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4—THE CATHOLIC TIMES
Friday. Nov. 26.1954 THE CATHOLIC TIMES Published Every Week by The Catholic Times. Inc. Columbus. Ohio NOTICE: Send All Changes of Address to P. O Box 636 Columbus Ohio Executive and Editorial Offices: 246 E. Tow n Street. Columbus 15. Ohio Address all communications for publication to P. O Box 636. Columbus 16, Ohio Telephones CA. 4-5195 CA. 4-5196 Pritt of Th« Catholic Time* it S3 prr year. All tption? should be presented to our office throuirh fbc paMoi pf the perishes. Rxm »t-• r.ces ehnnld be made payable to The Cath ohe Time*. Annnyrano* consmunteattone will he disregarded We »lc not held ourselves responsible for any view* or opinions expressed in the eommunicaUone of our cor-erptindent s. (Altered as Second Class Matter at Poet Office. O'utnbus Ohio. St. FranCi* de Sale*. Patron of the Catholic Press. This Paper Printed by Union Labor talking To Meet Christ Again t*e hate come to the i1q.-f of nne Church year and the beginning of a new one II is the time cnee more for the Christian to lake stock oi th past ye«.r, its spmtual advances nnd setback- and make a Ire s’ai rich mined t» increase the good and abolish the bad. During this holy season of Advent with which the Church year begins, we should all make our own those sentiments echoed end re-echoed by Holy Mother Church in her liturgy “Come, 0 come, Emmanuel!” It is the knowledge^ gained from the experiences of the. past year as they pass in review that makes the Christian cry out for the coming of Christ. It is this knowledge of what life can be like with out Him that causes the Christian to view the com ing of the new Church year with its rededication to and longing for Christ with eagerness and joy. It is this knowledge that causes the apparent paradox of Christians rejoicing in a time of penance. Advent, the second most important time of pen ance in the Church year, holds out to all the simple, but all-important lesson that lhe journey to meet Christ is measured in our withdrawal from sin and its effects. Each little act of penance done in preparation for Christ's coming amongst us carries with it its own reward. Each one is a step toward Christ and the blessed joy of His nearness. “Come, O come. Emmanuel!” the sentiment of this holy season, depends for its effectiveness not on idle repetition but on dedicated action. Ix*t us enter this season nf Advent with the determination Io make each day a step to mee, Christ at His coming. A step trod in the way He showed us through prayer and penance. CHRIST In CHRISTmas 11 is bearteni the number o e drives to kei igns gam mm [ret has been th p.i ef ng to note the in reaee each year participate in mas. These cam ycai and their phases of our those who actively Christ each many jp Christ .in •e adherents not ictd in These campaigns must Jia' Nn one group can individual. e the hnr»e support of each to accomplish the truly great ask of cmplisslzing in this mater laIndic age the ■eal meaning of Clirjstmax. On so many fronts we have let the pagan notion nf the celebration of the Holy Christmas season. In our songs, our decorations, the cards we buy in the and in. ny more things--we can notice the need fnr re-emphasizing the true meaning ol CHR'STmas. For us, there is no Christmas without Christ. Even the word Christmas has become a barbarism in the mouths and minds of many who have re placed Christ v ilh the unknown quantity "X” It is up tn us Io see that the Unknown for which “X stands becomes known during this season which commemorates His coming to all men, W.th this issue, the Catholic limes is starting a series designed to offer suggestions and outline practices to help each one keep Christ in Christmas It is hoped that these suggestions and practices will be welcomed and adopted in every home. Sonic Words On Authority The Church has been commissioned by God to elucidate and apply the moral law She has the right and obligation to dn so, both in general and in specific cases She exercises that right, fulfills that obligation, through the Pope and the Bishops So that the individual Bishop, in his diocese, to be heeded hv every Catholic without ex crption when he declares the morality of pra tiers which may he supposed by the ill inlprnied tn lie outside his jurisdiction, 'there arc many American Catholics who need to note this fact. In the second place, there are Catholics, Her i al and lay, w ho feel that, even in strictly relic ious matters, episcopal authority is all very well fm the simple, the meageily educated, the sheltered, hut that they themselves being sophisticated, highly educated and in the midst nf momentous practical affairs can proceed independently of it, and indeed In opposition In it. In effect they irpeal tljc grant of legitimate authority with which Christ has endowed the Bish op Thp. makes for scandal and at least equivalent schi-m It wounds and rend1' Truth It substitutes anarchy for divinely appointed order. Its conscquen res are fatal. Here, too, there is occasion (or an examination nf conscience nn the part nf many. and of an imine diate and drastic reform.—Catholic Transcript. For The Good Of \ll Two weeks from this Sunday, Catholics throughout the nation will again take the pledge of the Legion nf Decency. At that lime they will pledge themsel srs tn do their part in safeguarding themselves and the community in which they live from the evils of salacious entertainment. During the past year we in Ohio have been tn lhe center of a fight Io abolish state censorship nf the moving pictures offered for entertainment in ou. theatres The light is still going on, and up until now. the opponents of censorship seem to be winning. It is up to the community as a whole to see that they do not ’vin. Each year, along the line some place, at the time when Catholics renew their pledge of the legion of Decency, critics of censorship throw their barbs at us They claim we are trying to im pose an outmoded sense of .morality on an unwill tng popukce They claim that we are trying to bridle freedom, and so on and so forth. They'll he trotting out the same old. tired ergu merits un this ycai And why Because they are scaled nf all right thinking people who would ‘ec themselves and their childion protected horn very real danger to their morals. IjCt no one think that the purveyois of filth are no» hit. and hit hard by the concerted action id Catholics who take the pledge of the Legion of Decency and who keep it faithfully. They are, by their own admission. A comparison of the film fare offered for public consumption ten years ago and that offered today k irnph have had durtfig the yea iut fuwUJ, .u- pr-onL-Ihat our actions in this regard do bring results. The faithful adherence to the promises nf this pledge insures the safeguarding of one’s personal morality from this very real source of contamina tion. This safeguard is extended to the whole com munity automatically and is effective proportion ately within the community to individual appli cation. This renewal of the Pledge of the legion of Decency is made each year during the Octave of the Fe°st of Our Lady’s Immaculate Conception. Is is most fitting that this greatest feast of Our Blessed Mother should be chosen to regulate the time of renewing this pledge. The Catholic instinctively thinks of Mary when he thinks of purity. By God's design, she is, next to her Divine Son. thp most perfect example of integral humanity. “Mother Most pure!” has long been the exclamation of her devoted children. During this Marian Year, her year, we have all been given numerous ways of expressing our filial de votion to our Blessed Mother. Our renewal of the pledg of the Legion of Decency and its faithful execution throughout the year is certain to be one of the most acceptable and pleasing ways of ex pressing our continuing devotion to our Blessed Mother. Just Among Ourselves Passing Comment Considered or Inconsiderate The season of Advent brings in a new Church year. Advent is the coming or the arrival of the Re deemer of mankind, of God-made-Man to give us hack the chance of getting to heaven. It is now nearly twenty centuries since “the Word was made flesh,” but it is right and reasonable to observe each year a period commemorating the expectation of the Incarnation. The spirit of the faithful children of God in Old Testament times was one of longing mingled with penance. There was deep desire for the fulfillment of Isaias’ prophecy, “God himself will come and will save ou.” And there was-a humble acknowledge ment of human unworthiness to have this wondrous Savior actually given Io mankind. In our commemoration of the years of penitent ial hope and expectation, we celebrate, under di rection of Holy Mother Church, the- season of Ad vent. It is therefore, a penitential time, this time of Advent. But 'hi is a joyous sort of penance, un like that of Lent, for it envisions no terrible suffer ings of the Savior, but oi.ly His miraculous birth of an immaculate Virgin Mother. In Ix’nt, we think not only of our Own unworthi ness, for which we stir ourselves to sorrow and will ingly undergo inconvenience and self-denial, but our minds are fixed on the Paksion and Death of Christ. True, we look for the glory of Easter, but nur thoughts of that glory arc in the background they are Io have a sudden outburst when the days that commemorate Our Lord's suffering are over. Suffering is the dominant Lenten thought. But the dominant thuug! of Auvent is not suf fering, but joy We do penance indeed, but we have not tn carry it through any season of overwhelming sorrow before it comes to fruition. Therefore we say that the penance of Advent is a joyous penance, while the penance of Lent is a sorrowing penance. Yet the penance of Advent is a real penance. We are not in full accord with lhe spirit nf Holy Church when uc use Advent only tn stir up the feeling nr emotion of joy. not making strong effort to cleanse ourselves more and more from sin and lhe effects of sin in ourselves. Advent is a time for prayer. It need not be a time of newly lengthened or multiplied prayers. Rut it should certainly he a season of improved quality in our prayers. To think of what Christmas '•ecalls, is. for a devout child of the Church, to think of making oneself more worthy of Christ. Advent suggests new care and attention in morning and night prayer it suggests a more fervent recital of our daily Rosary it uggests alert devotion at Holy Mass. And it means a willing and generous observance of the laws of fasting and abstinence— the Ember Days and lhe VigH—-as well as a readi ness to forego the eager quest of worldly entertain ment that so generally and so persistently marks the lives of nearly all our people. And, more than all, Advent suggests a renewal of love and devotion to the Redeemer ever present in the Holy Eucharist. It is hard to imagine how any Catholic can feel a longing for Our Lord’s coming, and yet stay away fiom the Communion rail day after day and week after week. No one can prepare us for the Feast of Christ’s Coming so well as Christ Himself. The proper observance of Advent means a worthy and fervent Communion, nt the very least on each Sunday and Holyday of the season It is interesting to notice that the word holidays is only a shortened form of the. two words holy days. The holiday season is, therefore the season of mak ing lhe time holy by special effort and special eagerness Io concur with the ever available grace of God. 'the merriment so geherallv mentioned in con nection with the Christmas time is a merriment of the religious, spiritual, joyous soul, which has the delightful fiecdom of the state of grace, and is ready to enter in every seemly wav ir.to the celebration nf Our Lord's Birthday. T1 e person in whom sanctifying grace exists can have true joy in all that is properly associated with Christ mas the gift-giving, the carols, the feasting, the -pint of general benevolence But to the soul in the state of mortal sin, all the outward celebration is little better than a hollow mockery. The right way to celebrate Christmas, therefore, is to be in the state of grice. And there should be a special effort to increase grace in the soul. Thus the meaning and duty of Advent is instantly ap parent God's grace gives or restores innocence to the soul. And only the innocent can really enter whole heartedly into meaningful merriment There are persons who feci that lhe expression Merry Christ mas” ought to give place Io a more spiritual ex pression such as “A Blessed Christmas,” or a “Happy Christmas." But if the merriment we speak of when we make the traditional Christmas wish is the merriment of innocence and grace, there is nothing unworthy in the greeting of "Merry Christmas.” The Church is a watchful mother She misses no opportunity to do good to her children. She is anxibus now that all t^ke advantage.- of this hole lime of Advent ^arvj w§ll. so that, in addition tn the rich nF this penitential time itself, all may be prepared to receive the full measure of blessing, and joy that comes with the Feast to those who can receive it. And therefore the Church selects (or reading on the very first day of Advent passages from Holy Scripture that urge us all to the proper observ ance of the time. “It is now the hour for us to rise from sleep “let us cast off the works of darkness and put on he armor of light “show. 0 Lord, thy ways to me, and teach me thy paths.” Aa Advent earnestlypbsec e£l jg. U*c b^d .fts^yr ance of a truly happy cTiristntas........•• aS & I •w .... WASHINGTON LETTER WASHINGTON If you piece together things which various people of some authority have said and written in recent weeks, you can come up With .the im pression that Soviet Russia has a problem on its hands in Red China. The problem, as of now, any way, is not that Peking may break avVay from Moscow, orj turn against it. It is rather that the Russian Reds may not hr able to mako-the Chinese Redsi hehave precisely as they want them to. It has been said more than once lately that Moscow believes! it should not push Red China! into any more acts of aggression at this time, The seizure of Tibet, it i« pbmted out, had ex tremely bad repercussions in In dia, and Moscow has reason to fear that any more open aggres sion at this lime might flip a considerable number of Asian potential communists over into the pro-West camp. Right now, some have said, Moscow is not trying to push Red China, but. to guide it according MONSIGNOR HIGGINS His Holiness Pope Pius XII, in a recent address at the con Maiian celebra clusion of the lion in Rome. lems. vigorously re fl i rmed the right of the Church to speak authori tatively. not on ly on “matters s ictly relig ious,” but on all matters of conscience and specifically on the moral as pects of social, economic and political prob- There are some Catholics, the Holy Father said, even some “in high positions,” who wish to lim it the teaching authority of the Church to “strictly, religious matters” and wish to present the Church from instructing the faithful in the field of social problems. The error of these men. he says, must be firmly opposed, for “the power of the Church is not bound by the lim its of ‘mattery strictly religious.’ as they say, but the whole mat ter of the natural law, its founda tion, its interpretation, its appli cation, so far as their moral as pects extend, are within the Church’s power." Many of our people, when they read the Holy Father s recent ad dress, must have .wandered w hat it was that prompted him to the defense of the teaching authori ty of the Church so solemnly and emphatically at this particular time. It would be presumptuous, of course, to attempt to answer this question except In very gen eral terms. The Holy Fathers remarks were addressed to the whole world, and while he refers in passing to ’he specific theo logical errors of certain individu als, he does not identify any nf them by name or nationality or place of residence. Obviously, .therefore, even to try to guess at their identity 'wouToTEe arum Heart Of The Matter & i." Russia Has A Problem In China to a Soviet-communist point of view. Emphasis is put upon the “Soviet-communist" point of view', because there is* a ten dency on the part of top China communists to hold that they in herit: directly from Lenin, and that they do not need Malenkov and the present rulers of Russia as mentors, or as links with the past. Observers point to the Soviet withdrawal from Port Arthur, •the handing back to China of 'Soviet assets in four mixed Soviet-Chinese companies set up in 1950 and 1951, the building of the Kazakhstan-Sinkiang rail way, and similar moves as as suaging steps on the part of Mos cow. The problem is believed to lie in the fact that Peking, believ ing it is-able to make commun ist decisions for itself, may de cide that it is going to do what it thinks best, not what Moscow wants. And. Peking might persuade itself that it ought to continue to be aggressive. It is pointed out by authorities that there are 'Specifically On Moral Aspects' propriety. on our part. Timely Warning Whatever it was that prompt ed or occasioned the Holy Fa ther’s warning, a problem ex ists in Argentina which may properly be cited—as one exam ple out of many to illustrate the fact that it was indeed a very timely warning. Eight days after the Holy Father had spok en out so forcefully in defense of the teaching authority of the Church in the social field, the President of Argentina was re ported to. have criticized three Bishops and two priests in that country as “enemies of the gov ernment” and to have warned that he would take action against clergymen indulging in “illicit activities.” The President’s stat e e n t— later broadcast by the national radio—is said to ha.ve followed a ton-day campaign in the official newspaper of the Argentine Con federation of I.abor against al leged “infiltration” of the labor movement by priests, and to have coincided with an official' public statement by the Confederation of Labor to the same effect. It is further reported that the lat ter statement received support in the form of bold headlines from' the so-cailed Peronista press and, according to the New York Times, “brought to a new pitch an anti-Church campaign that threatens to become the biggest problem that General Peron has had to face in years.” General Peron prefers to de scribe this campaign as "anti cleribal" rather than anti-Church. Be that as it may if the cam paign were to succeed, it would have the effect of keeping the Church in the sacristy in clear violation of the Church's right, as the' Holy Father puts it. to teach authoritatively in the so cial field “not only •'in secret,’ within the walls of Church and sacristy, but also in the open, crying'‘from the-rooftops’- ., :ih the front line,‘in the tnidst of the struggle that wages between large numbers of "overseas Chi nese" in various places in Asia, outside of China itself. These Chinese, as well as other Asians, are watching intensely to see whether the Peking communists or the Chinese Nationalist gov ernment of Chiang Kai-Shek will triumph in the struggle for the control of China. Peking may decide to push forward with its aggression, to show people, and these "overseas Chinese” espe cially, who’s boss. If it takes that action, Moscow may lose perma nently its domination of Peking, and, at the same time, anti-com munists in Asia might show im portant. gains. Moscow is anxious to guide, if not control, Peking, and at a price as cheap as possible It ha.3 extended long-term ruble credit to China. But Peking knows that the sum involved is small when compared to the amount that Great Britain spends annually to develop her colonies. Something like one-fourth, one authority said. So, it could be that Red Chi na is not an unalloyed comfort to Moscow. truth and error, virtue and vice, between the ‘world’ and the kingdom of God, between the prince of this world and Christ its Saviour.” Church'* Stand Merit* Support The background of this un fortunate controversy in Argen tina would seem to be as fol lows: The existing uniois in that country are closely allied with General Peron’s political regime. He seems to be afraid that the young workers who are being trained under the auspices of Catholic Action in Argentina will “infiltrate” these organiza tions and eventually take them out from under his political con trol. From his point of view, this would be a major disaster, fnr the present.unions are one of the main sources of his political strength. This campaign against the la bor section of Catholic Action in Argentina was to be expected sooner or later for reasons indi cated more than three years ago by a non-Catholic American la bor expert, Robert J. Alexander, in a book entitled. "The Peron Era.” If, he says, “the trend to ward a totalitarian form of Pe romsm continues ...” it is likely to come into conflict with the teaching of the i^aith of the Church.” Now that Mr. Alexander's prophecy seems to be on the way to fulfilment at least in one area of Argentine life, it is to be hoped that the labor move ment in the United States and the other labor organizations banded together in the Inter national Confederation of Free Trade Unions will* lend their moral support to the Church. The Church, in defending her own freedom to teach the moral law authoritatively in every field of human endeavor, is also defending the freedom of these organizations. She merits and deserves their wholehearted sup port and that of freedom-loving people in every other walk of .life all over the world. Inquiry Corner Q. Ik it advisable to tell ser ious sins of the past to the per son you're engaged to? Would it cuer be necessary to tell—isn't there, something about a mar riage being invalid if a person is deceived about the other per son? The bride and groom express ly state that they take each other “for better and for worse” and that would seem to include hid den imperfections. No one is bound to destroy his ow'n repu tation, unless there is clearly some injustice being worked on another party. If there was a pre vious marriage or if the person is being sought by the police for a serious crime, it would be wrong to deceive the other party to the engagement. Apart from such public and obviously pertin ent events of the past there would seem to be no necessity for revealing the past. In general it would be advisable to keep past sins a matter between the individual, his confessor and God. There is seldom any profit to anyone in bringing them up. Sins o the past of themselves could not affect the validity of a marriage. Q. What is the modern value of money mentioned in the Bible e g. the midair's mite, the coin of tribute, the thirty pieces of sil ver, the talents, etc. A. Ir the Old Testament be fore the exile into Babvlon the Jewish people relied principally upon weighing money according to standard weights kept in the Tabernacle (Exodus 30:13). The mite is estimated at about one fourth :ent in our money, the coin of tribute at 31.5 cents, the pieces of silver at about 50 cents each, the talents at $1,214 (sil ver) and $19,440 (gold). The groat, for which the housewife, sear hed and called in the neigh bors hen she found it would be worth about 17 cents and the drachma (Greek) or denarius (Roman) such as that paid the laborers in the vineyard was the same. It. must he remembered that tl e purchasing’ power of money was much greater in an cient times than today eg. the denariu1 was considered a fair day’s wages. Q. Besides the penitential side of it what is the reason for doing without meat on Friday? A. The Church establishes cer tain days for fast and abstin LOUIS F. BUDENZ Fal er IIealey-------------------- ence, setting up a minimum of penitential practices for us. The days are chosen in accordance with ancient traditions because of some association of prayer and penance with the particu lar day or season (e.g. Good Fri day, Ix*nt, Ember Days). Because of Good Friday all Catholics are expected (under pain of mortal sin) to do penance by abstaining from meat every Friday of the year. The suffering and death of Christ calls for this simple pen ance as the Catholic’s union with Christ and His Cross. Q. Does Christian Science go back to the miracles of the Gos pel as /ome of its members claim? A. No. The miracles of Christ were worked through His pow'er as Son of God and were gener ally associated with His mission. He healed the sick, brought the dead to life, multiplied the loaves and fishes out of mercy, but pri marily as a proof of His divinity and His mission as Redeemer. (“But that you may know that the Son of Man has power on earth to forgive sins”, etc.—Luke 5:24) (See St. John’s constant reference to the “signs” which Jesus did e.f. 2:11-12, 6:14-15) Christian Science was founded in 1879, following the publishing of Mary Baker Eddy’s “Science and Health” in 1875. and can scarcely compare itself to the Catholic Church which has been constantly approved by authen tic miracles throughout the world since the time of Christ himself. Q. Who is the patron of sales men? A. St. Francis of Assisi (Oc tober 4th) and St. Nicholas of Myra (December 6th) are listed as patrons of merchants. Sales men would probably take their patrons from the products they sell e. g. St. Elizabeth of Hungary is patron of bakers, St. Alexius of belt-makers, St. John of God of booksellers, St. Augustine of Hippo for brewers, St. Anne for cabinet-makers and St. Brigid for dairy workers. The salesman as distinct from the maker or manufacturer is a product of industrialism. It would seem tn be a good area for the develop ment of American saints, future patrons of salesmen. Send questions to Father Ed ward F. Healey, Inquiry Corner, The Catholic Times, Box 636, Co lumbus (16) Ohio. Red Orders To Senate So little is the Communist con spiracy squelched in the United States that the Daily Worker has recently published "An Open Letter to the U. S. Senate.” This bold dec laration, which contains orders to the Senate as to what it should do, ap pears on the first page of the November 10 issue. It in fl i s s upon quick censure seph R. McCarthy of Wisconsin and also, as was to be expected, his “unseating." Senator Jo- In the course of its fiat, the Red organ exhibits its contempt for the. Senators as a group, tell ing them that they are "after all anti-Communists, even when you are not too clear as to what you are opposing.” Then it goes forward to expound a theme which will be heard in many quarters, a theme designed to throw both the Senate and the American people off the track completely. It seeks to reassure the Senators that if they vote for censure they will not be "taking orders from the Kremlin.” It gives this reassurance by assert ing that many other persons and groups are for this move, in ad dition to the Communists. No 'Compromise' On the very same first page of the very same issue, the Daily Worker declares: “Accord ing to Senator Joseph McCarthy, the Daily Worker is against him and wants him out of the Sen ate. How right he is! This news paper is proud of the part it has had in arousing the nation to the Fascist peril McCarthy rep resents.” The Red organ may justly be “proud” of this service to its Moscow masters, for it is the “initiator” of the whole “battle against McCarthyism” as it frank ly acknowledged on June 1, 1953. Now, however, the Soviet fifth column is fearful lest a "compro mise” be worked out on the cen sure motion, since it has now be come so obvious that it is the Communists who have turned America upside down with this issue. Throughout the entire week that followed this “open letter.” the Red organ has been working its concealed Communist follow ers into a fury against any such ‘‘compromise.’’ Hence, it brings forward the propaganda weapon —which will affect many un thinking people that others beside the Communists are be hind the censure, although most of these “others” do not know what they are doing. Most nf them dn not even understand that they are helping tn bury all effective moves against th** conspiracy, even though the Communists have said that w'ould be the case. Transmission Belt* In doing this, however, Mos cow’s agents have disclosed what they would like to keep hidden from the public eye: they shorn conclusively the power they have to make puppets of various agen cies and forces, using them as “transmission belts" for the Com munist line. How far we have got away from our moorings is brought forth by the distinguished com mentator, David Lawrence, in his column appearing in New York on November II. The first para graph deserves quotation: “The United States Senate is in spe cial session just now but it is doing nothing and apparently intends to do nothing about the most important problem facing the national government.” That problem is the urgency of legis lation to provide an overall re vision of the present security system. Mr. I^wrenee emphasiz es that, at. present, this system is “so loose, that for four years the most precious of secrets have been leaked.” Knowledge of Line Essential The trial of Professor Joseph S. Petersen, Jr., is bringing out startling information, although neither daily press nor Senate seems to be interested. Docu ments so secret that they may have cost thousands of lives in the Korean war were taken by this man from the files of the National Security Agency and turned over to person.- connected with a foreign power. Yet the Senate which should be seek ing to learn how it can prevent such gross acts of sabotage against this nation—is frittering away its time in discussing cen sure on a man who sought to probe the defects of our securi ty and loyalty bodies. The tri umph 1 of the Communists in achieving just this could not be greater. We have in this whole dreary drama a new evidence of what this column has tried to stress right along that a widespread knowledge of the Communist line is essential if the United States is to be saved. From that knowledge men and women who stand out in every community could and should take measures to beat it back before it obtains too much momentum in the secu lar press, television, and radio. At the present moment every citizen who wishes to help the United States can recall the Sen ators to their duty to this nation. Let them take steps to strength en our security regulations rath er than wasting precious time under pressure of the Commun ists and their dupes.