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4—THE CATHOLIC TIMES
Friday. May 28. 1954 THE CATHOLIC TIMES Published Every Week by The Catholic Times, Inc Columbus. Ohio NOTICE. Send All Changes of Address t© P. 0. Box 636 Columbus. Ohio Executive and Editorial Offices: 246 E Town Street, Columbus 15, Ohio Telephones: ADams 5195 ADams 51M Address all communications for publication to 0. Box 636. Columbus 16. Ohio Frie* of The Catholte Timee i* $8 per raar. All •obaerrpt’ons should be pr*?»nt«d to our office through thr txs’orr of the rarith-* R«rntt*^noM ehould be made payable to The Catb. •lie Times. Anonymoua rnmminmationa will be durecaoded do not hold oorse’fM reaponelhle far any vjewa »w opmiors etpreesed tn the communications of eur eorreepondenta Entered ag Second Clast Matter at Peat Office, Co'umhug. Ohio. St Franeie de gates. Patron af the Catholic Fraas. Pray for as This Paper Printed by Union Labor Our Diocesan Schools The annual school report of the Catholic schools in the diocese of Columbus for the school year 1953 1954 has just been completed. Besides renewing statistics and indicating present and future prob lems, it presents a picture of growth, progress, cooperation, and accomplishment. Over 2000 more children attend the parochial schools this year than last year. This increase has moreover, been constant during the past decade Statistics show that since 1945 there has been an increase of 73 per cent in the elementary school registration and of 83 per cent in the high schools. Population trends show that this growth will con tinue to rise steadily during the next ten years. As a result of this higher enrollment, problems have faced the parochial school system New schools are needed for the recently settled neighborhoods and parishes, new classrooms for many established schools, and. above all. more teachers and funds that will make these classrooms a reality. The building problem has been met in many sec tions. Since 1945, seven schools have been opened in Columbus, Christ the King. Holy Spirit, Our Lady of Peace, St. Christopher, St. James the I^ess. and St. Michael. Classrooms have been added to many others. And still the building continues. This year the new St Gabriel School will be opened for the children of the Amvet section of Columbus, and Watterson High Schoo) will open its doors for its first group of freshmen. Typical of the rapid enrollment rate in even these new schools is the registration at Holy Spirit School. Situated in Whitehall, it opened in 1952 with an enrollment of 165. Ry September 1953 the number had jumped to 330. and now in the spring of 1954 is 400. “We have registrations almost every day,” Sister Michael Joseph, the principal, says. Meanwhile, the needs of existing schools have been met and facilities have been improved when ever possible Diocesan meetings and programs have been sponsored in order that the administrators and teachers of the schools may benefit from the ex periences of others The Annual School Lunch Work shop resulted in new ideas for the lunch programs. Education-Industry flusme.'!- Day v hen business men from varied fields visited the schools and watched the training of the executives and workers of the future, proved a profitable venture both for the business men and the schools. The diocesan Guidance enter has come through its first few months most successfully. Eventually it will be the counselling agency for children of unusual capabilities, either above or below average So far, however, the program extends only to those who are unable to maintain the same pace as their companions because of emotional social, or mental P’Dblems. This year, moreover, parents have had an opportunity to see classes in session hy tuning tn to the TV program "Touring the Town’’ each Tues day morning at 8 30 On these programs, the Sisters have taught such subjects as history geography, reading, and health Fundamentally, the Catholic schools nf the Co lumbtia Diocese are giving an excellent education to their pupils The problems still persist More class rooms, more schools, more teachers are needed. These needs are being met courageously by the ad ministrators and generously by the Catholic parish loners The year work has hern an indication of the continued high service nf the parochial school system to the people of the Diocese of Columbus An “American** Saini It might seem improbable that we ourselves would ever have a particular friend of ours raised tn the honor of God’s altar and he known to the world as a saint. But that is just what is going to happen tomorrow morning Pops Pius was never reticent about display ing his deen and special affection for his American children The first public audience that the new Pope granted was to a group of Americans. The last such audience of his memorable Pontificate wax •Iso to a group of Americans. "I love these Americans,” Pius said, “they are the blooming youth of atholicism I gladly give my apostolic blessing tn their whole country Those are the words of a man who throughout his reign as Pope wanted the world to know that he held us and our country in love and esteem. Now that he is being raised to the altar can we think that his interest and love will be any the less? Truly, we Americans can say that in Saint Pius we have an "American” saint Our rejoicing and thankfulness to God for the signal honor being paid this humhle and holy man comes from the realization that he was and is one of our own. not only in time, but in interest and nearness. Every class and state of American society has a special reason to dedicate themselves to a solid devotion tn this new Saint the general laity, par ents, priests and children they have all received special and particular gifts from this great Pontiff while he was alive on this earth Now that he is with God in heaven, now that we can honor him as one whom we know for sure is close to God in one of His cnosen places in heaven, let us all turn to him as Catholics and Americans. Let us take our own particular needs and those of our country to him who in life felt us to he his special interest and concern The Pentecostal Novena The people of today can take heart in recalling the history of the early Christians as it is portrayed and remembered in the great Feast days celebrated by the Church in her liturgy A sense of compan ionship and nearness, nf hope and confidence comes with the thought that we are going through nothing new. that we are not lost or forgotten, hut are suf fering w’hat must always be the lot of Christ's fol lowers. The day after Dur lord’s Ascension into heaven. Mary the Apostles and the disciples were all gath ered in the unner room where they had eaten the last supper with their Master. They were afraid and bewildered as they awaited the coming of the Holy Ghost Whom Christ had promised to send to them to teach and strengthen them. We are told in the Acts of the Apostles that they all ‘‘with one mind continued steadfastly in prayer.” They did this for nine days, until the day of Pente cost. we are tnld. This was the first Pentecostal Novena We ean easily compare our position today to that of those first Christians in the upper room. Beset on every side with examples of the uorld’a hate and wickedness, we too are afraid and be wildered. We have, however, the comforting knowl edge of the effect of the Holy Ghost upon those who made the first Pentecostal novena to spur us on to imitate them in constant prayer in awaiting his coming. Today, every church and chapel of the Diocese, of Columbus, a public novena to the Holy Ghost is being started and will end the day before Pentecost Sunday. Let us all make this novena the center of our extra devotions for the next nine days asking the Holy Ghost to purify our lives with the fire of His Divine love and 'to favor and guard His church in Columbus with a great increase of priestly and religious vocations. Just Among Ourselves Passing Commant Considered or Inconsiderate In the Look article which we discussed last week, the article which inquires "What Disturbs Protest ants about Catholics?”, there occurs a sentence well calculated to add to the general disturbance. Just eighteen lines from the beginning of the essay, after a well-meant but mistaken statement that "the great bulk of Roman Catholic teaching and preach ing is common” with non-Catholic teaching and preaching, occurs the sentence we mean: ‘‘Protest ants also believe, however, that Catholic teachings have become associated down the centuries with a number of dogmas, ideas and practices which are neither true nor Christian.” In other words. Catholics have gone wrong. Theirs is not now, if ever it was, the true religion Therefore, for a Catholic, the whole discussion is finished. If his religion is not the true religion, he is not surprised to find that he disturbs Protestants, nor concerned to stop disturbing them. He is merely a phoney, seeking notice or publicity, and, of course, disturbance is what he feeds on. But if the Protest ant, in turn is not secure in his awareness that he possesses the one true religion, then he is a phoney too, and ought to be disturbed. In this case, there is neither rhyme nor reason in the. current discus sion in Look. Just a couple of mixed-up parties, each (as Arnold Lunn quotes somebody as saying) trying to interest people in its own particular brand of error. a The Catholic is the only person bearing the name of Christian who actually takes the word and actions of Christ into account. The Catholic reads in God’s word that Christ is God. that Christ founded one Church that Christ gave this Church the mission of teaching and spiritually directing all men that Christ imparted to this Church His own voice and authority that Christ promised to abide with this one Church to the end of time. And therefore the Catholic knows that, down the centuries, there may be many unworthy Catholics, there may arise local practices alien to the will and teaching of the Church, hut the Catholic also knows that there cannot—on Christ's own word—arise in the Church itself "ideas, and practices which are neither true nor Christian How can the Church go wrong if Christ is with it as He promised how can Peter feed the flock poison when he is appointed' by the God-Man to feed it truth? The sentence quoted bogs down discussion for another reason. It is expressed in terms that, how ever familiar, are nevertheless vague and foggy. Just what does the writer of the Look article mean by "ideas, dogmas and practices?” What is suggested 1o the modern mind by the word dogma? Does a man of our times consider the teachings of history as dogmas? Does he consider the formulas of labora tories as dogmas? Is the discovery of America, as recorded in the books, a dogma? Is the theory of the atomic and sub atomic structure of matter a dogma? Yes. of course these things ore dogmas. But does a modern person ever think of calling them by that name? A A standard Greek dictionary defines the Greek word dogma as, “1. that which one thinks true, an opinion. 2 a resolution, decree And from the sec ond meaning of this word comes the Greek dogmattzo (our dogmatize) which means "to lay down a decree Both the noun and the verb here considered derive from the root-verb dokeo which, in its primary mean ing, signifies "to think to suppose.” A The facts of established history are things which w have good and sufficient reason to think true therefore, they are dogmas. The theories of science which deal with the sub-microscopic world, a world that cannot be immediately seen or handled, are dogmas, for they are things we have good reason to think true. And the decrees of our civil laws are dogmas, because they are reasonable and au thoritative ordinances. But does anyone nowadays think of calling these things by the name of dogmas"! No the word dogma has taken on. through mis use, an ugly meaning wholly alien to its original signification. Maybe the word acquired this evil meaning from the catch-phrasing of old religious arguments. At all events, the current meaning of dogma in non-Catholic ears is a harsh and un believable thing, without show of reason, which a person is compelled to accept as a truth, or to obey as a tyrannous decree. Thus understood,—and the word is thus understood by millions of modern men, a dogma as such is detestable it is an outrageous imposition on mind or will or both it is oppression it is enslavement it is its own condemnation, admittng no explanation or justification. Call a thing dogma today, and you blast it out of the realm of things fit for human consideration. But a Catholic uses the word dogma in its old, useful, and legitimate sense. To him it is either a teaching of the Church which Christ established to teach truth, or it is a decree the realm of morals laid down by the Church which Christ sent to give men spiritual guidance and so to govern them in the way to heaven. Thus, to a Catholic. a sentence like the one quoted here, the first paragraph of this column, is silly and even meaningless. e To say th(B Catholic teachings have become "as sociated with a number of dogmas” is to say that Catholic teachings ha\e become associated with a number of teachings. A teaching is necessarily dog matic a teacher is one who gives out what he thinks to be true. But the teachings of the Church founded by Christ cannot become “associated” in any sig nificant manner with alien teachings otherwise the word of the God-Man is falsified and this is a manifest impossibility. The Catholic is not a mere stubborn man who refuses to give ground on any point, and rebuffs the efforts of his Protestant neighbor who is will ing to make concessions and compromises. For the Catholic’s belief is not his own. hut what God has given him to believe he is not competent to alter his beliefs by adding, subtracting, or modifying. Ca tholicity and Protestantism can no more be drawn into a common body of belief than oil and water can be mingled into a common substance. Religion points to the only real issues of human existence In last analysis, nothing else matters than having the truth and living according to it, and so coming to the eternal bliss of heaven. This is. after all, what al) men want. It is tragic that futile dis cussion should blur the importance of this quest, and should tend to bring men together in a bland and deadening mdifferentism. WASHINGTON LETTER WASHINGTON—in the midst of a great deal of turmoil here in the National Capital, Secretary of State John Foster Dulles slip ped down to Williamsburg, Va., and emphasized a fact which ev eryone should ponder. "Basically, the present conflict between freedom and despotism.” he said, “is a conflict between a spiritual and material view of the universe and of the nature of man.” This is an elemental, crystal clear appraisal of the w’orld sit uation It spotlights the source of the fight, and it helps to explain why it has spread into all parts of the world. Communism is not merely a political and economic theory. It is a philosophy that many have embraced as a relig ion Secretary Dulles touched upon the effects of this when he said: "If one does not believe in the spiritual order, if one does not accept the fact of moral law and what the Virginia Bill of Rights referred to as ‘the duty which we owe to our Creator,’ then it is. indeed, difficult to combat the thesis that men should be the servants of the state that one state should be the master over LOHS F. MJDENZ V No secret is made of the Red success at hampering and halt ing Congressional investigations into subversion. True, in its editorial of April 27 the Daily Worker lets us know that it is not pleased at the way the hear ings have gone, so (ar as the evidence is concerned. It would like to see such a distortion of the facts as would "smear” in quiries into subversion and kill them off altogether. Rut its joy is registered in the fact that the Communist cry of many months standing, "investigate the investigators,” is now being brought forward on a big scale in American life. Lin* Advancing The Red daily organ, encour aged by the stoppage of all ade quate investigation of subver sives, now shouts out that the present inquiry should be ex tended to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. That is the point to which we have now been brought by the stoking of the fires against "McCarthyism and Let’s Try Harder, Sam The Material vs The Spiritual all other states.” We could well be reaping the fruits of a materialistic philoso phy that has been taught for decades round the world. That would explain why the preachers of despotism find some ready listeners in ail places. Not every materialist is necessarily a com munist, of course, hut for some communism has filled the void that was their lives because they did not have spiritual val ues. “We often speak as a matter of convenience,” said the Secretary of the State, “about the ‘free world,’ meaning thereby those portions of the world which are not now dominated by commun ism. In that sense, approximate ly two-thirds of the world is ‘free’ But in the free countries ‘only a part of their people are inspired by the kind of faith which alone is potent against the materialistic and aggressive forces of despotism. "The future of freedom rests with a small minority of man kind This is why it is indispen sable that the people of our Re public for their part, should hold fast to the faith of our fathers. Just as freedom is contagious, so. Before It Is Too Late new note of triumph is to be found in the current Com munist press. Moscow and its fifth column in this country are telling their followers that the United States is being seriously e feated. both at home and abroad. The Daily Worker is full of ex ultation at the hearings n o w being held by the Senate Subcommittee. A huge headline over the issue of April 29 declares: “McCarthy Hearings Reveal: How the Red Menace’ Racket Works.” o McCarranism” made possible by Communist infiltration and in fluence in too many agencies of opinion making. In other words, the Commun ist line is advancing within this country in almost the same de gree to which it marched for ward during those tragic years when the United States was per suaded to betray China and Poland. Great satisfaction is expressed by the Daily Worker that the Geneva conference has been "linked up” with this "struggle against McCarthyism and McCar ranism,’’ as was the announced Communist plan since the Red secret national conference last September. The Red organ's leading editorial of April 28 registers Moscow's verdict that the United States has been given a big hlow by gotng to Geneva, particularly through our alleged allies. It calls for thousands of letters and telegrams to Wash ington. demanding complete sur render by the United States to to all Soviet proposals in those “negotiations.” Matter Of Life Or Death These communications, of course, will not be sent under the Communist label. They will apparently be from non-Com munists. and many officials in the nation s capital will not recognize their origin. It is clear that patriotic Ameri cans will have to rise to this occasion more than they have ever done before. The well known columnist David Law rence is correct in stating on May 11 that this nation is in the greatest peril. And it is in that condition because of the lack of a forthright policy, which experience should long ago have taught our national leaders was (N1WE loo, faith is contagious. One nf the best ways to keep our faith strong is to recall the faith of our forefathers and to keep fresh in our minds the great deeds, the near miracles, w ic they wrought through faith The occasion was the annual commemoration of lhe Virginia resolution tor American inde pendence and the Virginia Bill of rights. The Secretary of State did not speak long it is to be doubted if the present conflict has been described more succinct ly. For example, he also said: "If it is accepted, as a premise, that man is merely matter, then it is easy to conclude, as the communists do, that the greatest harmony and greatest productiv ity comes from organizing a so ciety of conformity, where diver sity is treated as grit in the gears of a delicate machine These and other passages help one to understand why some people become communists. And they help, too. to bring home that fact that "freedom faces a formidable challenge,’’ and that, "the survival of freedom depends not merely on the number of the free but even more upon the in tensity of their faith a matter of life or death Even now, we learn again that the United States lost the war in Korea because of the restrain* mg hand of the State Depart ment upon our military com manders at that time. In Gen eral Mark Clark s recent book. “From the Danube to the Yalu, he states emphatically that this country could have won the war in Korea had it not been for the orders of "political superiors.” He asserts that General Douglass MacArthur was correct in the recommendations he made for victory against Soviet aggression in that conflict. Thus, we have the word of every man who was in command there and who is now on the retired list, includ ing General James Van Fleet, that it was our policies which defeated us. And even now, under the cover of a Korean “truce” dictated by Moscow, and while we are “ne gotiating" at Geneva, the Chinese Communists have been unloosed to aid their fellows the conquest of Indo-China. All Asia trembles in the balance, the peoples under the satellite regimes are subjected to even more misery and the United States has as yet no policy ex cept the bankrupt one of sup posed “containment.'* Freedom At Stak* Before it is too late, can we not learn from Stalin’s words in "The Problems of Leninism” that “world revolution” or world conquest is the set purpose of the Kremlin? Can we not come to understand, from Stalin’s di rectives in “Foundations of Len inism,” that this world conquest is to be advanced through th* penetration of all agencies of decision and opinion making in the United States? Inquiry Corner A. The Catholic Church can not change God s law. Individual Catholics may disregard this law of God. but the natural law does not change like the styles in clothes, homes or automobiles. While there are cases where di vorce seems to be the reasonable answer to a real problem, the acceptance of this solution creates many more problems than it solves. For these cases of real hardship the Church permits separation, but it exists to guide men to heaven. To grant man what he wants is not the same as granting him what is good for him. Christ taught clearly that man and woman are united permanently for their own happiness and the good of children and society and "What God has joined together let no man put asunder.” (Matthew 19: 4-8) St. Paul points out in many passages the beauty of Christian marriage which is like the noble union of Christ and His Church and insists upon the permanence of this sacred union. (Ephesians 5:24 Romans 7:23 I Corinthians 7:23-39.) Written in French by Canon Brys, Chaplain General of the Belgian Christian Worker s Movement, this document, re presents the consensus of author itative Catholic scholars from many different countries. Trans lated into English by Michael Fogarty of the Catholic Social Guild in England, it has been published in both languages in the March issue of Industrial Relations, quarterly publication of Laval University. Quebec. In our opinion, it is the best avail able summary of Catholic teach ing on this subject. Q. How much must a Catholic contribute? Can he be refused entrance to the Church for re fusal or inability to contribute at the door, where such a collec tion is taken up? What if you can't make it to your own parish Sunday? A. There is no set amount, but each Catholic should share ac cording to his income in the maintenance of the Church. With our schools and other expenses necessary for the service of the faithful in our time each parish ioner should try to find out what his share should be. Church law (Canon 1181) forbids the practice of charging people to hear Mass. If there is a collection at the Church door, usually a kind of pew- rent, it must be voluntary. If it is impossible to attend Mass at one s own parish church it is still the parish to which a Ca tholic has the obligation of Church support. Highly Desirable Granting that economic co determination or co-management may not be claimed by workers as an absolute requirement of the natural law. the Malines dec laration repeatedly emphasizes that some- form of partnership between workers and owners, adapted to the varying conditions of different industries in differ ent countries, is highly desirable and should be actively encour aged not only by the parties themselves but by government as well. "Every honest attempt to work out by experiment practical and satisfactory forms of participa tion, the statement reads, should be given its share of praise and support. The aim should be to generalize the for mulas worked out This may be done by collective agreement between individual managements and their workers, hy industry-wide decision through each industry’s own ma chinery- of. in particular cases, at some future time, by Jaw.” (The statutory method of achieving economic co-manage ment is not likely to be adopted in the United States, but it is interesting and instructive to note that representative Catho lic scholars are prepared to en dorse it under certain con ditions.) Q. Isn't it true that tn the early Church penitents were ab solved without going to confes sion? A. No. It was the practice of the Church in some times and places to absolve penitents in a group. The confession of sins, MONSIGNOR HIGGINSway.thisin -------------Father Healey------------------- Will the Church ever ac cept divorce? There certainly are many Catholics who are get ting them, and most everyone else accepts them. The Malines Union At the conclusion of its 1953 meeting the International Union of Social Studies—sometimes re ferred to as the Malines Union ab e a u s e its periodic o n ferences are always held in Malines, Bel gium under the auspices of Cardinal Van Roey made public a policy e 1 a a tion which ought to clear the air cons iderably on the subject of economic co-determination or co-management. however, had taken place earlier and these penitents had been given a time of penance at the end of v.hich they would receive sacramental absolution. In emer gencies. such as ministration to the dying or soldiers in combat sacramental absolution may be given without a detailed confes sion of sins. It is to be supplied later when those absolved are able to receive the Sacrament of Penance in the ordinary way. Christ gave the Apostles and their successors the power of judgement and of guiding souls and from the beginning that has presumed the confession of sins to the priest. Q. Why was it necessary for Pope (Saint) Pius to issue a decree about frequent Commun ion? Did someone deny the advantages of early and frequent reception? A. In the first centuries of the Church frequent and early Communion was taken for grant ed. From time to time, however, there have been lapses in this correct practice. In the third century special appeals were made for reception of the Sac rament at least three times a year, and the Lateran Council «1215 A. D.) decreed that every Catholic who had come to the use of reason should receive Holy Communion at least once a year (at Easter). In the Middle Ages children were ordinarily admitted to their First Holy Communion at the age of seven. Jansenism in the seventeenth century taught that the sacra ments could be received only, after long and severe prepara tion and that Communion is more a reward than a remedy. It was this error which led to the abuse which Pope (Saint) Pius corrected by his decree of December 20, 1905. Q. Is Sampson a saint’s name? A. Yes. In the sixth century there was a priest of Constanti nople of that name who was called “Father of the poor”. St. Sampson insisted upon the erec tion of a magnificent hospital for the poor when the Emperor Justinian was erecting the mag nificent Cathedral of St. Sophia. Another St. Sampson, also in the sixth century, was a bishop in Wales, or rather an Abbot of |Wales who became Bishop of Dole in Brittany. Send questions tn Father Ed ward F. Healey, The Inquiry Corner. The Catholic Times. Box 636. Columbus (16) Ohio. Human Personality Deserve* Attention The various types of co-deter mination or co management recommended by the eminent scholars of the International Union of Social Studies are not the same thing as “joint control of commercial decisions.” The latter has been warned against repeatedly by the present Holy Father as an infringement on the right of private property. The Malines declaration is at pains to remind us, however,, that there are many other types of co-determination or comanage ment which are perfectly con sistent with the right of private property and have been endors ed. in principle at least, in various papal documents. These should be promoted by affirma tive action, for “it is not enough to take a stand in defence of private property, and repel cer tain unjustified attacks on it. Human personality also deserves attention its rights, and its call to grow and develop in and through work.” The rights of human persona lity modern industry can best be protected and advanced if the workers are permitted to share in some way in the control of their particular company or firm and in the control of their industry or profession and of the national economy as a whole. Action at each of these levels, according to the Malines declara tion. should supplement and en rich action at each of the others. Workers in the United States have made considerable progress in recent years at the first of these three levels—the level of the individual company or firm. Through the method of collective bargaining—the scope of which is very flexible and is constantly expanding—they have achieved a certain measure of economic co-determination or co-manage ment on a wide variety of prob lems directly or indirectly af fecting their personal welfare. To be sure, they and their em ployers being less ideological and more pragmatic than their European counterparts—seldom if ever use the word—co-deter mination or co-management to describe the results of their col lective bargaining negotiations. But a rose by any other name is still a rose. At the other two levels—tha level of the industry or profes sion and of the national economy as a whole—progress in the dir ection of economic partnership has. understandably, been much slower than at the level of the individual company or firm. The main difficulty, in the opinion of those who drafted the Malines declaration, is psychological.