation of driving by people under the influence of intoxi cating liquor. But one may ask just when is a per son under the influence? Who will decide' It a “city .slicker" gets out into the more secluded sec tions of the state and runs afoul ol the local arm of the law. a justice of the peace who suddenly dis- o hard with the es that he comes the new law and places him in custody for days. And this could he members of the stati lature as well as anyone else. Senate Rill 32 could Not that we are in favor ol it boomeranging. One cannot help thinking, however, that had the of ficers of the law throughout the state been more conscientious heretofore in enforcing already exist ing laws, the need for more stringent measures such as those of Senate Hill 32 would not have been o urgent. Perhaps those apprehended while driving un der the influence of liquor heretofore have not been treated with stern and determined measures. There has been a great deal of laxity in the whole situation but it is quite possible that a considerable amount of the laxity has been on the part of Ihe law enforcement officers themselves. It can only be hoped that the new measure will not prove embarrassing, and that it will remedy a had situation. A Little Learning Is Dangerous “A little learning is a dangerous thing wrote th* poet a long time ago. 7 hat this is no empty saying, is evident from the poll on religious beliefs taken recently by the “Catholic Digest. Results of the survey, made nationally, reveal that Amen cans with the highest education have less belief in the divinity of Christ. Between Hl and 82 percent of Americans with a high school education believe that Christ is God But only 79 per cent ol those with three years of college believe in Christ’s divinity, while the percentage ot college graduates believing this doctrine drops to an amazing 65 per cent. Could be that professors in college destroy belict in God among their students.’ An amazing amount of fuzzy stuff has come from college pio fessora. It ha- been our belief, however, that the great matoritv of teachers on this level have been learned and cultured gentlemen, able mentally to stand back from their own field of specialization and sec all in relation to the Almighty. I ntortun ately this is not true in all cases, and the “(atholic Digest” survey reveals an alarming defect uni versity teaching Even in institutions of learning there is reflected the mad rush of modern living, a rush that deme* men Ihe leisure that begets cul ture The emphasis i.s on the servile arts, not on Ihe liberal arts wherein men search after what has been called “the little trinity of the good, the true and the beautiful.” Us that as a whole, the United States is a hristian nation when it comes Io such fundamental questions as to whethei or not Christ existed and whether or not He was divine. The poet gives proper advice to those who have a “little learning” when hi* adds, "Drink deep oi The Moralil) Of Gambling i vu i”» i -...... happen where there is contusion of thinking and many people hold of gambling Catholic churches tie been holding nt w i ongdmng true that SOME offensive Gambling, in itself is mnt moralK has been the unvarying to.achinc ol the gambling is illicit. These conditions are: 1. That the player own. nr have the right tn minister the money he uses to gamble. Thus cannot risk what belongs to his creditors or w hat should use lor the support of his family. 2. That there be no cheating by the player. 3. That the arrangements be such that all have an equal chance to win. 4. That the general circumstances of the gamble be decent. That would exclude the type of gambling that takes place in defiance of the law and perhaps with corruption of law enforcement agencies. Obviously, the widespread existence of moderate games of chance in connection with the support of Catholic churches and schools means that our church authorities have judged that these activities fall within the licit category. This too. has been the position of a vast majority of the citizenry. The common sense of the average person rebels at classifying the church bingo player or the purchaser of a “chance on an auto along with thugs and felons. Onlv obtuseness or fanaticism refuses to see a valid distinction between licit and illicit gambling. As good citizens Catholics recognize and fulfil their duty to obey the law as currently interpreted. xpect. however, that the law may as to more nearly Reflect the be modified Now. blessed is not onlv he past tense, of the verb to bless. It is a Iso the past participle, passive, of the same verb. And a its name from the fact that it participates in the nature ol at least two parts ol spec■ch. ciple ole cd is a passive ioi ot a: verb, and it is also nn adjective. We use u1 3S A 'rerb in the sen- When we say the Hail Mary we tell the Blessed Mother that she is "bles sed among women state a fact, we use a predicate adjective savs that ot hervvise, But when he home game ot ic church hall, the •stival or drawing.* be. the phrase mean the rule savs that wrong. Ihis the atholic Church. It was the uni versa1 belief of all Christen dom four until the dissolution o hundred years ago. religions unity shout Gambling is one form of whal is known to mor alists as 'a contract »f chance.” It such a contract were intrinsically evil, so also would be insuring one's property against risk or dealing in futures in commodity markets. The chance, or aleatory, contract is simply a mut ual agreement among two ore more persons to make a gift. The determination of who gives, and who receive* the gift, is left to chance. It is permissible for anyone to make a donation out of what belongs to him. If a person wishes to make such donation contingent upon some future, uncertain event, he is evidently breaking no moral lau. And that is the essence nf gambling. In order that any specific gamble be morally per missible, Catholic theologians teach that four con ditions must be fulfilled. If any of them is missing, »d he he There argument about the pronouncing the word blessed. Is Hables, blessed. or a word of •stion about the a good diction poetic form it djective of one. containing only .oncerned solely this b. pure syllable, fishes." as the and active, participle takes This parti- blessed e, "Thu a wish. The word nplete verb with the he blessed.” only one s “Blessed be God.” it were “Blest be Therefore we say, "Bles-sed art thou. ...” and “Blessed be God,” Ihe first, blessed has two syllab les the second has one. Now, even if we should disobey the rule and say to Ihe Blessed Mother that she is "hlest” instead o( “blessed,” we should onlv outrage either the grammar, or the traditional spelling of the words in the Hail Mary. Bu1 if we disobey the rule about blessed as a one-syllabled verb, and cry “Blessed be God,” we violate not only grammar, but we outrage tad. and come close to heresy. For “blessed” in two syllables is always an adjective. Il is an adjective like "holy." And it would he quite wrong to wish, in an exclamatory prayer, that God may be holy. It would he irrelegi ous. to say the least, to hope or wish that Holiness Itsclt may he holy. God is holy. And God is blessed What we wish for and hope for as we pray. "Blessed he God.” is that all mon may come to recognize the blessedness of God, and give Him praise. A long tune ago this question about the proper pronunciation of blessed was discussed in a priests' magazine. One subscriber wrote in that "Bles-sed be God, was a form established by long and general custom: besides, he said, it sounds belter. It seems that these two reasons for the subscri ber's view arc inadmissible. Custom cannot sanc tion what is, in strict meaning, not only false grammar hut false doctrine. And it cannot matter how a thing .sounds if what is expressed by the sound is untrue. There are parallels in our language to this business of “bles-sed” and "blessed.” Consider the verb to learn. When we say, "He learned his lesson.' wo rightly pronounced learned as one syl lable. Rut when we use the past participle, pass ive, of the verb as an adjective, we give it two syllables. Therefore we say, "He was a learned man.” Or take the verb to age. We say that. "’Ihe vintner aged (he wine,’ meaning (hat he did Mime thing, such as keeping the wine in casks for an unconscionably long time we use aged as a verb therefore we give it only one syllable. But we say that, "The vintner is an aped man", meaning, •not that he did anything, but meaning to describe him by an adjective and the adjective aged has two syllables. You may say. “But we describe a wine as aged in the wood and aged is hero an adjective, and has only one syllable Not so: aged i.s here not properly an adjective it is a verb part with the other parts unexpressed. The phrase, "aged in the wood means that which has been aged in lhe wood. Well, maybe all this is ado about nothing. God reads hearts and minds, and is in no wise depen deni upon words and their pronunciation to know what goes on in hearts and minds. Doubtless thousands of perfectly pious and orthodox people will continue to say “Blessed he God” doubtless a few will insist on making blessed a monosyl lable in every use, even in the Hail Mary. But for those who care the rule is blessed as a verb one syllable. Rlessed as an adjective: two syllables.” word And Hable ed has The phrase, pronounced exactly as though THE CATHOLIC TIMES, FRIDAY. AUGUST 14. 1953 WASHINGTON LETTER By J. J. Gilbert the v Hables when it is an ad ce the sentences given ah is pronounced in live. Thus we proi in this way: “The one syllable, Io rhyme with blessed day,” Inn syllables. "This WASHINGTON Mrs. Elea nor Roosevelt continues to make the most surprising and flat tering statements about Mar shal Tito and his Yugoslav re gime. They are completely at variance with what the record has shown to date, and they are in conflict with the best informa tion the t'nited Stales Govern ment has been able to gather. We And Hables. do not Writing from Ljubljana, Mrs. Roosevelt said the world could find great meaning in the “ex periment'’ which the rulers of Yugoslavia are carrying on “within the framework of their type of socialism.” "No one here likes the experiment which they are trying to be called common ism because the President says it is not communism and has nothing to do with what he calls Soviet imperialism.” The President Mrs. Roosevelt refers to here is Marshal Tito, who, right up until now, has al ways been known as the Yugo slav Red dictator. “Socialism it certainly is." Mrs. Roosevelt continued, refer ring to what is going on in Yugo slavia, "but socialism and free dom may go hand in hand and anything which curtails the free dom of these people i.s going to be difficult to establish.” Last August, in an attempt to justify very extensive aid which EITHER CARNEY The program of social recon struction advocated is detailed and complete. Due attention is accorded social theory and prac tical action. The material and moral are carefully reconciled. Individuals’ societies and groups, and nations have all been assign ed definite tasks that the world might be generally restored to the providential order, according to which it was created, that men might happily and prosper ously live with other men. and that all might prepare to live ultimately with God in the hap piness for which they are des tined. Socially Uninformed It i.s an unfortunate fact that a good number of Catholics have not heard of this program of so cial reconstruction advanced by the Popes through the medium nf many social encyclicals. Some Catholics are in absolute ignor II orker’s Paradise YW ARE WITH STATE C&ME OF ACCEPTING FASCIST CAHTAUSY fHPWAUET FOOD INSTEAD OF STARVING DATRtOTlCAUY FON THE WtfOUS AEOFUS HFUMJC Observer Says Eleanor Wrong Lauds Marshal Tito When She thi* Government was extending to the Tito regime, the U.S. State Department told the American people that Marshal Tito left a great deal to be desired, but that he was being realistic with us, and we would have to be realis tic with him. The State Department said very frankly then that "the gov ernment of Yugoslavia is a com munist dictatorship under the direction ot Marshal Josip Broz —Tito—-the head of the Com munist Parly in Yugoslavia that the Communist Party is “the only political organization that is tolerated in the country,” and that "only a segment of the population gives its willing sup port to the domestic policies of the communist government.” What would Mrs. Roosevelt have the rest of the world learn from this kind of an “experi ment”? But aside from our State De partment. Marshal Tito himself has been at pains lately to estab lish himself as practically the sole-surviving simon-pure com munist ruler (which means dic tator). It i.s true he has lashed out against Moscow, but the Kremlin dumped him long ago. It is true that he calls the Krem lin crowd “imperialists,” but it is his contention that that bunch has drifted, while he remains steadfast tn real communism. Basic Rights of God In ilus the last of three “guest columns on the subject of adult education, Father Carney stress es the particular need for Ca tholic social education. That the World Be Restored To Providential Order From the turn ol the last cen tury until Ihe present lime, the Sovereign Pont it Is have, with emphasis and urgency, proclaim ed the need for social reconstruc tion throughout the entire world. This reconstruction, demanded so insistently and so repeatedly, has been Christian—that is. the Popes have called individuals and nations to an observance of the social message of the Gospel of Christ, and toward a con structive program in the socio economic order that insures a recognition of (he basic rights of God and man. ance of w hat is right and wrong relative to the social order mil lions have not even heard of the social encyclicals. Some 'ath olics are surprised, even scandal ized, when the subject of the Church's social teaching is dis cussed as if the Church ex ceeded its Divine commission by teaching in this sphere of the socio economic order. Large numbers of Catholics are socially uninformed save through the secularistic channel ot the daily newspapers. Thus a social thinking is embraced and defended which is positively an tagonistic to Catholic social prin ciples. Other Catholics greet Pa pal directions with great enthus iasm and pride, but immediately proceed to exempt themselves from the implications of and obedience to the message. Nom inal and theoretical support is thus given the Papal appeals, but individual lives do not reflect what is so ardently espoused. Restrictive Separatism Some few uninformed Catho lics are of the opinion that Ca tholicism belongs strictly within the physical confines of the Church and must not be carried into the world outside the walls. These are firm in their affirma tion that the sanctuary must re main separate from society. They believe religion to be a personal affair between God and man. Thus they practice a separation that greatly restricts the influ ence of Catholicism in the social order. The silence of many Catholics in private conversations, in the secular press, in media of com munication and on the public platform is likewise detrimental Red leaders of Yugoslavia told the people that Marshal Tito would not let a middle class grow up. and that he would not take a milder attitude towards religion. They declared that the “struggle” against Catholic and Moslem religmus leaders w’ould be stepped up. Marshal Tito himself said: “We have not committed an of fense against any precepts of Marxism and Leninism in our re lations with the West The Russians would have accepted loans had they been able to, but they were too stupid lor that.” “A communist,” Tito has said, ‘•is no longer considered a fight er and an example to others. Consequently, we have resolute ly decided to return to the old practices.” When Mrs. Roosevelt says “anything which curtails the freedom of these people is go ing to be difficult to establish." she does not say so right out, but she creates the impression that freedom is not being cur tailed in Yugoslavia. One imme diately surmises that Mrs. Roose velt was permitted to see only what the Red masters of Yugo slavia wanted her to see. But, even if she had not seen any thing hut the inside of Marshal Tito's palace, has she not heard of Cardinal Stepinac? and Man to the transmission of atholic social leaching. When Catholics remain silent, the field ofc social action is too often left open to those who promote error and build up half truths. Negetivistic Thinking Catholics, at times have been inclined to be wholly nega tivistic in their social thinking that is. critical of programs ad vanced by others, but incapable of proposing a suitable substi tute based on social principles espoused by their own Church. The spirit of criticism, while good and useful in itself, cannot effectively promote a program of Christian social reconstruction. Finally, many Catholics cannot *eem to get beyond the study club level of action. Thus in dividuals and movements are left uninfluenced by Catholic social teaching. Too much Catholic Ac tion has been restricted to the area of thinking. Education Must Precede Action In the light of the above ob servations. social education of Catholics for Catholic Social Ac tion is an immediate necessity. Social education, at least to some degree, must precede social ac tion. and this in accord with the specific wishes of the Popes themselves. We have tried in these brief articles—which we deem quite inadequate—to explain the need of adult education in a general sense the necessity of Catholic adult education programs under the direction of the Catholic Church, in view of the secular ism of nwr times and likewise the urgent and imperative satis faction of the Pontifical demands for social education for our Ca tholic laity. INQUIRY CORNER Conversion by Force Is Misguided Zeal Q. Were Jews ever forced to become Christians? A. In two thousand years of Christian history many individ ual Christians and Christian rul ers have tried conversion by force. St. Augustine, apostle to England, had to restrain King Ethelbert from such misguided zeal, as did Pope Nicholas I with Michael, king of the Bulgar ians. In regard to Jews Pope In nocent III at the height of the Church’s temporal power (the (thirteenth century) issued a de cree stating: “Let no Jew be constrained to receive baptism, and he that will not consent to he baptized, let him not be mo lested.” Pope Gregory IX and Pope Innocent IV issued similar instructions, Undoubtedly indi vidual men erred in this respect but the Church's position has been clear from the beginning. Pope Gregory I (sixth century) protected the Jews from coercion as did the fourth Council of To ledo (633 A.D.) Q. Could you list the date of origin of some of the outstanding Protestant Churches? A. Quoting Protestant authori ties in every instance Cardinal Gibbons in his “The Faith of Our Fathers” lists the following origins: The Baptists in Rhode Island by Roger Williams. 1639 Camphellites or Christians in Virginia by Alexander Campbell, 1813 Methodist Episcopal in England by John Wesley in 1739 Old School Presbyterian in Scot land by General Assembly in 1560. New School Presbyterian in Philadelphia in 1840. The Episcopalian Church, according to Macaulay and other English Protestant historians. Mas found ed in England by Henry VIII in 1534. The Lutherans have their beginnings in Germany by Mar tin Luther in 1524. the Unitarian Congregation a lists in Germany by Celarius about 1540 and the Quakers in England by George Fox in 1647. All began centuries after the time of Christ and His A. post les and were organized by men. whereas the Catholic Church can trace its history in unbroken line to the Apostles and to its founder, Christ Him self. Q. When is the world going to come to an end? A. Christ staled that “of that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven” (Matthew 24.36). He indicated some of the signs in the preced ing verses where He said: "For false Christs and false prophets will arise But immediately after the tribulation of those days ihe sun will be darkened, RICH 4RD PATTEE and the moon will not give her light, and the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of heav en will be shaken” (Matthew 24:24-30). There are additional prophecies in the Apocalypse (6:12-17 20:1-10) but none of them are meant to be narrowed down to a particulai date, but are given as a general warning. "Watch, therefore, for you do not know at what hour your Lord is to come” (Matthew 24:42). Q. What is mental prayer? A. Contemplative prayer as op posed to formal vocal prayer con sists dwelling upon the truths of religion in order to awaken good resolutions. Meditation is the exercise of the mind upon the Sacred Scriptures, the lives of the saints or other spiritual books to develop the motives for prayer and resolutions. St. Te resa declares that mental prayer and mortal sin are incompatible and exclude each other, and all priests and religious have defi nite exercises in mental prayer. Q. Do ice have to believe that we have guardian angels? That everybody has one, even wicked men? A. Catholicsjuust hold that an gels look after men because of the Church's feast day (Pope Paul V, 1608) and universal agreement. The words of Christ in referring to children: “Their angels always see the lace of my Father in heaven’ (Matthew 18 10) and the unanimous con sent of the Fathers makes it certain that every person has a guardian angel. /Dogmatic The ology II—Tanquerey) St. Thomaa Aquinas teaches that he remains with us from birth to death, nev er deserting his charge Q. What could cause a person to be refused Christian burial? A. If there is any serious doubt the Bishop of th? diocese makes the final decision. According to Canon Law (No. 1240) notorious apostolates from the Faith (and those who have joined some oth er church or the Masonic order), persons who have been excom municated or interdicted (by con demnatory or declatory sen tence), and those guilty of de liberate suicide are to be refused Christian burial. Any person kill ed in a duel, or anyone who has ordered his body cremated, or any public and manifest sinner is not to be honored by Christian burial. Naturally this denial of Christian privilege does not in dicate a decision as to the ulti mate fate of the person's soul. Send questions to Rev. Edward F. Healy. The Inquiry Comer, The Catholic Times. Box 636. Co lumbus 16. Ohio. Church in Denmark COPENHAGEN The Catho lic Church in Denmark is quite unique in the Scandinavian world. With its 25,000-odd Cath ilics, the coun ry impresses he tiny minor ties in the est of Scandin ivia as a sort if bulwark or itrong hold of he Faith. The statistics of the 'hurch here ire simple. There are ibout 70 par shes scattered iver the land. with nine in Copenhagen. No Danish city of any importance is lacking in a Catholic church— which is definitely not the case in the other Scandinavian coun tries. I have just come from a week in Jutland and some of the ad jacent islands. In places like Odense, Frederica. Silkehorg, Randers and elsewhere one can find a parish or at least a chapel lucked away some place. Ihe presence of the Church, as the French are wont to express it. is very definite. With the elevation of the Vicariate Apostolic to the category of a regular diocese, Denmark is now the first Scan dinavian country in which the Church is no longer an insignifi cant. struggling minority of which the hulk of the population is scarcely aware. Entering Wedge Denmark has about a hundred priests, which is a bad average for the effective Catholic popu lation. Of this number some 30 are of Danish nationality. The rest in arge part are German. 1 learned from Bishop Theodore Suhr that French Dominicans are expected shortly and that their special task will be to bring something in the way of Catholic culture to Denmark. It is curious how effective the French and especially the Domin icans are in this regard. In Fin land. to which I go next, the French have been laboring for several years and have attained quite an impact. (Of this I shall write later on the spot.) Den mark. like most Nordic countries is keenly aware of French cul ture and cognizant of its import ance. This may very well serve as an entering wedge in academ ic and university circles where Catholicism is almost totally absent. Native, Intellectual Thf problem of the Church in Denmark is a multiple one. There is first of all the need of estab lishing once and for all its essen tial “Danishness.” This, it seems to me. has been achieved in con siderable measure. The present Bishop, who is Danish, occupies a position that precludes the charge of "foreignness.” The sec ond problem is that the expan sion of Catholicism here must be in large measure an intellectual one. at least in the beginning. Denmark has almost literally no social problem. The economy is sound, there is good distribu tion of wealth there are no rich and no miserably poor. The ap proach on this line—that is, of social justice would not be particularly meaningful. The Dane is quite satisfied that the social and economic structure of the nation represents a solid and substantial achievement. This well being and high standard of liv ing contributes at the same time to a certain naturalism, in which the supernatural i.s absent. Crying Need Just as in the other Scandinav ian lands where the intellectual level is high, the Dane demands the very hest in books and read ing matter. A crjyng need is an increase in Catholic literature couched in terms that mean something to the Scandinavian. 1 have visited any number of book shops here, and the num ber of Catholic writers is pain fully small. Undset as in Ice land: Jorgensen of course, and a scattering of some of the mod erns. Graham Greene seems to be by all odds the most notable, .with Evelyn Waugh a close sec ond. In a Catholic bookshop such as Sankt Ansgaras right across from the Bishop’s residence, one finds almost everything available in Danish that treats of the Church and Catholic doctrine. It is not particuarly abundant and dependence is still very great on imported writers. Karl Adam seems to occupy a particu lar!}’ conspicuous place. I am told that there is con siderabe interest in the Faith in Ihe University and among intel lectually incined young people. But the way is always difficult because of the milieu. I spent an evening with several young Danish Catholics, all converts Each story was a repetition of the enormous place of “human respect” in the process of con version a factor that must be taken into very definite account.