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4—7 HE CATHOLIC TIMES
Friday, Feb. 4. 1955 THE CATHOLIC TIMES Published Every Week by The Catholic Times, Inc. Columbus, Ohio NOTICE: Send All Changes of Address to P. 0. Box 636 Columbus, Ohio Executive and Editorial Offices: 246 E. Town Street, Columbus 15, Ohio Address all communications for publication to P, O. Box 636 Columbus 16. Ohio Telephones: CA. 4-5195 CA. 4-5196 Price nf The Catholic limp’ i» S3 per year. All «ub iri-'tioni should be presented to our office through the pastors Of the parishes. Remittances should he made payable to the Cath jlie Times. Anonymous nmmi.niralions will he disregarded. We do not hold ourselves responsible for any view* nr opinions expressed in the communications of our rorres pendents. Entered a« Second Class Matter at Tost Office, Columbus. Ohio. St. Francis de Sales, Patron of the Catholic Press, Pray for us! This Paper Printed by Union Labor I nitv Vnioiig Churches It is not just a coincidence that there should he a number of news items at this time dealing with unity in religion. That there should be in creasing efforts to bring about harmony and io dissolve differences in belief among religions cannot but be the result of the win kings of divine grace in the hearts of men. That there should be evi dences of Gods grace influencing the minds of men at this time must surely have some connection with the world wide observance of the Chair Unity Octave. a period of prayer foi the return of all separated children of God to' His true Church. This Octave fittingly begins on the feast of St. Peter's Chair, which symbolizes the authority given to him by Christ Himself It ends on the feast of the Conversion ol St Paul, the tevent .lew who had been persecuting Christ with telling zeal. It was a miracle of God which enlightened the mind of aul so that he became St. Paul, Apostle. But the persecutor Saul was doubtless honest of heart and in good faith, endeavoring to protect his Jewish religion from the inroads of Christianity. Jbe Chair Unity Octave urged sincere prayer that all separated or estranged from Christ might receive the light to see their way hack Io Him or, if they are in good faith in their present belief, that. Divine Wis dom might enable them to realize the wealth of spiritual riches to bo found in His one true Church. Cher in England a group of Anglo-Catholics have issued a pamphlet expressing a desire for Christian unity under the Pope. The pamphlet urged all Anglicans to pray tor Christian reunion during the han Unity Octave. The ‘‘theological confusions” of the Church of England were pointed out, and an appeal was made for understanding the “place nf Peter in the Apostolic College the college from which the episcopacy is derived I’he authors of the pamphlet said they could not understand ‘why the Church of England, which has always made so much nf the historic episcopate’ as one of the necessary conditions in any scheme for reunion” could be indifferent about the place of Peter in it. Meanwhile here in the United Stales there has heen a constant growth in the conviction tha' there is need for unity. True, this has to do with Protest ant Churches seeking unity among themselves, and not necessarily with the Catholic Churc.t, though there have heen evidences that they would like to have the Catholic Church united with them in some way. Nearly twenty Protestant denominations are involved in some sort of unity effort. Some merger moves are actually going on. Congregational Chris tian churches and the Evangelical and Reformed Church are arranging a inion four Lutheran bodies are going to vote on unification and the Unitarian and Universalis! churches have already united some of their activities. Several years ago a Conference on Church Union was formed to work for the ulti mate goal of unity among nine hodic* with about sixteen million members. To the observer history the philosophical thinking back of all this must seem in direct con trast tn the position of individualism in belief as propounded by the demand for private interpre tation of the Bible. Be that as it may. there is a decided and growing trend for unity. It will lake a lot of patience, and a superabundant dose of char ity. Catholics can do no better than continue throughout the year the prayer of the Chair Unity Octave. Seventy Days Before Easier Septuagcsima Sunday ushers in the Easier Cycle in the Church’s liturgical calendar Roughly speak ing. there arc seventy days in this pre E ister period which begins with Sepliiagesimn Sunday Septua gcsima means seventy The Christmas cycle ends, and the devout Christian soul turns in contempla tion to Christ in His passion, death, resurrection, and eternal glorification. The Easter cycle, in other words, is not just the penitential struggle of the “seventy days” before the feast ot Christ’s Resur rection It includes the victory and glorification that follows Through struggle to victory is the universal law Applying this to himself, the Chris tian understands that through suffering, tribulation, and death he achieves self-mastery, resurrection, and life The struggle against evil waged cour ageously in this life will bring the soul to the resurrection and eternal life in heaven In the early Church it was the custom on Sep fuagesima Sunday to select the candidates who were to receive Baptism at Easter. Baptism means dying to sin that we might rise to unity with Christ. The penitential season of pre-lx*nl and Lent serve the soul to renew its efforts to accompany Christ on His sorrowful journey to accompany Him through His struggles to victory Having accuitteil ourselves manfully in the struggle for the glory o* God, we cannot help hut come eventually to a glorious vic forv and to a blessed Easter. Just as Scptuagesima and tx’iit lead through penance Io the victory of Faster and the glorification of Christ so the struggle of a Lie snent for God of necessity leads to resur rection with Him, an eternity nf glory Readers of the (^atliolie Press The Catholic Press depends upon reader sup port To be successful, it must have readers. What needs emphasis, however, is the fact that readers need the Catholic. Press. That fact has been given such emphasis by Bishop Thomas K Gorman, episcopal chairman of the N W.C. press department, in his statement nn the usual observance of Catholic Press Month during February Bishop Gorman, an experienced editor himself, said “Our Catholic Pr.ss needs more dedicated reader support." “More dedicated reader support.” according to the Bishop’s explanation, means more than increas ed subscription lists, though increase in circulation is necessary if our newspapers and magazines are ever to have an adequate measure of impact even on Catholic opinion.” It means an increase in the number of readers, who understand their own need of Catholic reading. I* means readers who read the Catholic Press because they enjoy the read ing. because tbev profit from it and because they want what only the Catholic Press has to offer. Every parish priest knows that too many homes never have even the Incal diocr*an paper inside the door. He knows, as Bishop Gnrman pointed nut, that the Catholic Press has too many indifferent subscribers: people who take the diocesan paper out of some sense of duty, hut rarely, if ever, read it. And he readily agrees that the purpose of the Catholic Press is defeated by non-reading subscribers as well as by non-subscribers. The cultivation of reader interest in the Catholic Press will result from good reading habits of Ca tholics themselves. Generally speaking, these hab its will not just grow up overnight. They must be developed, particularly among the young people, by proper training in the home, jn Catholic schools and colleges and in all Catholic organizations. The necessity of the formation of these habits justifies a continuous campaign, in the Catholic Press itself and from the pulpit, stressing the individual Ca tholic’s need of Catholic reading. We consider, therefore, most practical the final recommendation of Bishop Gorman’s message. “Re solve this Press Month,” he concluded, "to make yourself a reader-supporter, thirsty for the refresh ing waters of the truths of Faith a»d ready with the jrelpiriR, co-operating word and deed. It’s your Catholic Press. Learn to want it as you need it. Begin tn support it as you should and its needs.”— The Tablet. Just Among Ourselves Passing Comment Considered or Inconsiderate When people forsake the ways of God, rejecting the guidance of the one true Church in faith and morals, they inevitably turn to a false religion, usually a religion of materialism, convenience, and pseudo-sociology. They refuse the strong food of eternity for the husks of time. They turn from the Cross of Christ to the soft arm-chair of sensual ease. They scorn the use of penance (without which, on Our Lord’s own authority, all men will perish) and proclaim the gospel of self-indulgence. When a person abandons the acts and ideals of Christian living, we are sorry for him, and hope that he will accept God’s grace to return to spir itual sanity. But when he abandons Christianity for its opposite, and then declares that his abcr ation indicates the true Christianity, we feel not only sorrow for him but contempt. For a weak and mistaken man, there is pity. I1 or a plain shyster, faker, and chai Iatan, there can only be derision— and abhorrence. The thing called birth-control (which one sane critic has described as “fewer births and no con trol”) has been agitated for a long time by those who frankly disregard the requirements of Chris tian morality. It takes the form of “family plan ning” among those who dislike the harshe term of "birth control.” For, while it might appear pre sumptuous for a person to assume control, there is always a suggestion of wisdom in planning. There is a legitimate way in which married couples may control the flow of offspring this is the way of chaste abstaining from the operation divinely planned for procreation. This is the way, and the only way, in which it is lawful to control births or plan families. And this way ot control is lawfully used only when spouses freely agree to abstain, and when such abstentation involves no serious Sanger of incontinence in either party. Why, after all, do couples marry? They marry, first and foremost, to have children. The attraction which draws them emotionally or romantically together springs, biologically, out of the drive to propagate. That is the way in which God has con stituted His children. And, since they are rational creatures, they are expected to act reasonably, using God’s ^race, accepting responsibility, taking the natural outcome of the important and sacred acts which they freely choose to perform. They are not expected, like moronic children, to think they can have their cake and eat it too. In a word. Christian virtue involves, in every case, a constant prudent restraint. What is char acteristic of every virtue, is manifestly character istic of marital virtue. Without restraint, marriage is quickly divested ol the mutual respect which is the foundation of real love it ceases to be a source of happiness for the spouses it tends to become a sheer burden Without restraint, marriage tends towards disappointment, disgust, and divorce Now, the soul of the Planned Parenthood idea, that is, of the birth control movement, is the throwing aside of all restraint. In an age which is aware of the keen need of fidelity, domestic peace, and strong home life, the Planners and Controllers seek Io attain these line objectives hy means which inexorably work for their destruction. They arc like mad physicians who would prescribe carbolic acid for an upset stomach, and cyanide to insure free dom from headache. And, since the surviving elements of Christian ity in the nonCatholic world arc all in conflict with the purposes of the Planners and Controllers, these persons are ever eager to have some churchman speak lor their cause in the very name ol the Chris tianity which they offend And such churchmen are not hard Io find The latest discovery of the sort is the Very Reverend Deai^ of the Protestant Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City, a man by the name of James A. Pike, This gentleman with a wide-gapped clerical vest talks piously of the duty of parents to share “God’s creative process” But they share it on their own terms, not God’s, according to this churchman's ad vice. They have, the clergyman declares, to “think through the responsibility of having children in the light of all factors operating ii their particular situation from time to time" One might suppose that the sane couple had "thoi ght through” this question before they decided to marry and mar riage declared to the world that they had "thought through” the matter and had reached their change less decision Otherwise, why did they marry? Now. says the Pike, birth-control is “a positive duly" when parents-potential “think through" the business and decide that they should nut have a child at this time or that. \nd does the gentleman of the cloth then declare that the spouses arc to practise continence for a time’’ Far from it. His brand of Christianity ignores the laws of God and reason and declares that when the thinking through process indicates avoidance of offspring, "we must make it very clear that it is licit to use contraceptives You can have respect for a sinner who is cour ageous enough to stand by his sin. But you cannot respect the faker who proposes his sin as a virtuous act. You may tolerate the man who rejects Chris tian morality You cannot tolerate the shyster who trios to toll you that heathen morality is really Christian The man who says that sometimes it is the duty of spouses to avoid offspring might he tolerable in human society but when he says that this duly must not cost the spouses anything, but must leave them free to wallow in meaningless passion, he is not tolerable, even in the society of non human animals. Is it not strange that rational men do not see the obvious necessity of having in the world the infallible Voice of Christ speaking in His Church? Faith and morals (what is truth to be believed, and decency to be done) cannot be safeguarded hy Planners and Pikes. Faith and morals can be proclaimed and defended only by that institution to which the God Man said. “He that heareth you, heareth Me ... 1 am with you all days.” I WASHINGTON LETTER WASHINGTON—The proposal of General ot the Army Douglas MacArthur that the United States "should now proclaim our readiness to abolish war in con cert with the great powers of the world” recalls a particular point made by His Holiness Pope Pius XII in his latest Christmas Message. Speaking at a dinner sponsor ed by war veterans, the General said the result of such a procla mation “would be magical.” Al most at once, the great military leader sought to dispose of one of the arguments used by those who claim that peace “won’t work.” He said the abolition of war need not even rest on a system for the inter national in spection of arms. He believes, he said, that public opinion and the impressive gains enjoyed by a peaceful world would insure it. This comes hack to the point that the people of the world, as distinct from their leaders, offer the most solid hope for peace in our time. In his Christinas Message, Pope Pius XII deplored the present state of affairs, which is a mere coexistence of various peoples based on fear, a "cold peace." Pointing out that proper co-cx istcnce must he based yi fear of God and rooted in truth. His Holiness said: LOUIS E. Ill DEM Considering our pride in our widespread education, ij amaz ing how easily the American nation succumbs to thought con trol from Mos cow. The guns and bombs ex ploding against the 'Faction Is lands proclaim once more the folly of our ac cepting "peace ful o e i s fence” as our program On January 20, the Daily Worker—referring to the Red capture of Yikiang— boldly comments: “The wresting of Yikiang from Chiang means removing one more world trouble spot." In that one sen tence, there flashy out the Red trickery involved in the whole idea of “peaceful coexistence.” It is nothing other than the de struction of the defenses of the United States on the installment plan, leading to the destruction of the United States itself. Every Yikiang captured by the Reds, every conquest by them in Indo-China, every maiming of Korea by their forces—in other words, every, act of Soviet war fare—is an act of “peace" in the Communist dictionary. Each new Soviet advance removes another "trouble spot," For, in Commun ist eyes, all non-Soviet areas are trouble spots. But the more that “peaceful coexistence” is thus demonstra ted to be a futile and fatal policy for the United States, the more do the majority of our outstand ing secular newspapers recom mend it. The New York Times of January 20 pursues this theme in urging the Nationalist Govern ment to enter into “any truce proposal that may come before Catholic Press Month A 4 #2- ■sis •V .-W Pope's Bridge of Truth Recalled “Now a bridge cannot be built in truth between these two sep arate worlds unless it be found ed on the human beings living in one and the other of these worlds, and not on their govern mental or social systems.” On (he day that General Mac Arthur spoke in Ixxs Angeles, ihere was a debate in the U. S. Senate herfc on a proposal to authorize the President to em ploy U.S. armed forces in de fending the security of For mosa. It was based on a message to Congress from another of our lop military heroes of modern times, who has now become Pres ident of the United States. Pres ident Eisenhower, who has ex pressed the devout hope that the United Nations may be aljle to settle peacefully the tension in the Pacific, told Congress that this country must be ready to fight if it is compelled to do so. The congressional debate on the Formosa resolution brought up recurrent expressions of fear that dictatorial leaders of peo ples might “stumble” into World War Hl. It is an often heard ex pression here that nations won’t rush into World War III, but will “stumble” into it. It is often heard here that dictators either don’t know when to stop, or can't slop, in their aggression, and that they offer an ever-present threat of "stumbling” into war. From Yalta to Yikiang the United Nations,” even though such a proposal might rob Formosa of its defenses. For it is the common practice of the Reds to accept a “truce,” or even propose ohe, only after they have attained a set military ob jective. Yet the Times solemnly suggests that if the Nationalists accept a hobbling “truce?’ it will “then be up to the Communists to show their colors, and the world will judge them by what they display not only in words but also in deeds/' One would think that the em inent New York newspaper con siders its readers to be children, that tl|py are not aware that the Communists "have shown their colors” all the way from Yalta to Yikiang. All of this was done with the assurance to the American people that if Soviet Russia "had friendly nations on its borders.” there would be “peace.*” It was precisely by these abject conces sions that expanded warfare was assured. And so it is today, with the continued surrender to the Kremlin’s slogan of “peaceful coexistence.” The 'Tactical Approach' The January issue of Political Affairs, indicating that it is en heartened hy our President’s “peace talk,” whips up the com rades to bring "the battle for peaceful coexistence” into the 84th Congress. Now, with our widespread education, why is it that editors of newspapers, professors in uni versities, and commentators on the air waves fail in any great measure to warn the American people of this “tactical ap proach”? It would seem that the White House and the mem bers of the Congress would he briefed each month at least on what our enemies arc proposing for their deceit. For this "tacti pV The question arises: How to reach the people when dictators are actively engaged in prevent ing them from knowing what goes on in the outside world? It is not an easy assignment, but the alternative of war or in ternational paralysis should be sufficient to spur the people to strive against great odds. In the field of international af fairs today there is a threaten ing. pushing attitude on the one hand and a yielding, coming-to terms posture on the other. Neither serves the cause of peace in the iong run. There is a mid dle course, but the one that lies before us today also is unsatis factory. It can lead to complete international paralysis. But, starting from a position that is neither too offensive nor too supine and building upon a spir itual foundation, it should be possible to construct a true and durable peace. Pope Pius exhorted statesmen “in that camp where it is not a crime to oppose error” to “have a greater confidence in themsel ves.” He said “they should give proof to others of a more firm courage in foiling the maneuvers of the obscure forces which are still trying to establish power hegemonies.” That would seem to be an out standing challenge of our day. Ruf the rewards arc great. cal approach” Is being worked out in the same cunning and calculating way that “peaceful coexistence” was foisted on us and also "the battle against McCarthyism” Directives Spelled Out What are the Communists proposing to do with the 84th Congress, in “the battle for peaceful coexistence”? I will quote the exact words of their directives: "1. Direct heavy fire against the immediate threat to peace: thjs Knowland-McCarthy-Radford clique." This means, it is added, that the Reds must work with those "who have illusions about Eisenhower." We know by this time what that indicates. It is a new call for infiltration of the Government, and for influencing the top echelons to retreat in the Far East and on any strong, forthright dealing with the Com munist menace at home. "2. Organize maximum pres sure on Eisenhower to imple ment his peace talk on specific issues Under this heading they demand a halt on West German rearmament, recognition of Red China, expansion of East-West trade. They also demand “the ousting of all war-now advo cates from appointive posts. By “war-now advocates" they mean, in their inverted jargon, those who want a strong stand against Soviet •ncirclement of the Unit ed States. Time For Rebuttal These are the orders to the Reds, and we shall see many reflections of them in the cur rent Congress and in Washing ton. It is time for a patriotic rebuttal. That can be made in no better way than by insisting on breaking off relations with Soviet Russia and. likewise, in urging the expansion of Con gressional investigations into subversion. MONSICHOR HIG&mS Inquiry Corner Lather Henley Q. When does the word “Ca tholic" first appear as applied to the Church? Is it in the Bible? Isn't "Roman” and “Ca tholic” a contradiction? A. The word itself is not used in the Bible as applied to the Church, but the idea of universal mission and authority is every where applied to it. ("Go into the whole world and preach the gospel to every creature"—Mark 16:15 Matthew 28:18-20 Luke 10:16 Acts 1:8) St. Ignatius of Antioch in about the year 110 A. D. first used the term as such, but it is the commonly accepted name for the Christian Church from that time on. St. Augustine uses the word as a synonym for the Church two hundred and forty times. "Roman” does not mean local or national, but sim ply refers to Rome as the center of the world wide Catholic Church. We use similar expres sions when we use Paris, Moscow or London as symbols of the respective countries. Q. Why did the Blessed Virgin have to be “purified” (Feast of the Purification)? Does the Churching of Women have the same penitential meaning? A. The Blessed Virgin did not “have to be” purified It was the Jewish law and custom and she conformed to it just as Christ conformed to the observance of the Jewish law. It was part of God’s plan that the Holy Family should observe all the ordinary ways of their people, both as an example of obedience to us and to preserve the secret of Christ’s divinity. Until the "hour” es tablished by God should arrive the Holy Family was to live in obscurity. The Churching of Women, as anyone can see from the text of the sacramental blessing, is not penitential but is a beautiful blessing with prayers of thanksgiving and of petition for mother and child. It is a misconception to regard the ceremony as a kind of reflection on the bearing of children. Q. What should be done about a wedding ring which is damaged and must be replated What if it is lost and must be replaced? A. If the ring is simply re paired or replated the blessing remains. A sacramental does not lose its blessing so long as no major or substantial change in it is made. If it is replaced, however, the new ring would have to be blessed. The form of this blessing is that taken from the marriage ritual. During the week of January 16, as coincidence would have it two nationally syndicated col umnists seldom found on the same side of the polit i a 1 street West, brook Peg 1 e and Dor o y o son— u n e xpectedly agreed with one ano e that something ought to be done to cut the American labor movement down to size. Not unexpectedly, Mr. Pegler’s diagnosis of the ills of American trade unionism and his prescrip tion for their remedy were more extreme than Miss Thompson’s. He has little taste, and even less facility, for making distinctions between good, bad and indiffer ent unions and union leaders. “Unionism.” he says—in a gen eralization to which a really good reporter would have been asham ed to sign his name—"is still a predatory racket, absolutely hos tile to the constitutional guaran tees and to human dignity and freedom." "How Do You Mean 'Drastically'? On the other hand, it does come as a mild surprise to find Dorothy Thompson edging up, however guardedly, to a conclu sion disappointingly close to Mr. Pegler’s thesis with regard to un ions. Unlike Mr. Pegler, Miss Thompson is not opposed to un ions as a matter of principle. On the contrary, she believes that when they were established, they were a necessary and inevitable means of defending the working people of the United States against the injustices then pre vailing in our economic system. She makes this point very force fully, indeed. Presumably Miss Thompson is still in favor of unions. But in the second half of her column she unexpectedly suggests that the function of unions—all un ions, apparently, good, bad and indifferent—ought to be drasti cally curtailed. How, she does not say. Perhaps she will return to this point in another column. If so, she ought to ask heiself and tell her readers whether or not and how we, the people of a free courftry, can drastically curtail the functions of the American labor movement with out slipping into some form of totalitarianism. Two Reasons Given Meanwhile Miss Thompson does tell us “why.” in her opin ion. the function of unions ought to be drastically reduced. She gives twn reasons. One is that union leaders at the present time "often” exercise “arbitrary Q. Can one ever he forgiven for the sin of birth-control by making a good confession and having true sorrow for the sins? A. Certainly. True sorrow and a firm purpose of amendment entitles the penitant to forgive ness for any sin whatsoever. When a Catholic approaches the priest who acts for Christ in confession he finds the same forgiveness that Christ extended to the sinner. It would be a bad confession if the person were not truly sorry or had no inten tion of amending his life, but it the person is truly sorry he will include a resolution to avoid the sin in the future. Q. What is the history of Ca non Law? How old is it? A. It is as old as the Church, for it is the application of Christ’s teachings to practical and particular situations. (“He who hears you, hears me and he who rejects me, rejects him who sent me.” Luke 10:16) Un til the Middle Ages it wai generally left in great part to the bishops within the dioceses and to particular councils, but there were always general laws, established by General Councils and by the Popes. In 1150 Gra tian, a monk and a professor at the University of Bologna, made a comprehensive collection of the many particular decrees of dioceses and particular councils. In 1904 St- Pius appointed a commission to make a new com prehensive and official edition of Church Law. It was formally issued in 1918 and in 2414 Ca nons or rules and it states the formal, official law of the Church. Qr What is the origin of the name Douay which is attached to the Catholic Bible? A. Because of the persecution of the Church in England under Queen Elizabeth the great Eng lish translation was made ip Flanders. English priests in exile brought out the New Testa ment translation in Rheims in 1582 and the Old Testament in Douay, completing the work, in 1610. It was extensively revised by Bishop Chailoner in the eighteenth century. In recent years new translations have been made directly from the Latin Vulgate and from the original languages, independent of the Douay translation. Send questions to Father Ed ward F. Healey, Inquiry Corner, The Catholic Times, Box 836, Columbus (16) Ohio. Curtailing the Unions power.” It would have been more accurate to say that “some” la bor leaders sometimes exercise arbitrary power, and that they sometimes do so in collusion with “some” employers. The extent or the scope of un ion functions is not the cause of the specific evil which Miss Thompson is hoping to remedy. On the contrary, there is good reason to believe that if unions were given more functions to perform, they and their leaders would become more rather than less responsible, more rather than less concerned with the gen eral welfare. This is the prevail ing. though not of course the unanimous, opinion among ex perts in the field of industrial relations—particularly, it would seem, among the Catholic schol ars who have written on the subject. Miss Thompson’s second rea son for recommending that the function of unions be drastically curtailed is even less convincing. Her second reason is that the la bor movement, which originated as a weapon of defense against' the injustices of old-fashioned capitalism, “still bears the marks of its origin” and is still im bued with the philosophy of class conflict. “Its spirit,” she says, “is still directed in large mea sure against ‘capitalism’ even though the interests of workers and their leaders are involved in its maintenance. It still envisages ‘the workers' as a class apart from the rest of society. It has a vested interest in maintaining the existence of the ‘proletariat’ instead of seeking its abolition.” Dangerous Interpretation This opinion cannot be refuted by the present writer any more than it can be proved by Miss Thompson in the short space of a single column. We would merely say, therefore, that to the best of our knowl edge there are few if any stu dents of industrial and labor re lations in the United States who would agree with this. But suppose, for the sake of the argument, that Miss Thomp son is right and the experts are wrong about the character or the philosophy of conte o a y American unions. Suppose, in other words, that American un ions are really committed (as they are not, in our opinion) to the philosophy of class conflict. This, it seems to us. would be an added argument in favor of widening, rather than restricting, the extent or the scope of their functions. Miss Thompson’s rec ommendation the drastic cur tailment of their functions— could only be expected to make them even more anti-capitalist, more class-conscious, more op posed to industrial progress than they are mistakenly alleged to be at the present time.