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4—THE CATHOLIC TIMES
Friday, Oct. 16, 1953 business The of Ohio of ever a ilia ti 1 defea this s the wh of Ohir it well THE CATHOLIC TIMES Published Every Week by The Catholic Times, Inc. Columbus, Ohio NOTICE: Send All Changes of Address to P. O. Box 636 Columbus, Ohio Executive and Editorial Offices: 246 £. own Street, Columbus 15, Ohio Telephones: ADams 5195 ADatns 5196 Address all communications for publication to P. O. Box 636, Columbus 16, Ohio rrice or I be Catholic I lines is V" per year. All lubacriptlona should be presented to our office through sb* pastor? of the parishes. Since parochial amendme Remittances should be made payable to The Cath- This Paper Printed by Union Labor Educational Grab-Bag On November 3, Election Day- the voters of Ohio will be called upon to decide for or against a proposed amendment to the Ohio Constitution to create a State Board of Education. The Amendment, as proposed, is vague, non-defined and misleading. To the question. Who will serve on this School Board?, no implication is given in the state amend- ment other than leaving it Legislature. Shall the School Board ernor? by the Legislature? I be elected according to the state district hy the Board ted by the Gov e School Board n of authorized ard be elected hall the School The an answer the serious ul ion. if the State s political now any of this ?x nent. onal supervision I progressive. Is of tried prmci ry and political have purposely dministraf ion of this particularly from political vnge which they emove education i thev desire to 'ducation into a voters have at Pack outli itli I* ailh cigarettes suddenly seems has consistently evoked a the buyer who has to and it has annoyed the nge did not include the i a pack from a vending 1 in a new light. It is not he average amount given on Mission Sunday, The arettes appears. then, as ge Catholics concern for billion and one hundred ot know Christ, their Sav measure of his faith, hope ke a tragedy for a tre- over impressed by the tivity, too happy that id missioners now, and Amid u e cream parlor forays, Eddie Fisher re cordings and "hot rod' tinkering American young people do some serious thinking This is evidenced in the theme of National atholic \outh Week a theme by the way, chosen by the young people themselves. WiituHc aiiv plodding from ohi’.leis 'hey have spoken up !. ,v li.it \iinm.is hept i» \(l I li Hl/li I Xlfll. I hat will be their nil's age during he coming week of October 18 to 25 when the more than six million youth call attention to their ideals. The youth groups observing the .special week which is spun oied by the Youth Department of National atholic Welfare (onference, work with more than ideal* alone. They include young people of all creeds and denominations who take positive that can be applied to everyday doings Working to fill pre-em day need*, these groups have included young service nu n in lheir activities encouraged pre induction training cuiiixe spurred youth participation in civil defense and blood donor drives, and "adopted and aided war impoverished Korean families. During National atholic Youth Meek there will be rther sampifs of thi* adnn throughout the U S. when the young people get together to take par* in orr-'er* for peace, daily church attendance at Maas, and family religious observance* elimaxing the week on the Feast of Christ the King, Octo ber 25. When six million American young people strive for such positive ideals, they deserve more than adult commendation. With encouragement of “Youth With Faith.” the U.S. might lessen its fears of the power of communist infiltration, of immorality in high places, of unsound principles among nations and of increasing “adult delinquency'’ which result in parental neglect, broken homes and immorality. These "Youth With Faith’’ are surely America's hope. It’s now adult America's turn to place some faith in youth! Just Among Ourselves Passing Commsrvt Considered er Inconsiderate In our commentary on the inept advertise ment for rosary-beads containing water from the fountain at Lourdes, we said that the first sentence of the bally-hoo could not possibly have been writ ten by a Catholic. The line reads, “Imagine Pray ing to Our Blessed Mother and Actually Touching Beads Containing Water from the Miraculous Spring Created by Holy Mary!” This line is not only a faul ty' expression of Catholic devotional feeling it is also a faulty example of Catholic language. For we Catholics.—at least the English-speak ing millions of us,—never use the phrase, “Holy Mary,” except in direct address. We use the term in the Litanies we use it in the second part of the Hail Mary. We use the words when vve call on the Blessed Mother. We never use them as a name when we are speaking of her. We speak of her as Our Blessed Mother, as the Blessed Mother, as Our Lady, as the Mother of God, as the Blessed Virgin, and call her by a variety of other names, such as Our Lady of Good Counsel, or Our Lady of Victory, or Mother of Perpetual Help, but we never speak of her in the third person as "Holy Mary.” That is why we know, and know for certain, that the copy writer who prepared the ad for the aqueous beads is not a Catholic. It is impossible, or almost so, for a person of one culture to speak the language of another with anything like convincing ease. The "perfect mimic” is always far from perfect. A quick proof of the point can be had by looking at the frequent at tempts of British writers (even of so keen and clever, not to sav deeply learned, a writer as G.K.C.) to give a fictional report of the conversation of Americans. And Americans, in turn, are quite as unfair and unreal in their attempts to imitate the casual British speech. The thing is true even of varying dialects within a country. The easterner trying to impersonate a mid westerner is as pathetic as a northern, citizen at tempting to imitate the soft accents and quaint phras ing of the deep south. Foreign accent is not all a matter of tones and pronunciation: it is al*o a matter of choice of words and phrases. And this choice is a thing that becomes almost a second nature in persons brought up in a certain place, and in others who have lived there long enough and familiarly enough to acquire this second nature. I,et any others attempt an imitation, and they will be instantly spotted as phonies. Our ad writer does not speak the language of the household ot the taith. He gives himself away in his very first utterance, as mere imitators always do. And he manages, in that same utterance to get the second toot into his mouth. For he mentions the fountain at Lo urdes as 'created hy Holy Mary.” There, in those four little words, the writer gives two distinct proofs that he is not a atholic. For, in addition to the give away of his use of Holy Mary as a name for Our Blessed Mother, he uses the word created as no instructed Catholic would use it. To create it to make tomething out of nothing lo produce a thing in its entirety with out any sori of material to work upon. Now, creation is a work proper to Almighty God. Only God can create. It i* true that the language of news-reports uses the word create in a very loose way. A Baris gown is called a creation^ certain concurring inci dents are said to create a situation: the President is said to create a new bureau or committee we even hear of Cardinals being created. But in matters touching religion, is doctrine or devotion, we Catholics use the word i». its strict meaning we rightly ascribe creation to God alone. The account of the apparitions of Our Blessed Lady at Lourdes, ax given in the Roman Breviary, tells us that the spring which was already under ground and was presently to burst forth and flow openly, wag mentioned to St. Bernadette by the Blessed Virgin. It was through Mary that this sign was to he given it was by Mary s intercession that the waters of the spring were to be the instrument of miraculous benefits to mankirjn. But Mary did not create the spring, nor did sne create its in strumental power. The Blessed Mother did not create the fountain at Lourdes, and no instructed Catholic,—no Catholic familiar with ordinary Catholic language would say that she did. And thus we know that the man who wrote the eager appeal to Catholics to buy watery beads is not himself a Catholic. You may’ say, "What difference does it make? The man was merely trying to sell something. And, trying to sell something of a religious nature to Catholics, he would try to talk like a Catholic. He failed in the talk —and we hope he tails in the attempt to make sales. But why should we care whether he is a Uatholic?” Well, aside from the fact that every Catholic cares very much about people being outside the Church, we have a reasonable resentment against an outsider who pretends to be one of us. and urges what he thinks a pious practice upon us, merely for the sake ot lining his own pockets. We resent the impersonation as well as the imposition. We do not like to be victimized by an unworthy Catholic in matters touching, however remotely, our holy religion we like even less to be victimized in such matters by a lake Catholic. The familiarity with characteristic speech and function which comes of living in a place or in a cul ture. comes from nothing else, and cannot be suc cessfully imitated. Only yesterday, we heard a TV announcer speaking in deep and solemn accents (al most like Edward R. Murrow, "The voice of doom’) as he described the funeral service for the Green lease child recently murdered by kidnappers. He explained that the service at the grave was "the Mass ot the Angels.” and indicated the white sur plices of clergy and acolytes as symbolic of the in nocence of the dead child. Why are people so ready to speak of things Catholics when they don't know the language? They are forever al it. They recall the old story of the tramp who stopped at a ('atholic rectory, sure of an easv touch He told the priest he was a Catholic. The priest asked him to recite the "our ather I he tramp made a toor fist of this assign ment. Much amused, but keeping his countenance, the priest then asked the man to say the "Hail Mary." He wa* unable to make a start. Later, the tramp informed a fellow traveller that he had said the "Our Father” for the priest, and had been given a dollar. "What!” cried the other, "he gave you a dollar, for knowing the "Our Father’!” "Yes.” said the tramp, "and if 1 had known Mary Haley, I'd have got two dollars!” Most of the non-Cathohcs who try to talk the Catholic language are of the Mary Haley school. .1. WASHINGTON LETTER WASHINGTON—(NC) The brutal destruction of a Catholic village in Israel within recent days underscores anew the pre carious position of Christians in Israel. It also emphasizes that the world community should take effective measures to in sure the adequate protection of Christian shrines in all Pales tine. and particularly in the Jer usalem area. Reliable news reaching here states that the (atholic village of Kafr Biram, situated about three miles from the Lebanese frontier, was destroyed by’ incen diary bombs and dynamite on September 16 and 17. De.*troyed with the village was the atholic church ihere. This destruction took place while the Catholic villagers were hopefully waiting for favorable action on their petition to return to their homes and farms from which they were forcibly ousted at the end of 1948. During the intervening years the Catholic church at Kafi Bir am was profaned several times, the houses robbed. The villagers were forbidden to cultivate their land or live in their homes. Destruction of Christian prop erty in Israel is not something new. There were repeated acts of vandalism and profanation in EAT HER HIGGINS Ten or fifteen years ago many people were saying that the Amei lean Federation of Labor had seen its best days, that it would event ually have to take second place, in terms of infl u e n e and prestige, to the more dy namic Congress of Industrial Organizati o ns which was then riding the crest of the wave. Even as recently as the em' of World War II the AFL was be ing written off. prematurely, by some students of the American labor movement as an ultracon aervative and slightly fossilized organization whose future was behind it. The AFL* convention in St. Louis—by all odds one of the most important trade union con ventions in recent years—-demon strated that these earlier proph ecies about the decline or de mise of the AFL were worse than premature they were com pletely unwarranted. The AFL convened in St. Louis during the week of September 20 with a membership almost twice as large as that of the CIO and, un der the extraordinarily caoable leadership of its new president, George Meany, gave every indi cation of being a highly progress ive organization with a limitless future ahead of it. President Meany is the man of the year in the American la bor movement. Great things can be expected of him. A man of considerable intelligence and sterling character, he gives prom ise of developing into one nf the greatest labor leaders in the his Catholic Youth Week, Oct. 18-25 t, Christian Insecurity In Israel the Jewish area during the Pales tine fighting and some since. The important thing is that these incidents are continuing at the present time when there can be no more excuses that they are due to "irresponsible elements” or are the result of "wartime excesses.” It is also noteworthy that Ca tholic villages have been destroy ed in this brutal manner while Moslem villages even nearer the Arab-Israel frontier have not been touched, nor have their in habitants been molested. The crux of the matter is whether Catholics can live in peace in Israel. It is not a ques tion of Arab refugees scattered in other countries, but of people who are citizens of Israel. They did not flee to other lands. They wished to remain in that part of Palestine now called Israel and they have the right to re main there and live in peace, particularly because they were never involved in the Arab-Jew i,*h conflict. The Kafr Biram incident came to light a* a new call was made before the United Nations Gen eral Assembly for effective action by that body to internationalize Jerusalem and its environs. The call came from the Leban ese delegate, Charles Malik, who read before the 60 nation \«*em- Limitless Future For AFL tory of the United States. Ag gressive and absolutely fearless in fighting for the rights of la or. he is, at the same time, deep ly conscious of labor’s responsi bility to the nation as a ^shole and the emerging world com munity. First Things First As former Secretary of Labor Martin Durkin phrased it in nominating Meany for the presi dency of the AFL. he is a man who puts his God. his family, and the country before his union— and, as Durkin very appropriate ly added, that's the way it should be. The country is indeed very fortunate to have a man like tha’ at the helm of its largest and most powerful trade uninn federation al a critical period in world history when labor’s in fluence for weal or woe is po tentially greater thUn ever be fore. To say that the AFL is our largest and most powerful labor organization is not to belittle the importance of the CIO. The CIO is a going concern with a special importance all its own. In spite o the fact that its membership is only half as largc as that of the AFL, the CIO it must be remembered exercises or is in a position to exercise a dispropor* tier ite influence, I at i v e ly soezking, in the field of collec tive bargaining. Equal Partners If the above estimate of the CTO’s disuroportionate influence in the field of collective bar gaining is reasonably valid, the *AFL in our opinion would be well advised, for practical as well as for ethical reasons, to treat the CIO as an equal part ner working in a common cause fnr substantially the same ob jectives. Any attempt on the part bly a letter sent to U.N. Secre tary General Dag Hammarskjold from the Catholic Near East Welfare Association. The letter protested the recent move of lhe Israeli government offices from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem as an in fringement of Christian intei e.*ts and a violation of the U.N. reso lutions. After reading lhe let ter Dr. Malik himself demanded that the entire area of Jerusalem be placed under "effective inter national supervision.” Internationaliz.ation of Jerusa lem has several times been vot ed hy the UN. General Assem bly’ but has never been effective ly carried out. The Holy F'ather has repeatedly called for this in ternationalization as the only genuine way’ to safeguard Chris tian shrines in the area. None of the so-called "compromises” suggested by’ Israeli authorities have ever found favor with Ca tholic officials. In addition to Nazareth, these other important Christian shrines are now in Israeli-controlled areas: the Shrine of the Dormi tion, venerated as the place where the Blessed Virgin died and was assumed into Heaven the House of Caiphas on Mount Zion where Christ was held a captive b'efore his crucifixinn. and the Cenacle, where Christ instituted the Holy Eucharist. of the AFL a* the stronger fed eration to lord it over the CIO or to treat it like an orphan or a stepchild would be a reckless disservice to the cause of labor unity to which the AFL and the CIO are officially committed. Th* no-raiding pact adopted by the AFL convention in St. Louis was George Meany’s way of saying that he sincerely be lieves in labor unity and is pre pared to negotiate with the CIO in a spirit of good faith «nd mut ual respect. President Walter Reuther of the CIO is expected to sponsor a similar treaty of peace at the forthcoming CIO convention in November. These convention resolutions are all to the good. It is an open secret, however, that son.? of the associates of Meany and Reuther are not prepared to ratify the no-raiding agreement. Meany and Ruether will have to use all of the influence and prestige at their command to keep the peace within and between their respective federations. Even if they fail to establish organic un ity between the two federations, let us hope that they will at least find it possible to agree upon a satisfactory formula for mutual cooperation between the two or ganizations on behalf of social justice. From the ethical point of view it is absolutely disgrace ful for ambitious trade union buccaneers within either feder ation to go on wasting th? money of th? rank and fil? on .jurisdic tional disputes and interunion raiding. For this is hard-earned money that ought to he used to service existing unions more ef fectively and to organize the great mass of unorganized work ers totaling well over 50 per cent of the working force in American industry. INQUIRY CORNER RICHARD PATTEE What Is Meaning Of General Absolution? Q. What is general absolution? What does it do and when ts it given? A. It refers to the Sacrament of Penance given without con fession of sins. It has the full power to remove sins and give the graces of the Sacrament, pro vided the person is sorry. It is given in an emergency, as to sol diers on combat duty, when indi vidual confession is impossible. Each individual must mention the sins in their next confession in much the same way as vve would mention a sin we had for gotten to confess. This term is also used to refer to a blessing of the Church, to which a ple nary indulgence is attached, giv en at stated times to religious and third order members. ’Q. Is it true that “Buffalo Bill” was a Catholic? Stephen Douglas? 'A. The Catholic Almanac states that he became a Catholic on his deathbed. He was baptized on January 9, 1917. Stephen Doug las, Senator from Illinois and candidate for presidency against Lincoln, also was converted dur ing his last illness. Q. What is a dispensation? If it is the changing of a law' for a particular person how can it be squared with Gods unchang ing law? A. A dispensation is the re laxation of a law a particular case. The law is no/ changed. It is established for the common good, but in a particular case it may be more beneficial to make an exception. Christ gave the Apostles and the Church power to "bind” and to “loose” be cause it is here on earth to take His place. The fundamental laws of God do not admit of dispen sations but Church laws may be dispensed by priests and bishops in the ways and under circum stances established by the Church. The need of penance is stated by Christ and the Church established days of fasting and abstinence. Dispensations cannot touch the need for penance, but simply make exceptions in cas es where this or that penance constitutes a disproportionate burden for a certain person or group of persons. Q. Why cannot religion be a Vital ter of loving God without dogma and laws invented long after Christ? A. Dogma means an opinion or belief authoritatively stated, per taining to faith or morals. The dogmas of the Catholic Church contain the truths revealed by God and taught by His Church for our guidance in the matter of loving God and our neighbor. A religion without ideas is mean ingless and Christ’s words: "He who believes and is baptized shall be saved, but he who does Norway Revisited OSLO—I saw Norway for the first time 22 years ago, arriv ing at Bergen from Neu' York via the Norwegian American Line. It was a Sunday then, early in the morning, and I imagined that Bergen would be the last place where I could hear Mass. To my astonishment 1 found that not only was Mass celebrated but that a large convent of nuns existed in that west Nor wegian port and that its Ca tholic life, if not precisely flourishing, was at least active. Norway has long been mv fa vorite among the Scandinavian countries, largely because it is mountainous. After two and a half months of lakes and pine forests, anything above a hun dred feet looks extremely good. Also, Norway is pleasanLand has retained to a very large degree its rural outlook. The sea and the hard life in agriculture hav* given the Norwegian people their character and resistance. Individualism, Bluntness Norway is perhaps the most in tensely individualistic land in the north. Conformism is not particularly popular. The citizen who stands out for his unique ness wins a respect and admira tion inconceivable in Sweden. This is perhaps the secret of Sigrid Undset. She was certain ly not admired because she was a Catholic, but because she was first of all a genius and said things that her fellow country men could not deny were brill iantly said and because she was a Catholic. Paradoxically her Catholicism won for her a cer tain grudging admiration be cause she chose to be different from everyone else. Another quality of the Nor wegian mind is its extraordinary bluntness. Bishop Mangers of Olso told me how. at the recent Trondheim festivities marking the 800th anniversary of the in troduction of Christianity, one or two of the speakers spoke out with extraordinary candor about the disintegration of Lutheran ism and termed the Catholic faith the sole bulwark nf vanitv in the world today. Thia might not believe shall be condemned” (Mark 16:16) indicates His “dog ma". When God teaches through His Church it is not a matter of offensive authoritarian teaching, but of necessary presentation of the truth needed for our salva tion. Q. Who was St. John Bosco? A. St. John Bosco, founder of the Salesian Society, was born in Piedmont in 1815 and worked as a secular priest in Turin. He was especially noted for his influence over boys and young men. In 1842 he founded his Oratory for housing and training poor boys. He also founded a congregation of nuns dedicated to similar work among girls. He died in 1888. Q. What is an interdict? Ex communication? Suspension? A. “An interdict is a censure or medicinal penalty by which the faithful (lay .and clerics), though remaining in the com munion of the Church, are de prived of certain sacraments and other sacred things. It differs from excommunication, which severs from communion with the other faithful, and from suspen sion, which is inflicted only on clerics.” (“Dictionary of Dog matic Theology Parente) An interdict may be placed upon a certain territory or parish, de priving that place of some or all of the privileges of Catholics. Individuals may go to Mass and the sacraments in another par ish, whereas when a person is ex communicated he is excluded from reception of Holy Com munion anywhere until he has been absolved. Q. When was the second half of the Hail Mary added? A. In the earlier part of the twelfth century only the angel's salutation (Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is vv ith thee) was in general use. At that time the words of St. Elizabeth were join ed so that the first half of the Hail Mary was taken from the Gospel of St. Luke (1:28, 42). The second half of the prayer .became general by the middle of the sixteenth century. St. Bernardino of Siena was possibly the first person to add this sec ond half. Q. What is an evangelist? A. Among Catholics the word is applied only to the authors of the four Gospels, Saints Mat thew, Mark, Luke and John. In apostolic times it seems to have had the force of our word “missionary”. The Gospels are the "Good Tidings” (the mean ing of the Greek words from which evangelist comes). Send questions to Rev. Edward F. Healey, The Inquiry Corner, The Catholic Times, Box 636, Columbus 16, Ohio. have been striking enough per se, but done in the presence of a Lutheran bishop it revealed something of the way the mind operates in Norway. There is a certain crudity, energy dnd force iulness in Norway that is not to be found in Sweden. The land is poor in Norway far poorer than in Sweden. The ravages of war have not yet been overcome. Half of Norway was destroyed during the fierce fighting in the center and north. The fleet has had to be restored, fishing revived and the minor in dustrial life reconstituted. The Capital Oslo is by far the most sympa thetic city in Scandinavia, 1 find, in the sense that even though Catholicism is a minority and hardly visible, the atmosphere does not seem to exude hostility of any kind. By no means as so phisticated or as elegant as Stockholm. Incomparably less so than Copenhagen, it compares in some ways with Helsinki. An agreeable, cozy sort of city, where nothing much happens, the tourist bent on a giddy night life might better pass it up. It is not even a particularly beauti ful city unless one concentrates entirely on the natural scenery that forms its backgrrnnd. The architecture is pretty terrible. Away from the center—along Karljohansgate from the railway station to the royal palace—there really isn't anything. Nothing really remains of medieval. The only touch of it is found in the remarkable outdoor museum at Bygdy where 17th-century rural hiiildings are displayed in what looks like a cinema setting for the filming of Kristin Iavrans datter. No Nonsense But Norway has strength and power and vitality. It took the worst beating during the war of any country save Finland. The occupation was. I suppose, the most gruelling of almost any Eu ropean nation. Out of it all came a rebirth which shows itself in the unstinting adherence of Nor way to the Atlantic Pact—and this in spite of a she:! common frontier with the Soviet Union. Norway knows where it stands and goes in for no nonsense. There is something comforting this impecunious nation whose surface is much like all Scandanavia. But underneath the surface are th? virtu s—and the faults of the^ Vikings, marauders and seamen of the past.