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THE CATHOLIC TIMES Published Every Week by The Catholic Times, Inc. Columbus. Ohio NOTICE: cend All Changes of Address to P. 0. Box 636 Columbus, Ohio Executive and Editorial Offices 246 E Town Street. Columbus 15. Ohio Telephone*: ADams 5195 ADams 5196 Address all communications for publication to 0 Box 636 Columbus 16 Ohio Price of TS» Cathehe Tir» t» ».V rear. All »ub»c ptoo» should be rrosenteo to our offier through th- pastors rf ths paruthet Rer’ttane«s should mads ra^ahlr to Ths Ca'.h* Ttm~. Arooymous eomm .ricatior, w»|l ho disregarded V. do r, n* hold eureeivea rstnons'bls. 'or ary siewa er opinions osprsssed in the communications of our eorrespondents- Snrered Second ass Matter at Tost Office. Columbus Oho. St Francis de 8a'»« Patron of rhe Cathoiie Frees and of ti e Diocese of Columbus, Pray for V» I This Paper Printed by Inion Labor A Frame For Your Picture Not quite three weeks ago the nation rested from its accustomed labors to pay homage to the American laboring man and take stock of his po sition in this country, under the government of the United States. The reports garnered from the addresses deliv ered throughout the country on that day arc cause for continued prayers of thanksgiving to Almighty God for the great strides made during the past years and to beg His blessing on the future. The picture for the most part is encouraging. Each year finds more abuses abolished through in telhgent cooperation between labor and capital. Each year witnesses the clarification ol duties and obligations, the solidification ot principle and the practical lasting solution of differences based on the foregoing. This Increasingly pleasant picture is usually framed in the remembrance of things past. Tn see it correctly, we usually turn to the history of past years here in America to gain the propel perspec the. And this is as it should be. There arc some tew in this country, though, rel atively considered that should lor their own good, reframe their picture in a more modern hack ground. They are the ones who have been misled by the Great Lie of Communism and who seek to establish the dicta of ommuni-m as their ruling principles. It is they who should reframe their picture of the modern American labor scene in the back ground of those countries which already administer the Communist labor policy. Take a look al East Germany for instance. '1 he laboring man there has had some few years to bask under the beneficent sun of Communist labor lead era. They liked it so well that great numbers of them couldn’t resist the urge three month' ago celebrate by rioting in the streets and burning down some factories. It’s hard to believe that any one could be that happy—hut there are the facts. How did the bbs'es of ommunism take thi'” Why. naturally, they took it as the expression of the people. And three days ago thev came out with the only logical answer. “The people have spoken they said, “we can only accede to then wishes and give them more of the same..’’ And they are going to, according to the top man in East Germany. And we predict that the East German laboring man will he twice as happy' ax he wax on last .lune 17 s weeny roast. Here is the new program outlined for lhe work er* in East Germany le't you've forgotten Com munist dominated East Germany: “Harder work, more production and. in many in dustries, less pay.” Simultaneously with the announcement of good cheer from Waller Ulhricht. East Germany's Com munist labor boss, came the declaration that the eight top leaders in the hard coal industry were he ing placed on tnal under charges of letting coal production flop. Ulhricht in an address made to the German Fariy Central Committee, said the Red regime is thrujgh “coddling’’ the workers whom, he claimed, have been given soft treatment for the past three months tn quell their revolt. Well there you have it. The lot of the laboring man under Communist domination. Put that frame nn your picture! Subsidizing the Enemy That the United Slates i» actually subsidizing the enornio of hrist is the charge being made by the people of Jugoslavia 15it’ is a strong accusa lion and a terrible one Hut the most amazing and s' ing thin about it I* the fad that it is true, whethci wc wish to admit it oi not. and whether we intend to do so or not. For a long tunc now numerous sources, authentic could he wished have been pointing out to the nited Stales Government that religious persecution in Jugoslavia ba' continued unabated (rue lifo the Tyrant makes protestations oi freedom true too that lie at times indicates that all will be ironed out to the satisfaction ot decent people Hut it is aUo true that the doughty little dictator docs nothing about it Indeed all that he accomplishes and this hardly without tr: ing is to pull the wool over the eyes of the United States authorities. Here in America thousands ot laimlics rcl a.nf' and ronuniimti ate Icai Hing Hist hand the atrocitic' which th' Jmeruan boys suffered in the pri i n camp' of K'Ut.i bathei Paul Mlslch. pastoi of St Paul’ it roatiam Church in lev eland reports at the pi if sts of ugo'lavia hundreds ol them ar in pri-on Hist foi being pi i- ts and that the tortuie- tiny experience are woi-e than those the i. enemy rc'crved ioi oui airmen in Korea in ordti to tone them to confess to 'crimes'.” Red mobs an ill mvin-- ar und ou .-oslav la inciting to riot against religious leader' Bishops arc being seized and spirited away to prison. Recent week' have witnessed an alarming increase in this kind of actr ity. American.' may have no thought of subsidizing this in religion Rut they cannot blame the people ol Jugosla v tor thinking that we are sub sidizing it Ioi almost with every allotment ot money to Tito comes new stories oi persecution. A' lather Mi'ick say may wonder if the wo«ing of the Jugoslav Red regime is possible only if it means the destruction of Christianity in that country’’ Is that what Americans want? In this to be history’s judgment of us? Speak I 4 One ol Im- most encouiaging pieces of m|m mation to come from an entirely unexpected source was the report this week that lhe birth controllers had admitted d'-'eat at lea-t ioi the present in the Indian Parliament. JJe say ‘for a time for they will probably be back in full swing at flic next session of the governing body Even knowing this probability of renewed attack though the tact that they have been beaten this time is cause for rejoicing For the past few years we have witnessed a steady piogum of piopaganda aimed at the legal ization of bn ti. control methods toi a country of millions of souls. All kinds oi half truth' were disseminated throughout America and England gain support for the proposed plan spoechr' weiT made the World Health Organization meeting’ Trained work ers and propagandists flooded India. And now, the result. The legislation has heen withdrawn. This is in itself enough cause for re joicing—but along with it is another factor liable to be overlooked. And that is the knowledge of how this deleat came about. The proponents of this legislation were quick to admit that they had been defeated through the efforts of aroused groups, led mainly hy the re ligious loaders and spear headed by the Catholic Bishops of the country. This knowledge should prove an inspiration to other peoples of the world. Their voice, the voice of the people will be heard in their legislative bodies. It will IF they but only speak up. The efforts of the birth-controllers in India are paralleled in many countries of the world our own being no exception. The success of the right minded people in India can be paralleled, too, in any country of the world ... if the effort is made. Success of this kind fis the success of numbers, speaking numbers, numbers of people speaking up for what they know is right. Just Anion" Ourselves Pasting Commerrt Considered or Inconsiderate September 29 is the Feast of St. Michael, Arch angel: the old name for the Feast is Michaelmas, or “the Mass of St. Michael.” And October 2 is the Feast of the Guardian Angels. October 24 is the Feast of St. Raphael. Archangel. We arc moving into a season of angels’ festivals. It is therefore timely to talk a little about these wondrous creatures of God. Many scholars agree with St. Thomas Aquinas that angels must exist to make the works of creation present a regular and rounded manifestation of the Divine Goodness. God made creatures that are bod ily merely, and He made man who is a compound of body and spirit. Reason suggests what Revela tion declares, nainelv, that God made creatures that are purely spiritual. Thus we have the full scale bodies body-spirit compounds spirits. The angels are bodiless spirits. Sometimes we read in Scripture of angels appearing in bodily form. Wc arc not told definitely of the bodily form assumed by St. Gabriel, Archangel, when he ap peared to the Blessed Virgin to tell her that she was to be the Mother of God made Man. But that he “appeared” is proof that he assumed some bodily form. We know that St. Raphael. Archangel, appeared to the elder and younger Tobias as a young man. St. Thomas reminds us that when an angel assumes a human body, it does not make that hody its own so as to exercise in it the true functions of bodily life. No the angel uses the assumed hody as the instrument of bodily actum but the angel does not make the assumed body live, nor make it his own body. Me read in Scripture of three archangels, and arc given then- n -nes: Michael. Gabriel. Raphael. And we also re.-d t! I i‘" full number of archangels i seven, tor Raphael said to Tobias. ‘I am one of the seven that stand before the throne of God.” There are legendary names tor the four other arch angels and the seven are listed as follows: Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Uriel. Jehudiel, Sealtiel. Barat hicl. e There is also a pious legend of long standing that each ot the archan'-els has a special assignme as guardian of one of the sacraments. Father Faber tells us that Gabriel is assigned to Baptism: Uriel to Confirmation: Michael to the Holy Eucharist Jehudiel to Penance: Raphael to Extreme Unction Sealtiel to Holy Ordei HarachieJ to Matrimony. The pure spirits of Gott are called, in general, nnye/x. But this is a generic, not a specific name. The name mon (that is, human being) is a specific name this means that every being to which the name properly applies is of the same precise es sence and nature The one definition of man as a creature composed ot body and soul and made to God's image and likeness, defines every actual and possible human being. All men are thus ol the same s-pcc/rx. But each angel is a distinct species. They arc all of the same general class or genus of heavenly spirits. Rut no antel is completely and exactly the same as any other angel. Therefore when we say angel in reference to the heavenly spirits, we do not express lhe complete essence of each of these spirits, whereas when we say titan (in lhe meaning of human being} we do ex press thA complete essence of each human person. Jud when wc say angel as a general name of all the heavenly spirits, we remember that the same name (usually spelled with a capital A) is the name of a special class or order or choir nt the heavenly spirits. We make distinction between angel and Angel. For the heavenly spirits or angels, arc divided into hierarchies and each of these hierarchies is divided into three orders nr choirs. Thus there are nine orders or choirs of ent-els. The three hierarch ms mav he called the Upper, Middle, and l.owcr Hierarchy. In the Uppei nr Highest Hierarchy, listed in the descending order nf excellence, arc the follow ing orders or choirs- Seraphim. Cherubim, Thrones In the Middle Hierarchy, descending order are: Dominations. Virtues, Powers. In the Lower Hier archy, in descending order, arc the orders or choirs called: Principalities. Archangels. Angels. An angelic spirit of any order is said to he pres ent in a place hy the fact that it exercises its powers in that place. An angelic spirit is not con fined or limited by soace or place as a hody is. Dis tance can have no hampering effect on angelic action. The name angel means messenger, and angels are sometimes sent to men as special messengers of God: and each man has one of the order of Angels assigned to him as his 'oecial guardian. The guard ian an-.-el is appointed to each inan from the moment he begins to exist. Some mistaken teachers in past time have thought that only Christians have guard ian angels, and that those are appointed at bap tism. But every human being has his guardian angel, appointed from the first moment of existence. The angels ol the Highest Hierarchy (Saraphim, Cherubin. Thrones) are.it seems, never sent as mcscn crs to men. Nor are lhe Dominations sent. St. Thomas sa's that an-zols sent “in the external ministry” arc those whose names indicate some kind nf administrative or executive function. Those are: Principalities, Powers, Virtues. Archangels, Angels. An angel is "sent” by being present, through God’s will, cither where it wa not before, or by being present in a new way in a place where it was before. And. as wc have noticed, an angel is "present” inasmuch as it exercises or applies its powers in a place. The angels are in themselves more perfect crea tures than man. Mr.n was made a little less than the angels, although through the Incarnation human nature has been honored and raised even above ihc angels. Yet each individual man, as a bodily creature subject to sin. is almost measurelossly less than any angel he rightly invokes the angels to aid him in getting safe to heaven. Me? E A 0 1 TIMES, FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 25, 1 953 COMC THe COM&XS IT 4*HIM.1OS I.F.TTER WASHINGTON (NO The double execution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg in the electric chair last June 19 brought to a close 27 months of proceedings in which every resource ot the law was explored. The Rosen bergs had been convicted of espionage by the unanimous vote of 12 jurors. The death sentence pronounced by Federal Judge Irving R. Kaul man was apprais ed several times by the U.S. Court of Appeals, and upheld. The case came before the Su preme Court ot the United Stales seven times. In these proceedings, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg received every protection available under the democratic processes of jus tice. Ot course, all this might ap pear old stull, just another page in the annals of American juris prudence, except that two souls were sent before their Eternal Judge seemingly unrepentent. But it isn't. The Rosenbergs attracted worldwide attention, becoming perhaps the cause cel ebre of the era. They were the first spies sentenced to death in peacetime in the history- ol ihc United States. And they had two small sons. The Holy Father himscll expressed concern for the couple on two occasions. But the big noise came from another source the extreme l.Ol /s /. Hl IH XZ The FBI and Education With the opening ot the school and college season. Malenkovs followers are stepping up then invasion of the American edu cational sys tem. This move may become a o i able one, because it is accompanied by the attempt ed Red penc tration of the e o cratic and Republic an Parties, the AFL and CIO unions, and other “conservative” organizations. Ev ery issue of Political Affairs so far in 1953 has contained defi nite mstrnctioHs for work in this direction The Communists have been cheered along in their fall tasks by the failure of school and col lege authorities, in the main, to uproot them. So the Jenner re port on education indica.es. FBI A Spacial Target The cover under which the Stalimtes intend to advance is “the fight against McCarthyism.” Anyone in the educational field who is tempted to go along with this "tight” should read "The Anatomy of McCarthyism' in the June issue of Political .Affairs. He will learn that a McCarthyite is anyone who proceeds on the assumption "that Communism is a conspiracy and plots force and violence that the Communist Party is an agent of a foreign power, that Communism, both at home and abroad, imperils our nation.” In a word, anyone who turns a hand toward the defense of the United States of America is "guilty of McCarthyism.” The Federal Bureau of Inresti* patiou is set up ns a special tar get for. this attack, Political Affairs is pleased w-ith Dean Carl What? JVo Save-Be ria Campaign? Rosenberg-Beria Contrast left. All around the world, the communists staged bitter dem onstrations protesting the inno cence of the convicted spies, with some non-communists join ing in. In America, special trains brought demonstrators to Wash ington to picket in front of the Supreme Court and the White House. Well, the Rosenbergs died for their crimes on June 19. Twenty days later, however, the world press bannered now headlines Lavrenti Beria. one of the tri umvirate ruling post-Slalin Rus sia. had fallen. The great irony of it all was that Beria, as part of his con tribution to lhe Reds’ atomic de velopment, was responsible for the information gathered by his spies in the United Stales and Britain, among them the Rosen bergs. But Bena had made “perfidi ous attempts to place the U.S.S R. Ministry of Internal Allans (i.e. Beria himself) above the government and the Commun ist Party." and thus was an “in ternational imperialist agent.” Hauled off to jail, he was or dered to trial before the Soviet supreme court. As both the Cleveland Plain Dealer and the New Republic magazine have suggested, here was a t'-emendous opportunity Jenner Report Cheers Reds Ackerman of the Columbia I m xersity School of Journalism be cause of his alleged declaration that he will not "voluntarily co operate any more with the FBI.” If they can extend that attitude to include other college deans, the Reds will be very well pro tected in their renewed infiltra tion of the educational process. Farcical Picture These words deserve to be greeted with sardonic laughter. They are uttered by puppets of the huge Terror State, the Sovi et dictatorship. They also pre sent a farcical picture of the FBI. which has been conspicuous for confining Itself to its legal functions as a bureau of investi gation. Never in its history has it overstepped that mark. And it is due to its careful observ ance oi these legal limitations that the FBI has found it diffi cult to use fully the information it has gathered since this must await action by other govern ment ayencies. But the Communist leaders in America know that very tew non-Cominunists will read then words as set down in Political Affairs. The Red origin of these vilifications of the soundest se curity agency we possess will not be widely understood. Con cealed members of the conspir acy, as usual, will pick up these instructions and carry them into schools and colleges and other places tinder a uou-Cumntunist cover, as though Americans were promoting them, not Sta Unites. If the conspiracy in this way can place great obstacles in the path of the FBI and Congres sional committees, persuading educational authorities not to co operate, then the way is wide open lor the new infiltration. Worth Mulling Over The Communists, it can be seen, count heavily on lack of for self-styled justice-seeking liberals to go to town. Protest meetings, a mammoth Commit tee for a Fair Trial for Beria would seem in order. But Beria the Purger has been purged, and the agitation which flared up around the Rosen bergs has been strangely unable to rouse its conscience in his be half. Ol course. Beria may al ready have been killed, and be sides. all this is foolishness any how. For the communists wanted nothing better than the death of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg: peo ple mean nothing to them, and the Rosenberg children just made for a good emotion-rousing appeal. And it either or both of the spies had been granted clem ency, the Reds would have been sorely disappointed. All they wanted was a new propaganda angle "heroic martyrs of American injustice’ so they could spread their hatred throughout the world. But in the long run, the whole affair is probably a great com pliment to the. United States: The Rosenbergs received a fair trial, were convicted by a jury of their peers, and their case went through 27 months of com plicated review. In Russia. Lav renti Beria was accused: there fore he was guilty. The wolves rushed in to tear him to pieces and that was that. knowledge of their methods among people who are educated. The Jenner Sub-Committee on Internal Security, after its heal ings and studies on the subver sive influence in the educational process, came to recognize this. One of the recommendations oi that committee—one that re ceived little publicity but is very vital touched directly on this point. This recommendation reads: “That school authorities, colleges, and local boards of edu cation institute positive pro grams, under qualified experts in the field of combating Com munism. to teach both teachers and school pupils the nature of the Communist conspiracy that is attacking the whole structure of our society.’’ That is a recommendation worth mulling over—and doing something about—at the begin ning of this educational year. Th* Positive Side Much deserved attention has been devoted to the investigation of Communists and pro-Conimun ists now operating in our schools and colleges and this should con tinue. The American Legion na tional convention was correct in indicating that only a beginning has been made. But the positive side must not be overlooked: lhe necessity to equip college graduates in particular with a knowledge of the operations of the huge Red conspiracy with which they and this country are confronted. Every day the urgency of this form of education comes to my doorstep. Only this week an able government official said to me. “You will have to be patient with the men working unde» me. They know little about Commun ism and how it operates.” Each of these men was a university graduate but. as yet. unequipped to grapple with the greatest problem of our Ume. I!\QL'IRY CORKER RICH 4RD 4TTEE K WB How Can We Be Lost After Christ's Death? Q. What good did it do if Christ redeemed us and we can still be lost? I believe that he who believes and is baptized snail be saved (Mark 16:16) A. The redeeming death of Christ made salvation possible for all. but it did not destroy man's freedom. We have the be ginning of etern-d life (called sanctifying grace) in our souls by baptism, but the New Testa ment is full of references to Christ’s further commands. In St. Matthew’s Gospel (10:38) we read: "And he who does not take up his cross and follow me, is not worthy of me.” St. Paul wrote to the Corinthians: "There fore let him who thinks he stands take heed lest he fall,” and this was addressed to baptiz ed believers. St. James concludes a long passage on the subject (2:14-26) “You see that by works a man is justified, and not by faith only.” Q. What happens to unbap tized infants? bo they go to heaven? If not. why not?. A. The Creator of all things and all men has been good enough to adopt men as His chil dren. For this amazing gift He places a simple basic condition: “Amen. amen. I say to thee, un less a inan be born again of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.” (John 3:5). We do not know .vhat hap pens to unbaptized infants, but they cannot enter heaven. The good God certainly can be trust ed to love them more than we do. Theologians have generally con cluded that they enjoy a life of natural happiness. Q. Where can 1 obtain a list of Christian names? A. There are several pamph lets which give lists of Chris tian names as “Is It a Saint's Name?” (Dunne-lntegrity Sup ply. Chicago). Lives of the Saints such as Butler’s. Englebert’s or the "Book of Saints” compiled by the Benedictine Monks of Rams gate provide a good source of names and information. A daily Missal or even a Church calen dar gives the name of the saint of the day. For Baptism the priest’s advice is always avail able in the matter of choosing a patron saint for the one to be baptized. Q. Do wc hare any nf the or iginal copies of the Neu’ Testa ment books? ]f not how do we know that we have authentic copies? A. The authenticity of the 1 New Testament is assured by an uninterrupted series of detailed and precise historical testimon ies. From Papias. hishop of Hier apolis and disciple of the Apost les (early second century) through such authorities as St. Irenaeus (140-202 A.D.) there is abundant evidence nf the histor ical truth of the books. They are listed in the Canon of Muratori written at Rome about 185 A.D. The widespread use of the works by Christian and pagan (e.g. the Epicurean philosopher Celsus, about 178 A.D.) authors in the second century is part of the proof of the authentic dates. There are fully 1500 manuscript codices of the Greek text of the Gospels, while some papyrus fragments go back to the third and second centuries. Copies in other languages help establish the texts substantially as we have them. Q. Were any secular priests martyred in the English perse cutions of Catholics in the 16th century? A. There were many. In 1929 Pope Pius XI beatified 136 Ca tholic men and women who were put to death for their Faith in England between the years 1541 and 1680. Of these sixty-six were secular or diocesan priests. The list includes such interesting classifications as David Gunston, gentleman, John Slade, layman, John Bodey, schoolmaster, Mar garet Ward, spinster, Anne Line, widow. John Grove, servant to William Ireland and Thomas Pickering, lay-brother, in addi tion to secular and regular clergy. Q. ’Who was St. Raymund or Raymond? A. There are several saints of that name. St. Raymund of Pen nafort, whose feast is January 23rd was General of the Domin ican Order, adviser of Pope Gregory IX and compiler of Can on Law. St. Raymund Nonnatus, also a Spaniard of the thirteenth century, was active in the newly founded Order of Our Lady of Ransom. He gave himself as a captive and upon his rescue was made cardinal by Pope Greg ory IX. Q. Where can I find a. state ment of Christian social prin ciples without the prejudiced opinions of particular authors? A. The basic teaching of Chris tian social principles are con tained in the Encyclicals of the Popes. Interpreting the teach ings of Christ in. terms of mod ern situations the Holy Fathers have used all human means and have acted in their capacity as Vicars of Christ in these docu ments. As the Bishops of the United States stated in 1936 (Statement of the Archbishops and Bishops of the Administra tive Board. N.C.W.C.): "These En cyclicals contain a complete and systematic statement of Christian political and social philosophy, and a working program of action for all who are desirous of cor recting the evils that are ram pant in the world today.” Ap proved Catholic authors and per iodicals generally follow the leachings of the Encyclicals. Sometimes they may be prejud iced. hut prejudice may also in fluence the reader. Send questions to Father Ed ward F. Healey. The Inquiry Corner. The Catholic Times, Box 636. Columbus (16). Ohio. The Finnish Language Travel in Finland is not par ticularly arduous. The trains are the least luxurious in Scandi navia but still very good. Busses are .HHi I Kri. K onably e e- dite and itn maculate. The K,ca* Problem a■ of Finland is "jjll i I inviedible language. l\c '•’WW IQ spent w o week' living HHI with and 11 1 1' r‘1 ’11 11111 What ever the travel books may say about always finding someone in the Finnish interior who speaks Ger man. Swedish or English. 1 can state that this is profoundly un true. 1 have discovered exactly three people from Helsinki to Tornio who spoke anything that remotely resembled anything other than Finnish. Signs in Swedish vanish as one leaves Helsinki and everything from directions to menus—appears ex clusively in Finnish. With most languages the diligent and imag inative traveler ran cope because a certain number of basic words manage to remain the same, but with Finnish there is no nope at all. Hostility to Swedish has led the Finns to Fcenize their tongue with an energy and in genuity worthy of a better cause. The result is one of the really great linguistic ventures of our times. Fifteen Cases If one wants to go to the rail way station, he discovers that the proper term is “rautaasema accent on the first syllable. Rail travel becomes "rautatiella” and in purchasing his ticket— assuming that he has found the station at all—he calls for a "lip pu.” Since Finnish has 15 cases and a host of endings which vary constantly, and the basic word also suffers a root transforma tion, it becomes plain that even if he knows how to pronounce the name of the town to which be is going, there is no certain ty that he can manage the proper ending and say !o Lahti and not from, in or at Lahti. 1 wanted to ship some heavy luggage direct to Tornio on the Swedish frontier. 1 discovered that luggage is “matkatavarat” and that “to Tornio” comes up as "Tornion.” When it Came to ascertaining whether the stuff could remain "at Tornio” until my arrival, I spent 15 minutes trying to find the case that fit ted. The word that resulted was “Tornissa.” Menus became a daily night mare. From “Waiter, show me the menu”—Tarjoilija, nayttakaa ruokalista—it became a duel as to how to get anything to eat that was palatable. On the part of provincial Finns there is pre cious little capacity for accom modation to the vagaries of the foreign traveler. Eating hours are the initial problem. Next to the Icelanders, I have found no Scandinavian people less inclin ed to get up in the morning. Aside from coffee, little can be secured before 11 A.M. when something called an "aamiainen” is served. This is breakfast after a fashion, with a heavy smorgas bord and beer. Finns drinking hecr at 10 A.M. as a breakfast delicacy is a constantly repeated scene the length and the breadth of that remarkable country. Swedish Sounds Homelike The main meal, about 4 P.M., is really something, in quantity and variety. The Finns have the same phenomenal appetites as all Scandinavians. Cold fish, meats and salads pile up omi nously along with beer, aquavit or Schnaps and a sickeningly sweet wine which seems to be esteemed as particularly deli cious. Trying to get a ticket to a cinema is an entire operation. Finnish cinemas operate on fix ed hours. Tickets must be pur chased in advance. Negotiation for the row and seat, plus what to pay. through one of these frightful little windows half in glass—and all this in Finnish— testSMhe patience of the hardiest traveler. After spending my last night in Finland at a Tornio hostelry called the “Kaupunginshotelli 1 crossed the frontier into Swed en. The sight and sound of Swed ish made me feel that I was back in my native land once more.