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4—THE CATHOLIC TIMES
Fndav. August 6. 1954 THE CATHOLIC TIMES Published Evers- Week by The Catholic Times, Inc. Columbus. Ohio NOTICE: Send All Changes of Address to 0 Box 636 Columbus. Ohio Executive and Editorial Offices: 246 E. Town Street. Columbus 15. Ohio Address all communications for publication to P. 0. Box 636, Columbus 16. Ohio Telephones: CA 4-5195 CA. 4 5196 Price of The Catholic Tim*» te IS per year. AH •uhecriptiona should be preaented to our office through the rat-tor* of the parish**. Rem ttarree should be made payable to The Cath- This Paper Printed by Union l^abor A Solution Demanded The time is now upon us when an old problem will be presented anew to thousands of young Catholic people across the nation. It is that of choosing an institution of higher learning to com plete their education. Ideally, of course, there is no problem. Only a Catholic institution meets the demands adequately. And yet. through necessity, we know' that thousands of Catholic youngsters will have to choose a secular college or university— and this forced choice lies a very real problem. The effect of a sustained period of one s form ative years divorced from the guiding light of Christ’s teachings, or the advancement in secular knowledge without a similar or concomitant advance in one’s religious knowledge can only result in an incomplete educational product The attainment, of and respect for religious knowledge must keep pace with secular learning or a dangerous unbalance is the result. This would be true even where in non Catholic colleges secular subjects would be taught fairly and unbia«edly. Too often, though, the situation is worsened by the fact that the courses offered, and, in some cases demanded, as prerequisites by sec ular institutions are slanted and often, dangerously so This is particularly the case in the fields of phil osophy, education, sociology and history. The retaining and applying of a high school course in religion to all phases of advanced learn ing by one attending a nonC atholic college would Still be an inadequate answer even when this sel dom attained ideal would be realized. A graduate ot a Catholic high school is taking a step fraught with danger when he enters into a four-or more year course in an institution where the formal teaching and influence of the Catholic religion is missing from the curriculum Something must he done, then, where this step, alter careful consideration of all circumstances, is deemed per missible. The solution, at first glance, would seem simple: provide those things lacking in secular education from outside sources. This is the solution and one that is demanded, but it is simple only in its state ment The actual accomplishment of such a program requires much planning and even more dedication. The burden of providing against the ever-pres ent dangers inherent tn this situation must be horn, rather unequally, by- three parties: the parents and pastors and the student himself. Each has a clearly drawn dutv The offices of teachw. counselkr and guide must he exercised with vigilance and prudence by both parents and pastors. Neither can take for granted that lhe other is required ti and is per forming the whole function of thes offives. The influence and duties of pa-tois and p?irenls, though often nveriapping and alwavs complimentary, ate never mutually exclusive. The greatest duty and burden 1 ies upon the young person in the front lines. It 1«ills upon him or her to realize and appreciate the peculiar dan ger of the situation they are in and to freely and gladly accept the added labors of watchfulness and study necessary to minimize the-e dangers. Particularly at this time of lite, young people are prone to look upon interest and solicitude of parents and pastors as unwanted, unnecessary med dling An unwarrented selfsuificiercy is too otten thought to be guaranteed by a high school diploma. The advantages offered by Newman Clubs, a fhohe Centers and Catholic study and discussion groups both on and off the campus should be sougt and contact with these organizations con stantly maintained. Above alt. the daily rededication to the practices of their holy religion should hr the first and con stant bulwark of these young people. In The Interest Of Freedom The ruling this week of Judge Ralph J. Bart left of the Franklin County Common Plea* Court upholding the validity of movie censorship in Ohio was one that is being applauded by decent minded citizens throughout the state. Previous censorship of movie* by the state in the interest of the com mon morality is a necessity and an expression of the freedom of people to protect themselves by law from poisonous influences The specious argument* offered by those who would sec censorship abolished were all in the name of freedom freedom of speech and of ex pression. They would have us believe that any re ftriction on the rather widely applied terms of “speech or “expression" is unconstitutional. This 1* not. nor has it ever been, the case. The laws against slander and calumy protecting the good name of the citizenry are examples of restrictions placed upon us all in the name of com mon decency. There is hardly a pha*e of our.daily hfe or activity that does not come under some nec essary bounds stated by law for our owri as well •s our neighbor .* goood. If all restrictions were lifted in the name of freedom, whether it be freedom or expression or freedom of action it would mean the end of society as we now know and enjoy it*. It la to be hoped that the Court of Appeals will see the difference between license and freedom and wilt uphold the decision of Judge Bartlett to protect the public morality. ‘Proof Of I hr Pudding' Americans are known throughout the world as a pnce-conscious people. In fact, it has been said of us that we know the price of everything and the value of nothing. We angle to receive “top dollar tor everything we sell, and expect a full and complete recompense for our expenditures whatever they mat be. This business wide char acteristic, coupled w ith boundless natural resources, has made us the richest nanon in the world. It is questionable whether it has. made us the happiest at least as individual*. We are quick to seize every opportunity to examine the possibilities ot a new venture, weigh ing off the. required payment against the value we hope to receive. The material wealth of the na tion hears witness that we have made a minimum number of errors at least commercially, in judging our expenditures and their return There is, however, one notable exception to this prowess judging, and that is in the case of each man s relationship to his religion. Too often we weigh religion and the price we have to pay for it and come to the faulty conclusion that the value received is far outweighed by the expenditure: To accept religion vie must sell ourselves short on a priceless commodity—happiness. In other words, we accept and practice our religion only at the cost of our own happiness in this world. “Christ has been weighed in the balance and found wanting." That men who are noted for acuteness of judg ment could be so wrong in such an important mat ter can be accounted for only by the reality of original sin and the devil. Otherwise, the patent fact of the multitudes of those who have made the gamble, as the world would say, and have garnered an incalculable return would he enough to convince even the ipost wary ot bargainers. It is for us to offset the influence of the re mains of original sin and the devil by proving with the shining example of a life led for Christ in the full practice of our religion that we have the only true and real happiness. We can then hope and pray, in all humility, that they will become “imi tators of us and of the Lord, receiving the word with the joy of the Holy Spirit.’’ Just Among Ourselves Patting Comment Contidarad or Inconsiderate Less than half a century ago, every American believed with a really religious conviction that no one can be completely cultured or educated without visiting foreign countries. There was universal and unquestioning acceptance of the dogma that travel does something splendid for the human soul. A man was somehow more relined for having smoked a Pittsburgh stogie before the pyramids of Egypt, and for having wrangled over fees with a gondolier nn the canals of Venice. No person might hold up his head in distinguished company unless he had seen Pans and smelled Verona. The settled assurance with which all citizens, high and low, accepted “the broadening effects of travel" had the character of a bland and blind pre judice which disiegards all contrary evidence. Peo ple would still talk of travel as a cultural and re fining intluence despite their awareness of the fact that ship's crews are not particularly brilliant, and that international agents, and smugglers arc not conspicuously cultured, although these people are traveling all the time. It is, of course, easy to understand that, long ago, before jet propulsion, a man who came home from far countries to his quiet town, held a place of prominence. He had new things to tell, new places to describe, strange ad entures to narrate. He stirred imagination, he excited friendly envy, he drew admiration to himself. His familiarity (real or pretended) with alien things seemed to make him a superior being his easy gabble of foreign phrasesi genuine or fictional) appeared to indicate a mind of cosmopolitan sweep and an experience of boundless value. The resile* ness of man. which is a product of the primal fall, shows that he is not completely at home in this world: he has an urging that prods him tow aids heaven. But too often man seeks to satisfy his urge by mere movement, going places, doing things.—without considering, with any clarity ot purpose, the real goal for which his soul longs. Man sees something worthwhile in «eing on his way. So did the Piodigal Son when he took his bankroll and journeyed to a far country. Doubtless, the Prodigal, when he sat disconsolate in the sty and chewed on husks, had some revisions to offer to the exponent of the Gospel of Travel. It is. as we say, easy to understand how the notion of travel for travel’s sake grew popular. But it is not so easy to understand the persistence with which that notion endured, and even endures to this day. For there is still some dim belief that travel broadens, or is cultural, although that be lief had its first tremendous set back in the days following the First World War. and it* next re versal in the days following the Second World War. For, after our young men, and latterly our young women loo had been, in millions, up and down all the ways of the earth, ai back and forth over every sea the distinction of a mere contin ental tour diminished to the vanishing point. The world traveller to-day is likely to start a patroniz ing conversation with, his taxi driver only to find, to his chagrin, that the humble man at the wheel has done far more world traveling than himself. And yet, neilher world traveller nor taxi man would claim that the soldiers and sailors and marines and airmen, and the women s auxiliaries of all these branches of armed service, are, by rea son of their wide foreign travels, a more cultivated, cultured, and refined body of citizens. More ex perienced they are, certainly. Yet it would he difficult to discern deep cultural value in that ex perience. This travel dogma, in a lesser phase, is found in other popular beliefs. For instance, there are de votees of walking lalas. not many now) who speak as though “a good walk" were the one means of keeping health and strength. Postmen walk miles every day. in all sorts of weather. Yet postmen aie not noticeably the most robust and rugged men among us. Traditions, even poor and unfounded traditions, die slowly. They are never killed suddenly. And if some new phase or circumstance can he introduced inio their claims, they do not die at all. It may no longer be a fine distinction to have seen the pyramid*. But it is still something distinctive to have gone to Cairo by air. Million* have seen the dull glass and the white coral of Bermuda. But not many have gone to Bermuda in a *ubinarine. It appears, then, that the hire of travel is not entirely the restless desire to see new places and new faces and to have new experiences. It is also the wish to have experiences that most other peo ple do not. or cannot, have. It is a kind of desire to stand out, to excel in some manner. The person who makes a great journey today doe: not really expect, on his return, to impress the man next door but he does expect to impress the man in the mir ror. He does expect to find in travel a lift for his self-esteem. If ho cannot excel in the eyes of his neighbors, he can at lea«t find himself more excel lent for having done what the neighbor* have not done. But surely the notion of travel for culture's sake must some day surrender to the power of fact. When all the world is racing like mad not only nn railways and ships and highways but through the air and under the sea: when the ever improving gadgetry of electronics brings more and more of the world into every hamlet and hut, and subjects the pausing population to a continuous cinema show, Iheir is promise ior threat) that soon there will be no unfrequented lanes ot travel, no unseen corners of the earth, and no one to stand still for the re turned traveler to tell his story to. We’re all on the run. But we are nut therefore cu’tured. The cult of travel, once exclusive to the rich and leisured, has gone general and therefore has gone flat. But it is no mere recent cult, recently flourishing and recently checked. There must have been a lot of it in old Roman days, for Horace made the somewhat caustic comment. “They who run across the sea get a change of climate but not change of character.” Nor do they get an accel eration of culture or an increase of education. washixgtox letter Geneva tion, the tiirst they ever attend ed. Such hope! ul.* Deen soroiir disappijintBcl. The con lerencr, the 17th of its kind, was hek1 under the auspices of the UWE:SCO and the Internalional Bureau of Educa tion. It is 4in annual1 assembly of the departiDents of education of nearly all the world the gov ernments of Soviet Riussia joiiled I NES 0 in May. aiid this vvas the first conference on education at which they put iin an apj:icarance. Ob servers sa1y their advent was hailed with juvenile enthusiasm. It was regarded as a giant step towards international under standing and cultural coopera tion. Mis. Z. V. Doubrovina, Dep uty Minister of Education in the USSR, was promptly elected vice-chairman of the session. The Red delegates had a field day in propagandizing for their own educational set-up and in harpooning the elloils of other nations. Mrs. Doubrovina told the meet ing that education, secular in nature as a consequence of the LOUS F. Rl l)E\Z While the United States con tinues its stumbling retreat be fore Soviet aggression, the Com inform pioudl proclaims the further fasten ing of the Kremlins iron rule over the conquered peoples. In its official u I i cation, For a Lasting the Com inform sue cessor to the Communist Inter national is now hot on this theme. In its issues of June 18 and June 23, it reminds the Com munists of the world that “owe third of humanity" is now under Soviet domination. It declares that the continuance ot the Kremlin’s rule over these coun tries is having “d tremendous jn- Iuenee on the whole intmiotios* al situation.” Our Lack Of Positive Stand If we don’t know it. Moscow understands fully that these sub ject people behind the iron cur tain, whether in China or Poland, are our natural allies. The long er we abandon them as we are doing by continuing to foUovv the mirage of “containment'’ lhe more difficult or impossible will it become for them to liber ate themselves. And also, the more difficult will it become ior the United Stales to save itself from that “Communist encircle ment" which Stalin predicted in March, 1939. The, Coininiomi organ, in the June 18 issue, turns its attention to this fact, and declares that “the peoples of the world" are being affected by the sight ot continued Soviet control of the satellite regimes. On June 25, U adds that “the inviolable fra One More Crucifixion Just Another Sounding Board WASHINGTON removal of religion from public that education in the USSR pie thought the Russians would behave themselves at the recent life, is the means employed for the training of youth in the Sovi- No country was spared. Even France and India got their lumps. The Yugoslav delegate apparently thought it more pru dent to duck the ordeal. He con tracted a case of diplomatic ill ness and had his report read by the conference secretary. The United Stales was put in the stocks with questions about segregation and illiteracy. Only the Turkish delegation seemed to have the gumption to stand up to the Red propaganda and attack. It was a Moslem, Pro fessor Karazon. who dared to in quire about the status of re ligious education in the Soviet I mon. When the Turkish delegates questioned the Soviet delegation about its oft-repeated assertion The Satellites And The Press ternal friendship of the countries of the Socialist camp' warns that “a crushing blow" can be given to “every aggressor.” That says clearly, in the jargon of the Communist conspiracy, that the failure of the United States to take a positive stand is aiding Moscow to crush and regiment the peoples it has sub jected. Cast In a Negative Role Even the -Yem York Times of July 2b gets .some glimpse of the colossal character of this American failure. In its leading editorial of that (lay. it expresses regret that too often Soviet Russia has cast us.“in a negative role." 11 gives its opinion that “the best answer to that is to take a positive role." Where upon the Times proceeds to rec ommend the same bankrupt policy of “containment" that has led to the present sad posi tion in which the I nited States finpis itself. The Tunes wants '‘every effort for the prompt conclusion of a Southeast Asia defense pact," which, ot course, excludes the two best fighters against Com munism in Asia: Syngman Rhee of Korea and Chiang Kai-shek of China It also wants “pressure for prompt French ratification of the European Defense Com munity," which would be very line if the record of France did not now show that it cannot be relied upon at ail. Who Are Our Allies? The editorial also calls for “a moratorium on irresponsible criticism of both our own State Department and our a 11 i e s.” which would be much to the point if we could ever actually find out who our allies are. The complimentary reference in the Cominform organ of June 18 to the National Assembly of France shows that the Kremlin look* VxN VS is in to “national in form, socialist content,” the Reds pretended Union for the building of a treat them as idiots, observers communist society. Then, alter each delegation had presented to the conference an oral summary of the educa tional situation in its homeland, it was subjected to a veritable barrage of well-prepared, care fully-planted questions from the Soviet ranks. say. and replied: "National in form means that the teaching is in the native language of lhe autonomous Republics, socialist in content means that the teach ing is uniform." When the Turks wanted to know whether the native lan guage is taught in the four Re publics of Central Asia (whose longue is Turkish) Mrs. Douhro vina implied that Russian is im posed universally throughout the Soviet Union. Turkish is studied only by scholars, she explained, because there is small interest in a language not represented in lift Soviet Union. The Soviet representatives boasted that their education in culcated at once an intense pa triotism and an international spirit. The Turkish delegate in quired what moral values were invoked and what educational techniques employed to achieve such a happy result. The answer: Since the whole spirit of Soviet education is directed to such ends, no special courses are needed. And. so It went. upon that country as partially its own puppet. And the laudatory allusion to the hostility of great section* of “the British people" to the United States, in the June 25 issue, registers a somewhat similar verdict. Nowhere does the Times men tion the foundation stone of “a positive role" the breaking off ol relations with Soviet Russia and its satellite regimes. That would soon make “our allies" decide on W’hich side they actually stood for Soviet ag gression or against it. would also give hope to the people be hind the. iron curtain and end the Kremlin’s boasts that they are permanently undel its heel. The I nited States null have to take this stand some day, and it is wise to do it now before it is too late. Grave Defects In Daily Press This discussion illustrates the validity ot the flood of letters I have received recently, point ing out that if the United States is going down the wrong road, it is largely due to our daily press on the whole. I have never received so many com munications on any’ one subject, and it is impossible to answer them all. But 1 can say that they are unfortunately, testify ing to the truth. It is small wonder that the July issue of Masses and Main stream. Red organ for the intel lectuals, rushes to the defense of the Washington Post and Times Herald, the New Xork Post, and the New York Herald Tribune, among other papers.. These “capitalist papers” it declares to be potential victims of “McCar thyism,” which is utter nonsense but does not arise 'accidentally. The people can. however, remedy the grave defects in the daily press, as I shall attempt to show within the next few cweeks. Inquiry Corner Father Healey Q. How can the Pope add a doctrine to Catholic teaching which had not been in tl before and is not tn the Bible e.g. the Assumption? A. The Pope cannot add a new doctrine 1o Catholic teaching. When the Pope makes an infal lible pronouncement as he did (November 1, 195(1) in declaring the Assumption ot the Blessed Virgin Mary a truth revealed by God and a matter of faith he establishes rather than invents a doctrine. The sources’ of Catho lic teaching are Sacred Scripture and Tradition and it is the duty and privilege of the Pope to clarify and explain doctrinal or moral matters' which are in dis pute or are misunderstood. While the fact of the Assumption is not noted in the Bible it is re corded in Tradition and has been universally accepted by Catho lics for centimes (e.g. the mys tery of the Assumption in the Rosary, the Holyday on August 15th, etc.). It was taught by.St. Jerome and St. Augustine and St. John Damascene (676-770) refers to it as “an ancient tra dition Q. How long was St. Paul in prison in Rome? What epistles did he write while there? A. When St. Paul returned to Jerusalem (some say in 58 A.D.) he was arrested by the Romans and kept prisoner for two years. Because he appealed to Caesar he was taken to Rome where he spent about two years more in prison. During this time it ap pears that he wrote his epistles to the Colossians, to Philemon, to the Ephesians and to the Philip pian.*. He was released from prison finally but after a peri od of apostolic activity was again imprisoned and (Eusebius says in 67 A.D.) he was beheaded. Q. Isn there disagreement be tween the texts which tell us to avoid publicity in prayer and good works and those which tell us to "let your light shine be fore men.” (Matthew 6:1 vs. 5:18) A. St. Augustine tells us that apparent conflicts in Scriptural texts simply indicate our inabili ty to understand and not a real conflict. It is possible to take sentences from any man's writ ings of speeches and show appar ent contradictions, for sentences (such as particular verses of the Bible) need the whole passage or context to explain them. This one is easy to explain, however, for Christ makes clear that He is condemning the good works WOVS/CVOR HIGGINS of the Pharisees because they do them “in order to be seen by men (Mt. 23:5) There is no prohi bition of giving good example but we must be careful to avoid pride whereby we seek our own profit or glorification rather than the glory of God or the good of others. Q. Is a Catholic really married if he is ni the state of mortal sin at the time of the marriage? Are Protestants really married when not married by the priest— do they receive the Sacrament of Matrimony? A. Although Matrimony is a sac rament of the living and it would be a serious sin isacrilege) to receive it in the State of mor tal sin the person so receiving it would be truly married. It is cus tomary for Catholics to go to Confession shortly before the ceremony usually the night be fore) and to receive Holy Com munion at Mass on the day of marriage. Catholics must be married in the presence of the parish priest (or one duly au thorized) and two w itnesses, but Protestants are not bound to this particular form of marriage. Their marriages! are true mar riages provided there is nothing else to interfere with the validity of them, and if they are baptized their marriages are sacramental (i.e. they do receive the Sacra ment.) Q. Is it correct to say that if we follow our consciences we can't go wrong? Principles At Stake Several weeks ago the Nether lands hierarchy, in the course of an 18.000 word pastoral letter on the application of Christian principles in e economic and social or der, laid doyvn a n unqualifed ban on Catho lic membership in the socialist trade unions of that coun try. This pro hibition actual ly has been in effect many years but em phatic reaffirmation of it at this particular time will probably i come as a great surprise to many Americans Americans, by and large, being rather poor ly informed about the anti religious character of Continen tal socialism. One of the difficulties en countered in trying to explain the Christian-Socialist contro versy to American labor leaders and labor economists is the wide spread impression that this is strictly a “Catholic" issue the narrow sectarian sense of the word. Nothing could be further from the truth. The principles at stake in this long-standing controversy are shared by all those who believe in God and in the relevance of the moral law to the social and economic order. It is a great pleasure to be able to report lhat the World Council of (Protestant) Church es recently set the recoid straight in this regard. In a re port prepared under the auspices of the World Council, prepara tion ior its Second Assembly in Evanston, Illinois, it is frankly admitted that “the movement toward Christian political par ties and Christian trade unions, at least of the Continent, was in large part based upon opposition to the atheism and materialism of Socialism.” Inadequate, Dangerous Philosophy It is also encouraging to note that the arguments advanced by the Bishops of the Netherlands in support of their position with regard to socialism are parallel ed by a number of eloquent pas sages in the recent report of the World Council. The Bishops take the position that the underlying philosophy of the socialist unions in their country is a kind of humanism, completely divorced from religion and exclusively concerned with the limited val ues of this world. In their opin ion, this is not only an inade quate but a dangerous philoso phy. And here is what the re port of the World Council of Churches has to say on the same general subject: A. No. It is possible for a per son to have an erroneous con science. Because of environment or some defect in judgment a man may be acting against the moral law (the Ten Command ments) and still be more or less sincere in thinking that he is following his conscience. A man may be so twisted judgment and in his conscience that he thinks a promise to steal or to remain in a criminal association is truly binding. It is possible for a headhunter or cannibal to consider the pursuit of this im moral tribal custom a thing mor ally good or permissible. It was because of this darkness of the mind and weakness of the will (resulting from original sin) that God presented to man the moral law in the Old and New’ Testa ment and the living Church to explain and apply it. Send questions to Father Ed ward F. Healey. Inquiry Comer, The Catholic Times, Box 636, Columbus (16) Ohio. “A o fhg to democratic humanism man is master of his own destiny and can achieve a perfect society. Men should rely wholly on their own powers to realize the good life for them selves and their community, and their hopes need not reach be yond the improvement of their earthly existence. These beliefs are illusions. In holding them democratic humanism even when still professedly Christian has become largely a Christian here sy.” Christians, on the other hand, the report continues, “may share the hope that the institutions of society will be ordered more fully to protect and minister to the needs of all men but they must know and declare that only in utter reliance upon God and obedience to Him can legitimate earthly hopes be truly discerned and rightly held." Not Based on Sectarian Interests It ought to be noted, for the sake of complete accuracy, that the striking parallel between these two recent statements on the philosophy of humanism does not necessarily mean that the World Council ot Churches agrees with the specific direc tive* of the hierarchy in the field of organized labor .Never theless the parallel is extremely important fnr it serves to dem onstrate that Catholic opposition to the philosophy of democratic humanism (which is still the underlying philosophy of Euro pean socialists) is not based on so-called sectarian interests in the narrow sense of the Wrd. On the eontiary and as we have already indicated, Catholics, Protestants and Jews ought to be in complete agreement their opposition to a social phil osophy which, at least, implicitly deme* the existence of the super natural. It goes without saying, nf course, that opposition to the philosophy of democratic hu manism in the world of labor, as well as in other areas of human endeavor, ought to be as con structive as possible, with the hope of winning over the expon ents of this philosophy to a knowledge and love of God and to an understanding appreciation of the moral law’. This will in volve, among other things, a prayerful and patient effort to demonstrate to European social ists, by word and example, the importance of religious and eth ical principles in the continuing struggle for social justice. That is the beginning of wis dom. It remains to be seen where they will go from there. Human ly speaking, much depends upon the example and the missionary zeal of their Christian neigh bors, friends and colleagues.