Newspaper Page Text
4—THE CATHOLIC TIMES
Friday. May 14. 1954 THE CATHOLIC TIMES Published Every Week by The Catholic Times. Inc. Columbus. Ohio NOTICE. Send All Change* nf Address to P. 0. Box 636 Columbus. Ohio Executive and Editorial Offices: 246 E. Town Street. Columbus 15, Ohio Telephones: ADams 5195 ADams 5196 Address all communications for publication to P. O. Box 636. Columbus 16, Ohio Prie* tf The Catholic Time* is fM tier year. All WiMeriptioes ehouM be preser.red to oar office throatb the pos ers of the parishes Remit.aree« should be made parable to The Cork. Times. 4.nonjmon* e-mm*ni«iotiona will be diaremrded e do not hold oursrlree reeponathle for any riewe •ar opinion expressed ti the eomm’irieationa of our eorrespondenu. Entered as Saeond Ciao* Matter at Post Office. Ohtmbus Ohn St. Franeii de 8ale». Patron ef the Ca*helie Praaa. Pray for os! This Paper Printed by Union Labor The Annual Wage Wage negotiations that are in progress this Spring have a new item for the bargaining between labor and management. Its appearance was not un expected for there had been rumors that this year some of the unions would introduce it into negotia tions. The new item is, of course, the guaranteed annual wage. It is new only in the sense that this year has seen its introduction at the bargaining tables of some of the major industries, electrical and steel particularly. It is not a new concept in labor-man agement relations but rather one that caused all parties to move slowly because of the recognized difficulties involved in putting it into operation. The guaranteed annual wage is the expression of the yearning for security of steady work and pay for the worker. In an economy that ha* been charac terized by boom and bust, by periods of plenty and even luxury and by periods of bleak unemployment the annual wage represents the desire of workers for stabilized employment that will iron out the peaks and troughs in economic activity and assure a continuing high level of employment and security. Evidently this is not easy to attain. It is a desire to which management gives its heartfelt endorse ment. If it were something that could be realized only by mutual desire we would have it tomorrow. Like some of the other security measures that have been incorporated in contracts through collective bargaining it will require some time to work out and some periods of adjustment before it is acceptable to both parties. The idea of the annual wage is not new’ and it has been successfully put into practice and is in op. eration today. It cannot be called widespread how ever. At the present time there are about 190 com panies with a guaranteed wage plan in operation. The plans cover but a fraction of one percent of the workers in the nation. The Big Three" of these plans are those of the Nunn-Brush Shoe Company Proctor and Gamble, soap, and the Hormel Company, meat packing, These are widely different compan ies, none of which iace the same problems and yet they have over a period ot years maintained a sat isfactory operation of the plans, The guaranteed annual wage is seldom separated from unemployment wage compensation in discus sion. Compensation attempts to stabilize wages first of ail and through its efiects on wages to stabilize work. Most discussion on the guaranteed wage cen ters around attempts to integrate it with compensa tion by making it some sort of a supplement 1« com pensation All stales bow have some compensation plan cov ering most workers .except taim labor which gives usually a minimum of $30-$33 a week tor 26 weeks. This hardly seems adequate with the cost of living at its present level. Movements are on in most states, as Ohio, to effect some remedies The guaranteed annual w’age may not be the final answer for achieving stability in employment and wages, but it should he examined with sincer ity and mutual good will hy labor and management as a possible way of overcoming one of our most per. plexing problems. Old-Fashioned Innocence Did you know that, in this ultra modern age of enlightenment, many parents are hiding the facts of life from their children? Did you know that, tn this day of advanced edu cation, multi-million dollar school appropriations and ever-increasing teachers' salaries, the only way for your children to really learn the truth about sex is by seeing a movie produced over ten years ago? Such is the case ... at least, so the Producers and Advertisers of the film, "Mom and Dad,” would have us believe. Fortunately, those w’ho know anything at all about this film, about modern parents, children and schools, are not misled by sensational advertising Educators, parents and teen-agers today know lull well that innocence is not guaranteed by ignorance. They are fully aware that the extremely prudish mother and the highly "ignorant" daughter do exist, but they also know that they are rare exceptions today, and resent any producers presenting them as being typical of all modern mothers and daugh ters. Education today is most liberal, and educators are not failing in the presentation of essential sex knowledge. But it is hard to visualize the most mod ern and liberal oi educators insisting that lhe in sertion ol films, depicting actual birth by normal delivery and Caesarian section, is essential sox knowledge of the adolescent or that such films be considered a part of social hygiene courses in secondary schools, or as essential enirrramri'ir'rit. Those, who have labored so ardently and prof itably—in producing and advertising "Mom and Dad,” have been carried away in the contusion of their own ignorance If it had been the desire through this Film to impress upon parents the dan gers involved in then failure to give adequate sex knowledge, then what new, hidden, mysterious formation will parents receive in pictures of actual birth scenes’’ If. on the other hand, it is their motive to instruct the adolescents, then the Producers and Advertisers should review the theme of their own film. It might enlighten their ignorance to see again their own insistence that these instructions should be given to segregated groups in the classroom by those capable ol interpreting this important sub ject in a calm and understanding manner. Fortunately, our modern parents are well aware of the importance and necessity of adequate know! edge concerning the "facts of life." But, they are also fully aware of the fact that there is a proper time and place for receiving this knowledge that their children should be "enlightened" in a wholesome atmosphere, nnt in a darkened theater Fortunately, our Catholic parents and teen-agers appreciate the sacredness of sex. the grandeum of Motherhood, and the serious consequences—spirit ual as well as physical—which follow their abuse. They appreciate the fact that ignorance is no guaran tee of innocence, but they are not deceived by ad vertisements which parade sin and its occasions under the guise of knowledge and health Since, they are modern parents and teen-agers and, per haps because they are better informed than the Producers and Advertisers of "Mom and Dad” real ize they are ever aware of the importance of their Legton of Decency Pledge, especially when they say **I acknowledge my obligation to form a right eonscience about pictures that are dangerous to my moral life. As a member of the Legion of Decency, I pledge myself to remain away from them. I promise, further, to stay away altogether from places of amusement, which show them as a matter of policy.” Charity vs. Obsession As for the division of the Church into a “Church of Charity” as opposed to a “Church of the Hier archy,” the latter only being concerned in the con demnation of Communists, while the former accepts them, this is an old pseudo-spiritual view usually adopted by restless and rebellious men who do not wish to submit to law or to recognize the Hierarchy. A little humility, or even realism, would save these people from a kind of exaltation and obsession which makes them so zealous, reckless, and arro gant. A little of real charity of the kind which St. Paul recommends w’ould give them more real sen sus ecclesiae. and would not allow’ them to lay hands on the unit of the fold of Christ. But fortunately these people are not numerous, and the faithful know what to think of their atti tudes. and how to discover their incongruity and often hypocrisy. But the call to true charity is needed, which im poses upon all a supreme necessity of a spiritual at titude and a practical conduct marked by justice, humility and unity. The London Tablet, March 20. Just Among Ourselves Pasting Comment Considered or Inconsiderate We have come upon a little book, first printed and copyrighted in 1896, which bears the once familiar title of Mental Arithmetic. The book has the well mauled appearance of an elementary class manual that has served its young owner for a semester or so, that has been carried in a crowded book-bag, that has served as a coaster for a dripping .glass, that has offered its fly-leaves as scratch paper for signatures, for doodlings, for quick pencil work on problems intended for purely mental solu tion. and for the verse-for-verse's-sake which de lights childhood. Inscribed in young and rambling hand, not once only but twice, upon the inside cover is the dire if somewhat vague threat: 1 pity the river, I pity the brook, 1 pity the person Who steals this book. It is hard to imagine that the youth who pencilled this warning really telt any of its grnn implications. For a textbook in mental arithmetic is scarcely a thing which a youngster would carry in his heart of hearts, even in 1896. At all events, the precious volume got away from him. not. one hones, before he had exhausted its possibilities, reaped its harvest, and stowed away the crop. The little book lies here before us now, the sturdy survivor of the slings and arrows of outrage ous fortune which it has borne lor fifty-eight years. It is an old fashioned book its like is seldom seen today the discipline of mental arithmetic is not currently in favor with most educators. But. like many old fashioned things, this book is enlightening in ways that its author and its user now surely well on it the sixties -never dreamed of It gives, for instance, some startling glimpses ol comparative economics: that is. it affords some no tion of what has happened to the American dollar since 1896. Consider this little problem: "What is the July milk-bill for the Jones family which uses three quarts a day. if milk sells for 3 cents a pint?” Be fore a modern mind can come to mathematical grips with this question, it must recover from the shock of the thought of 6 cent milk. To be sure, in 1896 the milk-traffic was a much simpler thing than it is to day. 11 was a matter of almost direct transaction be tween cow and consumer with the dairyman as the only middleman. It involved no devious process of sterilizing, refrigerating, homogenizing) hottling. delivering hy motor truck it implied no hidden tar iffs such as overhead, maintenance, and union dues. Rut all things considered, milk at 6 cents a quart is still an astonishing thing to people in 1954. The little book on mental arithmetic is full of pure mathematics, and is also rich in examples of those industrious fellows of whom Stephen I^eacock once wrote so feelingly,—that is to say, the persons called A, B, and C. These three characters were tire, less operators, buying houses on shares, selling their proper percentages of flocks and droves and herds, digging wells and ditches without end. using up grindstones. Of the three. A was unquestionably most active an amazingly busy and competent cove was A In many problems he works alone but us ually cooperates is what we may call a part time assistant. These three gentlemen are employed in many a specific transaction, but most often they are engaged in the mysterious business of doing “a piece of work The author of these old-time books was not going to get involved with unions, or be come entangled in jurisdictional disputes. The sharp est union-committee or the craftiest “walking dele gate" could cause no turmoil over a mere "piece of work.” "A, B. and can do a piece of work in 4 days: A can do it alone in 8 days, and in 12 days in what time can alone do it?” Poor old (’. He plods along at the tail of the procession. Rut he gets there He is slow hut very sure. The admirable A can slap through the piece of work in 8 days, and it takes 24 days to do the same work. Somehow, we feel that does a better job. Every now and then C, whose income is mam festly an uncertain thing, steps out on his own, but he never has any real success. “C offered his watch for sale at a gain of 25%, but finding no purchaser at the amount asked the wouldn't not C), fell in price $30. thereby losing 25%. Required the cost of the watch." Required too, the explanation o( the poor deal, offered by to Mrs. C. e "A. R. and built a house tor $410.” Before you go off in a taint, please remember that this amount represents, not lumber and nails, but labor only. Now you may faint. Think of putting up a house,— any house,—and paying the master-builder a total of $410 The thing is inconceivable. What a place this must have been, this America, in 1896’. But. on the other hand, "The owner of a factory pays his employees $68 a day.” That is all of them together, not just two or three operators. "The owner of a factory pays hts employees $68 a day. giving the boys $50, the women $1, and H»e men $1 50 How many are there of each, if there are twice as many women as hoys, and twice’ as many men as women?" At that rate of pay, it isn't worth while figuring the thing out "A can build a wall in 4 days, and in 6 days in what time can they build it. working together?” That is, provided they don’t call in C. If old gets into it. they’ll never gel the wall up. Apparently costs were low in 1896. so were rates of pay Maybe there is not much real difference be between 1896 and 1954 We'd ask A, B, and C. but these lads aren’t working any more. A -*-r IT'4SHI\GTO\ letter WASHINGTON Washington and other capitals oi the tree world are taking a new and ap praising look at a smiling, af fable and highly confident man with whom they may have to deal increasingly on the subject of peace in Asia and, consequently, peace in the whole world. The Geneva conference has caused the free world to focus its sights on the man there who claims to speak for the half a billion people in China, numer ically the largest country in the world. Hr is the Chinese com munist Premier and Foreign Minister. Chou En-lai. To get a better focus on this en ergetic and concertedly artful diplomat, it might be well to look at him through two interviews with him that appeared in the American Catholic press shortly after World War 11. when large segments of the free world still considered him only a leader in an "agrarian reform" movement. Chou was interviewed by Fa ther Patrick O'Conner. Columban priest serving as the Far Eastern correspondent of the N.C W.C. News Service. Chou told Father O’Connor bluntly at the time: "We follow the ideology of Marx. Our pres ent policy is not our ultimate LOUS F. BUDENZ Speaking before the Daughters of the American Revolution on April 22, Director J. Edgar Hoover ot the FBI gave a valu able warning to Americans, which the daily press on the whole treated in the scantiest fashion. His main theme was that any group or indivi dual seeking to probe or halt lhe Red conspiracy would be subjected to the most intense character assas sination. This vilification is the work of experts in that sphere, the FBI director said, pointedly de claring that in this process those who pose as "liberals'' are more effective than open Communists. If these words of wisdom were given the headlines devoted to the current dementia over "Mc Carthyism,” we would not have the picture of the United States that we have today. The Con gress has been almost completely silenced in what Woodrow Wil son declared to be its most es sential function, that of investi gation. This power of Congress, the late President and historian asserted, is more vital than the legislative function of Congress, because a democracy cannot sur vive without the truth about cor ruption or subversion being brought to the attention of the people. A postscript might be added to Mr. Hoover's address, and that is that the Communists engage in character assassination for a purpose and that at the present moment that purpose is being attained. Unfinished Business XVTZ I V 7/ TAs —11 UNITED NATIONS Gf Red China In For New Appraisal goal, 'which is the classless so ciety for the world. We must first go through the initial stages.” The two interviews are partic ularly significant today because they give some hint of how quick ly the communists, particularly Chou En-lai. can shift ground at the conference table. Father O'Connor’s first inter view was at the time Gen. George C. Marshall attempted to bring the Chinese communists and na tionalists together to form a coalition government a solution that is now being considered for Indo-China. At that time Chou told Father O’Connor that the communists would be satisfied with one-fourth of the 40 seats of the proposed "state council” in a coalition government Of course they intended to hold on to their army, he said Four months later—when there seemed a chance that Chiang Kai-shek under American pres sure might agree to these Rod demands—Chou upped the Com munist claims. He then told Fa ther O’Connor that the Reds would not settle for less than a third of the seats in a coalition government. Chou declared that the proposed coalition govern ment should be one third Kuom intang and one-third of "minor Our Great Sin Of Omission What the Soviet fifth column is aiming at within the United States was explained in the April 19 Daily Worker by Alexander Bittelman No ordinary direct ive this. It is of the utmost im portance. For Bittelman is the chief theoretician of the Com munist Party in the 11 n i e States. Although recently con victed of conspiring to advocate the overthrow of this govern ment by force and violence, plus the fact that he is a Soviet sub ject who has disdained to apply tor American citizenship, he pre sumed to tell the Communists here what they must make cer tain that "liberals” think and do. Grand Tactic There is a continued emphasis and explanation regarding the maneuvers directed towards re establishing men of the Alger Hiss type in places where they can serve Soviet Russia within our government. Bittelman says that the first move by the Reds must be "by independent politi cal action.” That is. they are ordered to press trade unions, community organizations, Negro groups, industrial and business associations into a championshio of the Communist line begin ning with the assault on "Mc Carthyism.” These agencies, in filtrated by concealed Com munists. are to be used as clubs over the heads of local candidates for Congress. That is only the first step. The grand tactic calls for direct influencing of the Democratic and Republican parties. Bittel man puts it this way: "Hence, the anti-monopoly forces will have to seek expression in the elections through the Democratic party, in certain local spots through the Republican party, and in a few instances through ity parties.’.’ And then he added this joker. The Kuomintang party would not necessarily be that headed by Chiang Kai-shek, he said, but a different party recog nized in the then Red capital of Yenan. "What would be the place of religion in your classless com munist state?” Father O'Connor asked. "In the final stage of Marxist society,” Chou replied philoso phically. "I expect that science will have solved all questions, and this will automatically dis pose of religion. Thereafter re ligious ideas will be matters for artists, or to be treated as-mere ly imaginary subjects for fan tasy. "We are materialists in the sense that we do not believe in a soul distinct from the material body. After death there is noth ingness. We believe the law of nature.” "But not in the law-Maker?” Father O’Connor interjected. The wily Chou sensed himself being led to a trap by the logic of the question. He laughed loud ly and cordially. He skirted the question hy protesting with a smile that he did not want to go into a philosophical discus sion independent political organiza tions and candidates.” These "anti-monopoly forces” include above all the Commun ists, according to Bittelman, who have "a vital and indispensable contribution to make.” The Challenge No directive could be given in more succint or specific form. The concealed Communists are to work energetically within the two political parties, passing themselves off as genuine Demo crats or Republicans, with a view to defeating every “McCarthyite Mcl'arranite" candidate. And by that term, we know by now, Moscow’s henchmen mean any political figure who recognizes that Communism threatens the United States. A challenge has thus been thrown down to patriotic politi cal leaders, a forewarning that the Communists intend to dom inate the coming Congressional elections. This calls for alert ness against all Communist in fluences, which can easily be detected when arguments for "peaceful coexistence,” for "Big Power negotions” and "recogni tion of Red China" are raised. Every man engaged in Ameri can political life should study the Bittelman orders in order to know what he is up against. Sin of Omission The great sin of the secular press, television, radio, and even much of the educational process in this crisis, is the sin of omis sion. In too few places is there any critical and scientific study of Communism. Unless this condition is remedied very soon, the Soviet fifth column will con tinue to place this country in peril. You cannot successfully fight a foe unless you know his objectives and his methods. Inquiry Corner Q. What sins do ue have to tell in confession? What if we can't remember any sins since our last confession? A. We must tell at least all our mortal sins, and we should tell all venial sms. Since we want to receive all the graces possible it should be our intention to ap proach the Sacrament in all hu mility and honesty^ It is to our advantage to tell every sin and even imperfections that we can remember, submitting ourselves to God's mercy and asking His help. In the Sacrament too we should look for advice and at least occasionally we should seek counsel about ways of advancing in the spiritual life. The Sacra ment is a means of grace not merely a "sin-remover.” In the same spirit of humility and self examination we should mention sins in our past life if we can remember none committed since our last confession. Q. Is there any excuse for not returning things obtained un justly e.g. small things picked up at work, which other workers are picking up too? How would a person go about making resti tution if he no longer works in that place? A. The fact that other people unjustly take things or the fact that they are small does not ex cuse a person. No matter how large the corporation or how small the object, God’s law re quires us to respect the proper ty of others and to restore it when we have taken it unjustly. Sometimes we might be excused from making restitution when the object is small and it is prac tically impossible to return it. If a man no longer works at the plant and restitution would be too difficult and out of propor tion to the value of the object or objects he would be excused. Even then a conscientious Cath olic could restore the goods if he could prudently do so through the mail or through someone still working there. In particular ques tions about restitution we should ask the priest in confession. Q. Is there any indulgence to he gained for serving Mass? Is there any for the prayers after Low Mass? A. There is an indulgence of three years for serving the priest at Mass. For all who join in the prayers after Ixiw Mass there n an indulgence of ten years for the prayers including that ad dressed to Michael the Arch angel and seven years for the threefold ejaculation in honor of the Sacred Heart. MONSIGNOR HIGGINS Father Healey—............. Co-Management In the copy of this column for release the second week in Feb ruary, we expressed the opin ion that American Catholic social scientists are completely or thodox on the subject of ec onomic co-de termination or co-manage ment. There is not a single practicing Ca tholic in the United States, we stated, who holds that the wage contract is essentially unjust and there fore must be replaced, in the name of strict commutative jus tice. by compulsory co-manage ment or co-determination. On the contrary, we continued. Amer ican Catholic social scientists are almost completely indifferent to co-determination in the gen erally accepted sense of the word. Inasmuch as these statements have resulted in a certain amount of misunderstanding, we find it necessary in the present column to explain our position some what greater detail. It is our hope that this can be done with out giving oftense in any way to those who may happen to dis agree with us. When we say that American Catholics are orthodox on the subject of co,-determination or co-management, we mean that they follow the teaching of the encyclical Quadragesimo Anno as elaborated upon raher fre quently in recent years by the present Holy Father and by othei official spokesmen for the Holy See. Marxist socialism on the one hand, teaches that the wage contract in the modern system of capitalistic enterprise is es sentially unjust, consequently compulsory co-determination or co-management is a requirement of the natural law or communa five justice. Quadragesimo Anno on the other hand, denies this heresy. The wage contract, ac cording to Quadragesimo Anno, is not essentially unjust, conse quently co-determination or co management, however desirable for other reasons, is not a re quirement of the natural law or commutative justice. Position Rost a ted Monsignor Montim, Vatican Pro-Secretary of State, in a let ter restates the position of the Holy See on the subject of co management. His letter can be summarized as follows: Workers have no natural right to co-management. They may, however, through legitimate Q. What is the meaning of the bishop's staff and the ceremonial robes? A. As with the vestments the priest wears at. Mass they ha\e an ancient origin, generally in commonly worn dress of early Christian times. The buskins and sandals which the bishop wears on ceremonies come from an cient Rome. The pectoral cross worn dn an ornamented cord around the neck, is derived from the "Enkolpia” worn by the early Christians as a reminder of the Sacrifice of the martyrs and the power of the cross. The dalmatic and tunic are also derived from the Roman dress and later be came the vestments of deacon and subdeacon. Wearing them in dicates the fullness of the priest hood vested in the bishop. The mitre has two peaks representing love of God and love of neigh bor. the whole signifying the helmet of salvation. The crosier is the staff of apostolic authority, the shaft representing the strength of the shepherd and the bent top his care of the flock. Q. A Protestant friend of mine is puzzled because the priest said that when she comes into the Church she will be rebaptized. Don't we recognize Protestant baptisms? A. You should assure her that she should have no fear of ask ing such questions when she talks with the priest giving her instructions. The general prac tice of "rebaptizing” those who enter the Church rises from the teaching of Christ regarding the importance of Baptism. Early in the Church it was decided that heretics can baptize validly. In fact anyone who fulfills the nec essary conditions and has the right intention baptizes validly. If, for example, the Catholic son of a Protestant man who has just died were to inquire anxiously about his father’s baptism we would likely assure him that he should not worry. Orthodox Pro testants who carefully observe the proper ceremonies of Bap tism truly confer the Sacrament. In admitting someone to the Church, however, we are in a position to make sure, so as a general rule even a baptized Protestant will be baptized con ditionally. There can be no real "re-baptizing” for it can be given only once. Send questions to Father Ed ward F. Healey, The Inquiry Cor ner, The Catholic Times. Box 636. Columbus (16) Ohio.- means-—among which, presum ably, collective bargaining is one —seek it is an ideal. In the past such voluntary agreements grant ing workers a share in manage ment have been productive, as Pius XI noted, of no small gam for both wage earners and em ployers. Finally, where the com mon good indicates the need, the state may legitimately provide that in certain enterprises the workers be given a voice in pol icy-making. So much for the bare bones of the Catholic position on compul sory co-determination. If co-determination or co-man agement is not required by thg natural law or commutative jus tice, it may, however, be requir ed under certain circumstances by the virtue of social justice. Among those who have defended this conclusion are the w’ell known German scholar, Father Oswald von Nell Breumng Can on Brys, General Chaplain of the Christian labor movement in Bel gium, and the late Cardinal Su hard of Pans. Serious Accusation To leave the impression that certain anonymous American Ca tholics do not subscribe to this fundamental Catholic teaching is to accuse them, in effect, of subscribing to Marxist socialism. In our opinion, as we indicated in our earlier column, this accusa tion is far too serious to be al lowed to go unchallenged. The fact of the matter is that American Catholic proponents of the Industry Council Plan do not say that the wage contract is es sentially unjust. Nor do they say that economic co-determination or co-management—in the sense in which the term is understood in the encyclicals—is required by the natural law or commutative justice. The current opinion of the majority of those who are in favor of the Industry Council Plan is that labor does not have the right to participate in purely economic decisions at the local level. Ownership or management may grant participation in these matters to labor, but labor can not legitimately claim it as a nat ural right in commutative jus tice. Orthodox Interpretation On the regional and national levels, however, there is a dif ference. The majority of inter preters of the Industry Council Plan at the present time prob ably believe that workers have a right to representation on the regional and national councils where general economic policy is discussed and decided. This, it seems to us, is a per fectly orthodox interpretation of Catholic social teaching.