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4—THE CATHOLIC TIMES
Friday, February 18.1955 THE CATHOLIC TIMES Published Every Week by The Catholic Times, Inc. Columbus. Ohio NOTICE: Send All Changes of Address to P. 0. Rox 636 Columbus. Ohio Executive and Editorial Offices: 246 E. Town Street, Columbus 15. Ohio Address all communications for publication to P. O. Box 636 Columbus 16. Ohio Telephones: CA. 4-5195 CA. 4-5196 Trie* of Th? Catholic Tim?s i« IS per vrar. All Mihscription* should he presented to our office through the pastors of the parishes. Remittance* should h» niad*1 payable to the sth« 1 ir Times. Anonymous rnmmunical ions will he nisregMrdeo. W do not hold ourselves reeponaihle for any view, nr opinions expressed in the communications of our r°F.nteredfle» 's* Second Class Matter at Poet Offiee, Cnlumbua Ohio. St. Franeta dr Sales. Patron of the Catholic Press, Fray for us! This Paper Printed by Union Labor Christian Warfan* rime The holy season nf Lent can truly be described as the time of Christian warfare It is a time ot last, ing and penance, and hence, of interior purifica tion and spiritual renewal. It focuses attention upon the early doctrine of the two ways, the way of lit*' and the wav of death. Happy is he who fears God, hut woe to the godless. It is the purpose of lenl to enable the soul to wage battle against all inclination to follow the godless way and to renew and strengthen its resolution to seek only God. This doctrine of the two ways was dear to the parly Church. We see it in the Communion chants hy Pope Gregory I for the workdays of l*nt. He used the first twenty-six psalms in numerical order. Fhe first psalm, called the “preface of the Holy Ghost" hy St. Jerome, outlines the central theme of the majority of the psalms, which is indeed the doctrine of the two ways. It is, therefore an admir able choice for the beginning of l*nt. The deeper significance of Lent then, is in the conflict between spirits, the gigantic struggle between light and darkness. It is the purpose of lxnt. not merely to instruct through the riches of the liturgy of this holy season, but especially to renew the Church and souls individually in grace. It is a time, as it were, of second baptism. Just as Baptism gives spiritual life to the soul, so also Ihrough penance and self-denial the soul is again turned from sin, strengthened in virtue and re stored tn a life of grace or given an increase in grace. The first sad Ash Wednesday was in the garden of paradise when Almighty God spoke to Adam and Eve in these words “Remember, man. that thou art dust!" The ashes used today are obtained from the olive branches blessed on the preceding Palm Sunday The ceremony is merely a relic of the sol emn ritual performed by the bishop with public penitents Whoever had committed a grave, public sin was hound to submit to public penance at the beginning of l*nt This penance consisted primar ily in exclusion from the community's Eucharistic services, but also included prayer and penance. It was a moving ceremony. The penitent was given s penitential garb and his head strewn with ashes. The hishop would then lead him to the door of the church This “expulsion’’ served as a stern warning tn all the faithful. During the centuries the Church mitigated her penitential discipline. During the Middle Ages it became the custom for the faithful at large to vol untarily dedicate themselves to various penances hy receiving the sacred ashes Charlemagne was among the nohilitv who gave good example in joining the throng and barefoot asked for the sacred dust. Such is the custom to this day, and Christians everywhere will take courage for their spiritual warfare against the powers of darkness by receiv ing the cross of ashes and listening to the warning: “Remember, man, that thou art dust, and unto dust thou shall return'" Labor Union Merger It is cheering news to Americans to learn of the harmony finally arranged between the two great labor organizations, the American Federation of labor and the Congress ot Industrial Organiza tions. This has long been desired One evil, at least should he ended with the merger of the two groups viz., strikes called because of conflict between the two unions Surely now it can be hoped that man agement will not be placed “in the middle" because nf differences between labor groups. Without doubt there is another benefit to be ex pected from the new harmony With labor's forces now united, their position becomes stronger. And this has come at a time when efforts to weaken and destroy unions have made quite some headway. What are called “right-to-work" laws have been enacted in several states, and are being considered in others. Such laws prohibit the union from de manding union membership as a condition for em ployment. With some study it can be seen that this would lead to an effective breaking of unionism. It would he a short sighted policy for management to espouse the movement to enact “back to-work" laws. This is not to condone abuses in a union. The remedy for them is not to be found in destroying (he union Attack fhe abuse but do not destroy the union itself Other associations exercise their right to draw up regulations for their members. This is true in medical and legal professions, and in leaching. So also the laborer automatically ac cepts definite obligations and responsibilities when he accepts a job. And the greater the num her of his fellow-workers, the greater may be the number of regulations for mutual security, and for the security and welfare of the whole industry, including the employer 'The individual must sub mit to these rules. It follows, that if employer and union agiee n collective bargmning that union security is necessary for bettei relationships, then any future laborer coming to that place of employ ment must also accept the condition of union security. Ihe President Korgels Us The President’s Message to Congress asking for aid for schools was outstanding, if not tragic, in Its omission of all reference to non-tax-supported schools. It is significant that not a single school, other than tax-supported, will benefit from his plan if Congress accepts it. This is tragic news to millions of American citi zens, loyal and true They wonder how the Presi dent could forget. They are not forgotten hy the tax collector. Nor are their sons forgotten by the President when he issues his special invitations to serve their country in the armed forces. The Pres ident seems to put much stock in religion and prayer, but quite evidently has concluded that re ligion must not be mixed with the intellectual train ing of the nation’s youth By his neglect of this great mass of American children he is placing a premium on education without religion. It is our experience that the nonCatholic peo ple of this nation arc quite appreciative of the pri vate non-tax-supported school. Very few of them see any danger to the nation in such schools on Ihe contrary, millions of them would welcome the opportunity, if they could afford it, to place their nun children in these very schools so that they might receive moral as well as intellectual train ing. The question ought to be pointedly asked and answered: Who leads the campaign to keep the Ca tholic children of this nation in the position of second rate citizens, or as some sort of step-children when it comes to enjoying the aid of the government in education? Yes, who are the leaders? They defin itely are not our non-Catholic neighbors of our local communities with whom we live and work. If the government is to discriminate against the great segment of privately conducted public schools, then the government must accept the con clusion that it stands in favor of tax-supported schools only, and has no time for the children as such of the people who help to pay the taxes. “If you want help, get in the tax-supported schools,’’ is what the President says in effect. He cannot es cape that. Will he forget us if he succeeds with his pct UMT plan? It's not likely. Congress, thank God. has never adopted such a position. It remains to be seen whether or not a Congress which has always given aid to the citizen as such will now adopt a new principle of aiding only those who line up under the government di rected type of education. America is the only great nation, other than those behind the Iron Curtain, that does not help privately conducted non-tax-supported schools. Just Among Ourselves Pasting Comment Considered or Inconsiderate “The world has few greater pleasures than that which two friends enjoy in tracing back, at»some distant time, those transactions and events through which they have passed together. One of the old man’s miseries is that he cannot easily find a com panion able to partake with him of the past.” Thus wrote Doctor Samuel Johnson, on Febru ary 3, 1778, in a letter to his friend Saunders Welch. Esq., who was traveling in Italy with his daughter Anne. Dr. Johnson felt that the travelers would have much satisfaction in reminding each other later of incidents of the trip. He wrote, "You (Mr. Welch) have traveled with this felicity .... that your companion is not to part from you at your journey’s end, but you are to live together, to help each other's recollections and to supply each other’s omissions.” All very true, no doubt. And yet it is to he considered that the great pleasure in store for the traveling father and daughter during subsequent years is likely enough to be anything but a pleas ure to their kinsfolk and acquaintance. Can't you easily imagine a neighbor remarking,—after the Welches have come home, and have had a year or two in which to ripen and enrich their memories, —‘They are fine people,—if only they would give over that everlasting rehash of 1heir continental trip?" Can’t you hear this, “It's got so that I feel like running every time I catch sight of old Saun ders Welch. If I’ve got to listen to his description of Hadrian’s tomb once more, I'll scream." As for supplying omissions and helping each other’s recollections, it is an established fact in human experience (or unnose we use the current jargon and say “in social relations") that such supplying and helping comes to mere bickering and disagreement. Welch, Sr., will say,—beaming upon the stricken company,—“Anne, you recall that red headed hackman we had the argument with in Milan?" And daughter will answer, “That wasn’t in Milan, father it was in Verona. 1 remember, because it was the day after you discovered that you had been taken in by that Veronese art dealer, and you were in the mood to argue with everyone it wasn’t really Ihe hackman's fault." “Nonsense,” cries Welch pore, “1 bought that chromo in Florence a full month later, and it’s not just of you to say that I was taken in I had my doubts about the picture from the first." “You had doubts! Is that why you talked about that ghastly daub as though you had made the discovery of the century, and would only have to take it to the Ixtuvre to trade, all even, for the Mona Lisa?” Thus will go on the “supplying of each other’s omissions and the helping of each other’s recollec tions." And the unhappy auditory will never learn the one thing of interest that the discussion, or wrangle, seemed Io promise. They will never know what the red headed hackman said. Dr. Johnson correctly said that l»eo friends enjoy recalling things they have experienced together. He said nothing whatever about the friends of the two friends. Whittier thought a few “dear and early friends” would enjoy his wintry recollections, and would sit with him al the house hold hearth And stretch the hands of memory forth To warm them at the wood-fire's hlaze. Rut printed recalls are without fault no one needs attend them unless he choose. Rut travelers are really the least irksome nf those who insist upon telling and telling and telling again the incidents, factual or fabricated, of their experience. The true masters in this type of social torture are old college chums—persons who have been at boarding school together in time past. Put a pair of these lads in'o a company which knows nothing of their early days, and watch the two take over. They will remind each other of endless things that never happened, and will dress up a few actual occurrences in smothering swaths of inartistic embroidery. Meanwhile people who may have something to say must kit silent, pondering, perhaps, the Johnsonian dictum: “The world has few greatet pleasures than that which two friends enjoy in tracing back, at some distant time, those transactions and events which they have passed together." “Remember old Fuzzy, the math teacher?” 'TH say 1 do what a guy! But Fuzzy didn't teach math he was in economics.” "Oh, yeah, that’s right.— economics and history." “No, he never taught his tory." “Yes be did. too. I had one history course under him,—Egyptian, 1 think it was, or maybe modern England,—yes, I think it was modern Eng land 1 recall something about King Arthur." “Well anyway. Fuzzy was quite a character quite a char acter Fuzzy was. I recall the day that Fats Brewer gave him the nice cigar, and Fuzzy hadn’t taken six puffs before the thing blew up in his face. 1’11 never forget Fuzzy’s expression of utter bewilderment. And you know, it was just that, just bewilderment, just astonishment not a trace in it of indigna tion or resentment.” “You’re loco, bud. Old Fuzzy had the temper of a wild cat meanest old bird on the campus. Resides, that Fats Rrewer incident is twisted some how. Old Fuzzy never smoked in his life. And I don't believe Fats Brewer ever gave a cigar, or anything else, to anyone at any time.—even a trick cigar. Fats Brewer was the world's tightest citizen." “Weil, anyhow, do you remember the time Fuzzy was sick? Solemnity and gloom all over the place sawdust on the pavement in front of Faculty House hourly reports from the bedside. And, after we had spent two days of bated breath with a tear in readiness, it turned out that what ailed Old Fuzzy was measles! Boy. what a joke that was!" You all know by dire experience that this imag inary chatter of old college chums is true to fact and unexaggerated. And you know too what such chatter can do to an otherwise pleased and pleasant com pany. In ten minutes, every nonchum is ready to curse Old Fuzzy and every measle on him. All this is just hy way of saying that there ought to be a “rider" on that sententious saying of John son about the pleasure of recollected experience. ,-z WASHINGTON LETTER WASHINGTON More than ever, "It’s a small world." The biggest news story here in some time—it held the front page for days and led reporters to seek comment from any respon sible person that might talk —originated some 5,000 miles away, in Moscow. It was the up heaval of the communist high command. At the same time, the events that are most vitally affecting the immediate future of the American people whether they are to have peace or war—are unfolding some 6,500 miles in the other direction, around For mosa. Word of the drastic change over among Kremlin leaders reached here early in the day. Leaders still assert that they do not know what it means, but that same afternoon the House of Representatives extended the draft law for another four years, with only four dissenting votes. Congress has been told that the United Nations Security Council has fallen largely into disuse insofar as enforcement is concerned." The chief cause of this, it is stated, is the “attitudes and policies of the Soviet Un ion." LOUIS E. RUDEXZ It may seem puzzling that the American Reds on the Formosa United Nations, ist China offi cially rejects the idea with scorn. A mo ment's reflec tion on Stalin ist tactics, however, w ill advise us that this is precise ly what could have been ex pected. It is a repetition of the “softening up” process which has so easily been practiced by Moscow on gullible American public opinion for the past twenty years. urge a decision question in the while Common- This procedure is a simple one. and that makes it all the more startling that the United States has proved susceptible to it so many times. Weight of Public Opinion The first step is for the Com munists and their friends in the non-Soviet nations, and specifi- cally in the United States, to bring pressure on Washington for action through the United Nations. And so it is that on January 27, the Daily Worker in its leading editorial applauds the stand of the New York Post and Americans for Democratic Ac tion in calling for a cease fire "under the auspices of the United Nations.” The'Stalinists and their allies are whipped up to deluge Congress and the White House with demands to “negotiate.” Thus it is that this editorial, which sets the pace for succeed ing utterances by the Red daily organ, concludes with this di rective: "Speak out now ror an end to this policy of interven tion and war (which the Daily World Events Shake Capitol A study made for the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations by a subcommittee on Enforce ment Action under the United Nations says “nations have sought elsewhere for means to bulwark their individual security in common defense against ag gression." This it is added, has led to an enlargement of the role of the UN General Assembly in enforcement and to the multi plication of regional defense or ganizations. The United Stales bas had a leading part in both of these de velopments. Secretary of State Dulles has said that one of the questions that might be brought before the upcoming conference to review the UN Chapter is, whether the General Assembly, where there is no veto, should be given great er responsibility for the main tenance of international peace and security. The Senate subcommittee study says “security is at the heart of the conflict between communist and free countries,” and for this reason “it is in this field that charter changes would seem the least likely to be ac cepted as long as the Organiza tion contains both camps and the unanimity of the permanent pow The Danger: Retreat From Asia Worker claims Eisenhower may embark upon). Wire and tele phone your Senators, and the White House to TALK with the Chinese, to NEGOTIATE a settlement of the present crisis." While Washington is flooded with such communications which our Senators and Repre sentatives will not recognize as coming from the Communist camp, since few of them follow Communist documents pa triotic Americans are counted upon to do nothing at all. The weight of what appears to be “American public opinion" will be thus favorable in Washing ton's eyes to “negotiating" with the Chinese Reds at any cost. 'Third War' Specter The next step by the Soviet fifth column is an inevitable one. It is to represent the American people as cringing with fear before the possibility of a “third world war." There fore, the Daily Worker tells its followers to spread this false piece of gossip: “There is a fear that if the President is authori zed to carry out the Knowland Radford-McCarthy program for war now with China, it may lead to a terrible conflagration, with frightful consequences for the world." The Red organ wants to see a “growing clamor for some alternative to this grizzly prospect." This is nothing other than the raising up of ghosts to frighten us, as though the American people were mere children. The Chinese Communists, w’ith their clumsy economy, will not dare to have a frontal war with the United States, nor will the whole Soviet world. If the White House were to stand firm, there would not he war but peace a peace which would be the beginning of grave ers is required for the adoption of amendments.” At the same lime, the study says, the United States must make up its mind “whether any changes in the charter in this vital field are desirable from our national point of view.” “Would the United States be willing, for example, to supply armed forces fnr a United Nations en forcement action of which we didn’t approve?” the study asks. “That,” it says, “could be a con sequence of at least some of the proposals for the elimination of the veto. Furthermore, would the United States be willing to assign enforcement functions beyond those of a voluntary na ture to a General Assembly in which it has only one out of 60 votes?” The study is bound to have considerable weight when Con gress gets down to discussing pro posed changes in the UN Char ter. The study expresses concern that the increases in regional de fense organizations may lead to “superpower blocs” outside the UN system. It asks if these re gional arrangements cannot be tied in with the UN, and if such a step is desirable. It looks like decisions to amend, or not to amend, the UN Charter, will not come easy. difficulties for Soviet control of the subject peoples. The Tip-Off The only time that the Chinese Communists, or any other Soviet clique, would dare risk warfare with the United States would be when they are “tipped off” by their agents in Washington that we will deliberately lose any such war. That this occurred in Korea is now beyond doubt. Anyone who reads the sworn testimony of our commanders in the Pacific will recognize that the State De partment lost that war, and thereby changed the face of Asia. You may read excerpts of this testimony in the February 11 issue of United States News and World Report. It confirms the fact that the United States is being defeated by propaganda from within and by official policies which yield to that pro paganda. The Stalinist tactic of frighten ing us to death, and then per suading us to acquiesce in our own defeats, is already register ing gains around Formosa. The eyes of all Asia are on us, and all Asia sees that we are in retreat. The effect on Japan, in Korea, and throughout that con tinent cannot be favorable to us. Meanwhile, the Chinese Com munists will press for other re treats on our part, constantly threatening us with war and never intending to wage it. Eventually they hope to "•force” us to agree to the complete betrayal of Formosa, in which the United Nations might play a part. To prevent such a ca lamity, Americans have an obli gation to speak out. insisting that Washington (ake a strong stand right now, and break off relations with Soviet Russia. Inquiry Corner Eat her Q. Is there, any official Church teaching on the pains of Pur gatory? A. In 1520 the Church con demned the teaching of Luther that Purgatory was taken care of by imperfect charity and con sequent fear of a person about to die. The Church further teaches that punishment (tem poral as opposed to eternal in hell) is the lot of a person dying with venial sins upon his soul or unexpiated mortal sin (al though forgiven). In 1351 Pope Clement VI clearly taught that there was pain from fire for a time (“igne crucientur ad tern pus”) in Purgatory. It is the teaching of the Church that Pur gatory ends when satisfaction has been made by the individual and that it ends entirely at the end of the world, yielding to the General Judgment. St. Paul re fers to it when he states: “The fire will assay the quality of everyone's work if his work abides which he has built there on, he will receive reward if his work burns he will lose his re ward, but himself will be saved, yet so as through fire." (I Corin thians 3:13-15) Q. Would it be right for citi zens to take the law into their own hands when public officials are in league with criminals, making it impossible to obtain justice, as in the case mentioned in a recent magazine? A. Ordinarily not. It is never permissible for a private person to undertake the punishment of another, especially in more seri ous matters (e g. capital punish ment). A group of private persons seen at its worst in a mob) has no more authority than one indi vidual. When a group of private citizens judge that it is impossi ble to gain justice and the com mon good of the people is suffer ing they may establish some soi of provisional government or au thority in place of that which is clearly and seriously unjust. Ap peals to higher branches of gov ernment, to public opinion through the press, etc., should be made before any form of gov ernment or authority is displac ed. Our Declaration of Indepen dence indicates the principles for we are “endowed by Creator with certain unalienable Rights That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Govern men While it is possible for an in- MONSIGNOR HIGGINS A Challenge Lincoln’s Birthday was the 36th anniversary of the Bishops’ Program of Social Reconstruction —perhaps the most important single docu ment and the most signifi cant landmark in the history of the Catholic social move ment in the United States. The week im mediately pre ceding this an niversary saw the publication of a scholarly book by James W. Prolhro. This book, better than almost any other recent publication of its kind, recreates the economic and political atmosphere which pre vailed in the LTnited States at the time the Bishops’ Program was issued and for a decade thereafter. Dr. Prothro calls it “The Dollar Decade”—also the title he has chosen for his schol arly analysis of the “business ideas” of that ill-fated period of false prosperity. False Philosophy of the Twenties The “business ideas” of the '20s to the extent that they are accurately summarized by Dr. Prothro were completely at odds with those of the Bishops’ Program. The dominant philoso phy of that period was laissez faire economic individualism unrestrained in any way by gov ernment or by the few strug gling unions which had man aged to come into existence against tremendous odds. The Bishops’ Program explicitly chal lenged this false philosophy of economic life. Government was called upon to enact specific laws designed to alleviate, if not to eradicate, the injustices spawned by the philosophy of laissez faire. The Bishops’ eleven proposals were based on the opposite principle —as expressed by Pope Leo XIII three decades earlier that “if any injury has been done to ei ther the common good or the in terests of individual groups, which injury cannot in any oth er way be repaired or prevented, it is necessary for public authori ty to intervene.” This was the starting point of the Bishops’ Program. The sec ond principle and the one that really* went to the heart of the matter was this—again in the words of l^eo Xlll that “it is within the competence of the rulers of the State that, if they benefit other groups, they also improve in particular the condi tion of workers.” Too Much, Too Little? At least one reviewer has sug gested that Dr. Prothro’s hook seriously distorts the picture of the 20s. It is said to attach too pal py ..... 1 dividual to resist an unjust ag gressor, even to the taking of his life (in self-defense) where that is necessary, criminals have a right to “due process of law”. Action should be directed to a reform in government. Any ac tion “outside” the law could be excused only in the most unusual circumstances, only temporarily and only as a last resort. Q. Is there a Saint Robert? A. There are a number of saints of that name. Among the most famous is St. Robert, Abbot of the 11th century, who was the founder of the Cistercian Order. The Cistercians were a branch of the Benedictines, and a later reform of the Cistercians in the monastery of La Trappe in northern France has led to the modern name of Trappist. St. Robert Bellarmine was a bril liant scholar and reformer of the 17th century. He was creat ed a Cardinal in 1598 and was a great leader in the Catholic Reformation. His feast day is September 17th. He was canon ized in 1930. Q. What are some of the reg ulations regarding the election of a new pope? A. By order of Pope Pius XI the cardinals must meet in con clave within fifteen to eighteen days after the death of the Rom an Pontiff. Pope Gregory in troduced the law of conclave in 1274 whereby the cardinals con duct the sessions in isolation and secrecy, nothing of the sessions being published until the new pope has been chosen. It is sim ilar to our "locked-up” jury. A two-thirds majority is required and the cardinal chosen (al. though strictly speaking any male Catholic could be chosen) accept, and chooses the name by which he will be known. Q. Is there a St. Conrad? A. St. Conrad, bishop of Con stance in Switzerland, was noted for his zeal and love of the peo ple. He died in 176 A. D. and was canonized in 1120 A. D. St. Conrad of Piacenza in Italy was a nobleman who was beggared by a hunting accident and with his wife left the world for contem plation. His holiness brought many to visit him so he left for Sicily where he finished his life in prayer and in care of the sick in the hospital at Noto. He died in 1351. Send questions Io Father Ed ward F. Healey, Inquiry Corner, The Catholic Times, Box 636. Co lumbus (16) Ohio. much importance to ultra-reac tionary statements made by cer tain spokesmen for the business community during that period. These men, the reviewer says, were the extremists of their day they were the exception rather than the rule. Whether or not this is true, the opposite criticism might be leveled against another book, “Economics and the Art of Con troversy,” which was also pub lished during the week immedi ately preceding the recent anni versary of the Bishops’ Program. The author of this book, John K. Galbraith of Harvard University, is one of the nation’s leading economists and, incidentally, one of the best literary stylists in the economics profession. If anything, Dr. Galbraith at taches too little importance to the extremists of our own gener ation. Take the case of The Free man magazine as a timely exam ple. Just a few days before the anniversary of the Bishops’ Pro gram, The Freeman announced in a long editorial that the av erage Republican and the aver age Democrat you and I, in other words have done more to bring Communism (not Social ism, but Communism) to the United States than all the card carrying members of the Com munist Party put together. Com munism. in The Freeman’s dic ionary, is synonymous with gov ernment controls presumably any kind of government controls and any degree of government intervention in economic life, however slight. According to this definition, every one of the elev en proposals in the Bishops’ Pro gram is Communistic. Catholic Social Ethics In Dr. Galbraith’s opinion, this sort of extremism is not to he taken very seriously. The over whelming majority of Americans, according to Galbraith, are in fa vor of collective bargaining, price supports for farmers, and whatever degree of government action might be necessary to forestall another depression. This, surely, is a challenge to the Catholic businessmen in the United States, some of whom, in a few cities, have already organ ized their own associations. As the number of these associations increases, perhaps they will find it possible to pyblish a periodi cal of their own which will ef fectively represent the Catholic point of view in matters of social ethics. We badly need at least one in the business field, if only to let the rest of the world know that extremist publications like Th« Freeman which now have the field pretty much to themselves —are not speaking for the Cath olic businessmen of this coun try.