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4—THE CATHOLIC TIMES
Friday. April 22.1955 THE CATHOLIC TIMES Published Every Week by The atholic Times. Inc Columbus. Ohio XOT1CE: Send All Changes of Address to P. O. Box 636 Columbus. Ohio Executive and Editorial Offices: 246 E. Tow n Street. Columbus 15. Ohio Address all communications for publication tn O Box 636 Cnlumbus 16 Ohio Telephones: CA 4-5195 CA 4-5196 Price n* Th* Catholic Timo in S* rear. AH wb»criptons. •hould h* presented to our offiet through th- r*M.or* nf fh- pari*ht». Rc’nittrnre* should be made payable to the Cath* Jlir Tim»» Anonymous communication* wiU he disregarded SVe d" not hold oursehee responsible for an riew» ar opinions erpreesed in the communications our eerrcsiMindents. Ent-r-4 Second Class Matter at Poat Office Cohtmhus Ohm. St. Francis de Sties. Patron of the Cathnhe Preaa, Prnj for us! This Paper Printed by Union Labor The Good Shepherd The second Sunday alfpt Easter is called, ar cording to th? ancient Christian custom, "Good Shepherd Sunday and thi liturgy breathes thd spirit of tranquil confidence which the title indi cates so fully in keeping with the Easter season. *T am 1he Good Shepherd Christ says of Himself in the Gospel, reminding His followers down through the centuries that they are to rely on His guid ance and protection, no matter what dangers threaten, no matter what temptations offer their deceptive attractions, no matter what confusion and darkness come over the wjrld around them. Amid lhe tut moil and doubts that prevail today, the pastoral serenity suggested by His words has a special appeal: we sense the quiet, open fields, bright under God's blue sky. with the kindly, watch ful shepherd leading His charges where they will find nourishing food and refreshing water, driving away any enemies that might attack 11 em. keeping the sheep from wandering into pitfalls or brambles or poisonous growths, hastening them into shelter when storms wise Wt are far, in actuality, from tins picture of peace and security. But the care offered by the Good Shepherd is not imaginary. “I know Mine and Mine know Me,’” is His reassuring reminder that His protecting solici tude reaches out into the noisy city streets no less than into the rural quietudes "and I lay down My life for My sheep To save His sheep, whether they were amid thv hills of Judea, or in the catacombs nf Rome, or in the clangorous industrial areas of today He did. indeed, lay dow n His life. "The earth is full of th»* mercy nf lhe Ijord.” the pslamist sings in the Introit nf Sunday’s Mass, in prophetic allusion to the mercy of the Good Shepherd, which fills the fields and the byways, the mines and the factories, every place where men live and labor and assemble, to call back those who are as “sheep going astray," sustaining those who are in distress, consoling those who are in sorrow. What joy and courage should fill tlfr hearts of the followers of the Good Shepherd, at the realiza tion that they are the objects nf His loving care! Particularly in this holy season, when His total sac rifice of Himself and His glorious triumph over sin and death are being commemorated, should we realize that should stay close to Him Whom St. Peter calls “the Shepherd and Guardian of your souls Hnw earrestly should we heed Hia counsels hnw willingly should we obey His commands! For thus we shall be helping, by example, to bring into His fold those "other sheep” for whom His heart yearns helping to speed the day when “there shall he one fold and one Shepherd Supreme Court Must Answer Soon Should the schools of the South hr required to end race segregation “forthwith"—next fall, or at the latest, the fall term if 1956. as spokesmen for the nations’ largest Negro organization contend? Should they be given extra time (or administrative and financial readjustment, but with no delay permitted “for the mere sake of delay," as the Department of Justice holds? Or should the States be allowed to work out the problem in their own way, with no time limit, as lawyers for the southern states request? These questions, and their various ramifications, ar? lhe ones the nine Justices of the United Stales Supreme Court are now concentrating their delib erations on. The high court has just wound up four days nf oral argument on how its decree of last May 17—declaring race segregation in the public schools unconstitutional— hould be put into effect. When it ruled that lhe "separate but equal" doc trine “has ho place” in the Ueld of public education, the tribunal called for a rehearing on implementa tion of the decision. Originally slated for last fall, the hearing was postponed indefinitely following the death oi Justice Robert H. Jackson and pend ing Senate confirmation of Justice John Harlan as his successm But even though the arguments were not heard until April, the Court is generally expected to issue its new decision before it ad journs for the summer. The Stale attorneys general involved all urged the court not to put any time limit on the desegre gation, holding that the cases should jt sent back to the local Federal district courts for action. Cir cumstances are so different from place Io place, they claimed, that only the local judges can fully understand lhe situation. Attorneys speaking in behalf of Negro children argued, however, that segregation should be ended immediately Thurgood Marshall, counsel for the National Association for the Advancement of Color ed People, said the least the Negroes should be a^ked to accept would desegregation hy Sep tcmbei, 1956. Disputing the contention of some States that a "forthwith” decree would lead to stolencr, Mi. Marshall said that once the law is made cleat, the people will obey, He said that the fact lu.t Catholic schools in such states as Texas and South Carolina had been integrated shows that it can be done. The Virginia spokesman,, Attorney General J. Lindsay Almond, Jr., held that integration in the Catholic schools has no bearing on the case. He said that only seven per cent of the parochial school children in his State are Negioes, and besides, the parochial schools are not tax-supported. Assistant Attorney General 1. Beverly l^ake of North Carolina said the chance that Negro and White children will be mingling in North Carolina’s schools in the near future i» “exceedingly remote” He held that the people »f North Carolina are con vinceri that the segregated school system is “a just school system," and the "only one that will work.” Justice Stanley Reed asked Mr. I^ke about the situation in North Carolina’s parochial schools. The State spokesman admitted that parochial schools sue integrated, but said that there are very few Catholics in North Carolina. (The most recent Official Catholic Directory gives a total Catholic population of North Carolina of some 33,000. w ith more than 5,000 enrolled in the Catholic elementary and high schools.) It was th* Department of Justice that called for a middle of the-Fnad policy between those suggest ed by the slates and tha NAACP. Solicitor General Simon Sobeloff. presenting the' Government argu ment ax a “friend of the court," said that the U.S. “rejected extremes on both aides” and offered "a counsel of moderation with firmness’” instead. He said that the cases could not rightly be consid ered “as a lump,” and «'.sked that the Supreme Court remand them to the District courts with guiding in structions, but witn no time limit. Mr. Sobeloff suggested that fhe high court set a deadline of 90 days for the local school boards involved to file a plan for integration with the District courts. Asserting that progress toward integration should not be delayed unduly because of racial attitudes of one area. Mr. Sobeloff de clared: "A Constitutional right ought not to depend upon a public opinion poll.” Just Among Ourselves Passing Comment Considered or Inconsiderate On next Wednesday, April 27. we celebrate the Solemn Feast of St. Joseph, Spouse of Our Lady, and Patron of the Universal Church. This feast is commonly called ‘‘the Solemnity of St. Joseph,” Io distinguish it from the other general commem oration of St. Joseph which occurs on March 19. The March 19 feast is one of the immovable type of festival, and it falls every year on this fixed date. The Solemnity of St. Joseph is a movable feast it falls on the Wednesday, of the second week after the Easter Octave. March 19 always falls in Lent sometimes this date occurs in Holy Week. It is suitable, therefore, that there should be mother feast of St. Joseph, in a season of triumph and joy. For this reason the Feast of the Solemnity has been established. For the same reason, the Feast of the Blessed Sacrament, celebrated on Holy Thursday in the very midst of the time of penance and sacred sorrow, is again observed just after the glorious paschal season, on the Thursday following Trinity Sunday this feast is called Corpus Christi. Special devotions develop in the Church with relative slowness. When the wonderful Faith was spread throughout the world, its essential articles, which we list in the Creed, claimed ‘he whole atten tion of tne faithful. Only when people had time, so to speak, to get used to the priceless treasure of tne Faith itself, could ‘hey turn active attention to the incidental beauties and values which it involves. The Blessed Mother is named in the Creed. It is impossible to have any knowledge of the Incar nation without some appreciation on the part Mary played in it. Therefore the veneration of the Blessed Virgin, and special demotions in her honor, were found in the lives and practices of the earliest Ca tholics. Special attention Io St. Joseph, with a deiailed awareness of the exalted place he holds in the economy of Redemption, came, in some sense, as an afterthought. And yet it came early, and logically, into the vie* of those who studied the Faith with loving appreciation. Fhr no one who considers the Gospel narrative nf the Incarnation can be long unaware of the just man who was spouse and protector of the Mother of God. and of the God-Man Himself in his early years on earth. We read of the Annunciation, jnd of Mary’? humble concurrence in the wifi of God who wrought great things in her. Then we hear of Jos eph. puzzled by lhe divine events of which he had not yet been fully informed thinking only of the safety rf his holy spouse proposing to "put her away" lest she be wrongly punished as an offender hearthg finally the word of God’s angel that what was conceived in Mary was of the Holy Ghost. f-. St. Joseph is part of the Gospel history which tells of lhe journey to Bethlehem for the census or “enrolling" which had been decreed by Caesar Au gustus. He is an important figure in the narrative of the flight into Egypt, and of the return to Naz areth He is mentioned prominently,—indeed by the Blessed Mother herself in one of the few sent ences given hy the Gospel in her own words,—at the finding of Our Lord in the Temple after the three sad days of loss. And after this event this first public appearance of Christ, and His first open declaration of His purpose in becoming man, -to be "about His Father’s business."—He went with Mary and Joseph to the home in Nazareth, “and was subject to them." He was subject, not only to Mary, but also to Joseph. Thus it is plain to the thoughtful believer that St. Joseph holds a high place indeed in the enact ing of the incarnation and the Redemption. Next to Mary, he is the first of mankind to be called into the gracious intimacy of the living Christ. Great and holy must he be who is chosen hy God to be the spouse of His dear Mother, and to be the companion and protector of the Incarnate Son. Mary said, "Hr who is mighty hath done groat things to me." Apart from the Incarnation itself, surely one of the “great things” was the support and consolation given to Mary in the dear saint who was her spouse, and who was divinely guided in his care of her and of her child. The hidden life of Our Lord lasted through thirty years. Some time during those years, St. Joseph died. We know from the first events of the Public Life of Christ that His foster father was no longer living. His death must have occurred in lhe presence of Joseph and T’ary. For this reason, St. Joseph is known as the patron of a happy death. We pray to him that he may beg God to grant us the great blessing of dying in the state of grace, so that we may come quickly into the heavenly presence of Jesus and Mary. St. Joseph is the Patron of the Universal Church. He who was the lover and guardian of the Savior, is surely intercessor for all whom the Savior came to save. His interest in souls, like that of his virginal spouse, is world w de. He is indeed named patron of many a ch.irch, and of countless individ uals whn bear his name. But above and beyond these individual services. St. Joseph is the patron nf all mankind, and “especially those who are nf the household of the faith." No one whn is truly devoted to St. Joseph can fail tn be devoted to Mary And no one devoted tn Mary ever fails in ardent devotion to Mary's Son who is God Himself. This holy couple ever close to Our Ixird, are powerful instruments to bring others close to Him. The devout Catholic is always a client of Mary he carries her rosary with him he prays it frequently. And he includes in his daily prayers a strong petition to St. Joseph for protection and guidance. We all have need of reminder, now and again, not only of duty but nf privilege. We need to be put in mind of the great spiritual opportunities ever available for our grasping. Our watchful mother, the Church, gives us needful prods tn mem ory and action by her prescribed days of festival. The Feast of the Solemnity of St. Joseph is meant to remind us,—not for one day or one octave, but for life.—of the rich so irve of spiritual benefits to be won through devotion to the foster-father of Our Lord. And doubtless the same Solemnity will stir us to humble sorrow for our past neglect of St. Jos eph. It is easy for fallen nature tn fail in spiritual appreciation and tn offend against common spir itual politeness. Maybe we have apologies to make to St Joseph. WASHINGTON LETTER WASHINGTON (NC)—With Free China facing possible immi nent attack, the people on For mosa are giving impressive testi mony to the popularity of their leader. President Chiang Kai Shek. This is attested in authorita tive reports reaching here. They say that whenever the General issimo's likeness is flashed on the screen of motion picture the aters on the island, there are unfailing and instantaneous out bursts of applause. This is con sidered doubly noteworthy:. First, because people everywhere are inclined to be quiet when shown a picture of any figure, however popular, that is seen frequently in the newsreels and also, because the Chinese them selves, in normal times, are re garded as being quite impassive. Catholic missionaries said that LOUIS F. RUDENZ In reading the New Times nf March 26, fresh from Moscow, one of G. K. Chesterton’s wise sayings comes to mind. In our day, journalism has been substi tuted for his tory, Chester ton remarks in the early pages of St. Francis of Assist. And it is the polit ical gossip which results in the United States, tht. ex e a s i o n of “opinio ns" without rela tionship to documentary facts, that the Communists rely upon in getting us to accept their world wide propaganda. The New Times takes advan tage of this political gossip to misrepresent the prosecution of the Red leaders in the United States. Commenting on the "rev elations" of Harvey Matusow, the inventor of the "stringless yo-yo" the Red international di rective organ says: "Everyone now understands that the perse cution of the Communist Party and progressive leaders in the United States is based on trumped up charges supported by deliberately false evidence of professional informers. Matu sow’s evidence can neither be refuted, destroyed, or hushed up." Scarcely could there be so many distorted statements made in one paragraph as in this direc tive in the Moscow' organ. It mis represents the American judicial system to the people of all coun tries, for these falsehoods will be spread by Red agents into newspapers of every nation, in cluding those of our alleged "allies.” Communist Trickery Explained The inclusion of "progressive leaders" with the Communists is the usual Red pattern nf making it appear that every champion of How's That Again? Formosans Back Generalissimo the people showed their high re gard for the Generalissimo as far back as 1937. At that time, when the Sian incident termi nated, and Chiang Kai-Shek was again at liberty, the joyous re action of the people was report ed to have been extraordinary. (The Sian incident refers to the kidnapping of Chiang Kai Shek by communists. He was taken to Sian and held in re straint for some time, while an effort was made to force an agreement from him.) The exploding firecra k e s were deafening, and a veteran missionary was moved to ob serve: "During my years in Chi na, I have never seen anything so spontaneous as this manifes tation nf joy at Chiang's re lease." Since then, it is pointed out, Chiang has been the fearless Taking Advantage of Gossip reforms is under fire because the Communists are being tried. Who these “progressive leaders’" are the New Timex does not state for a very simple reason— and that is that they capnot be listed. The “trumped up charges" are the reams of documentary evi dence presented in the Federal courts against the Communist conspiracy, based on the plans and purposes of that conspiracy itself. It is these documents, which the Soviet fifth column ront'mes to distribute for the overthrow of the Government of the United States, that have been denied to the American peo ple by so much of our daily press. Anyone who consults the de luxe edition of Stalin’s Problems of Leninism, to which I referred last week, will learn of the set plans of the Moscow conspiracy, toward which the Communists are constantly push ing. to overthrow the United States of America. Rut the New Times is confi dent of the acceptance of its falsehoods among the peoples of many countries because some of our owr. great newspapers have lent their aid in that direction. These newspapers—tossing aside the documentary evidence against the Communists give the impression that because Matusow says he lied, therefore every Government witness is a liar. This violates logic and real ity. The same journals do not contend that because Dr. J. Rob ert Oppenheimer admit he lied to the Government in order to protect Haakon Chevalier. Soviet espionage agent, therefore all scientists (or even all pro-Com munist scientists) are liars. Quite to the contrary, they use this as an excuse for Dr. Oppen heimer, even though the evi dence in his case was such as to cause a man of the judicial poise of Thomas E. Murray to de nounce him. Forewarned el Rad Danger There is an interesting observa leader of his people, through the Sino-Japanese war and in the struggle against the communist following. Persons familiar with China and Formosa said Chiang Kai Shek never doubted that the real danger to China was from Rus sia and the communists. He ap preciated this fact, they say, ev en before 1927, when he purged the Kuomintang Party of Reds who had infiltrated it, sent the Russian advisers home, and clos ed the Russian consulates in Chi na. These authorities on China add that Chiang never wavered in his fight on communism, de spite the fact that foreign ob servers and “advisers” were mis led hy talk of the Reds being merely “agrarian reformers.” The people of China, they add, appreciate this fact. tion that can be made about those have profited greatly hy that American newspapers which spread the fiction about "the in former system."’ and thus help to feed Communist propaganda against America among our “al lies." These are the same publi cations which cry out that “con sideration for our allies” must cause the United States to make one backward move after an other in the face of Soviet threats. They are busy right now in forwarding the effort to de lude us into abandoning Quemoy and Matsu, out of concern for our “allies’"—never telling us that this will lead to the fall of Formosa and to Red attacks on Korea and the Philippines. We are forewarned in the April 15 issue of United States News and World Report of how sharp the Red danger is in the latter islands. The American Communists great section of our daily press, often so susceptible to the Com munist line and which has now given prominence to the “inform er" distortions. William Z. Fos ter. head of the Soviet fifth col umn here, does not hesitate to assail Max Eastman as having joined the ranks of the "inform ers.” merely because Eastman now declares to the American people that Communism is bank rupt. Pope Pius XI said that 18 years ago, but now Eastman dis covers it for himself, despite his past history of having aided Marxism so vigorously in this country. The man now assailed as an "informer" has never gone on the witness stand for the Gov ernment. He has not been iden tified with any of the prosecu tions of the Communist leaders. But the conspiracy now sees a great opening for the opportun ity to brand any man who ex poses the emptiness of Red prom ises with an epithet which much nf the daily press has enabled the Stalinites to spread far and wide. Inquiry Corner Q. Is it superstitions to place confidence in the blessing of a car, trusting that it will pre vent accidents, etc.? A. Blessings such as the one mentioned are included in the Roman Ritual of the Church and are sacramentals. The proper use of sacramentals cannot be o n s i dered superstitious, but they are not magic. They do not guarantee results such as the prevention of all accidents and exaggerated belief in their pow er could be superstitious. The blessing includes these words: "Send Thy holy angels to deliv er and guard from every danger it (the car) and all who will ride in it.” Sacramentals have the power of our prayers and devo tion and the power of the bless ing of the Church, which means great and effective operations of God's omnipotence are to be ex pected in them. Effects that we should judge to be miraculous have been observed down through the centuries by those who made good and proper use of the sacramentals. Through them the Church sanctifies even the most ordinary objects we use in our daily lives, intending that her blessings should turn our minds and hearts to God when we use them. Q. How will the people on the Last Day get in their Purgatory? A. Since the Apostles Creed sneaks of Christ coming to judge "‘he living and the dead" it would seem to imply that some will not have any "length of time" in Purgatory. St. Paul speaks of the Second Coming say ing, “and the dead in Christ will rise up first. Then we who live, u'ho survive, shall be caught up together with them in clouds to meet the Lord in the air (I Thessalonians 4:17) Possibly the fear or suffering of the end of the world will make up the temporal punishment still due for those living at that time. If there is no reason why the pun ishment could not make up in intensity for its brief space in time. We can he sure that those needing the “purging" or cleans ing necessary before entering heaven will receive it. Q. How can anyone but God he infallible? I’m, a recent con vert and I’ve forgotten how the priest explained the infallibility of the Pope. A. Only God is infallible by His very nature. The absolutely infallible God can delegate a fallible human being an.. give him infallibility in his office un MONSIGNOR HOGGINS On April 1 the hospitable cam jus of the University of Notre Dame was the scene of a lively debate over a question which goes to the very heart of the United Father Healey...... ....... ■■■...- States foreign policy. 7 he juestion was: Should the United S a tes withdraw from .he Internation al Labor Or ganization now that the Soviet Union has been admitted as a ■W voting member of this, the oldest of the so-called specialized agencies of the United Nations? This question was answered in the negative by the Secretary of I^bor, James P. Mitchell, and George P. Delaney of the A. F. of L., worker representative in the U.S. delegation to the I.L.O. The affirmative was upheld by William McGrath, employer rep resentative in the U.S. delegation to the I.L.O. These three were the princi pal speakers at an inter-univer sity conference at Notre Dame on American participation and objectives in the I.L.O. The con ference which was jointly spon sored by Notre Dame and the U.S. Department of Labor and was attended by representatives of many colleges and universi ties the Midwest, was the first in a proposed series of univer ity seminars on this important subject. Participation Debated It was probably a good thing that the question of continued United States participation in the I.L.O. was openly and frank ly debated at the Notre Dame conference. with no holds barred. There is no point *in evading this issue or in playing it down merely for the sake of har mony. It ought to be resolved once and for all within the very near future—preferably before the I.L.O. holds its next plenary in Geneva. Switzerland, in the early part of the Summer. In our opinion, the issue ought be resolved in favor of continued, not to say more in tensive, United States participa tion in the I.L.O. The arguments advanced by Secretary Mitchell and Mr. Delaney in favor of this position are very convincing. They say, in effect, that Soviet membership in the I.L.O. is, if anything, an added reason why the U.S. Should retain its own membership in th? organization. Mr Delaney put it very bluntly when h? said that th? Russians would like nothing better than tn get us out nf th? I.L.O. and to keep us out indefinitely. Thia der certain conditions. That is what happens in the office of the papney. It is unreasonable to be lieve that God would establish a Church to carry on His mission among men and leave it subject to opinion and error in all mat ters. Infallibility means that God guarantees the truth of the Church when it is formally teach ing in His Name. (See Matthew 16:18, 10:40 Mark 16:16: Luke 10:16 I Thessalonians 15:1. etc.) Q. Who is the patron saint for hunters? A. St. Hubert is the pation of hunters, foresters and for the protection of dogs. There is an ancient legend about his meeting with a miraculous stag in the for est of Ardennes, also connected with St. Eustace, who is also named as a patron of hunters. St. Hubert was bishop of Tongres in Belgium and after an active life died in 727 A.D. St. Eustach ius was a martyr of an earlier period (date unknown) whose feast day is September 20th. St. Hubert’s feast day is November 3rd. Q. What is the symbolism of the Easter Candle? The Easter Water? A. The Easter Candle, being lighted in the darkness of the Holy Saturday Services repre sents Christ, the Light of the World, risen from the dead. Easter Water is practically the same as any holy water, except that it is the water blessed on Holy Saturday, some of which is used for the baptismal water and the rest for the faithful to take home. It has traditionally heen used for the blessing of homes on Holy Saturday where that custom prevails. Q. Is there a Saint Karen? A Saint Donna? A. Karen is a variant for Kather ine (Catherine). There are a num ber of saints of that name, not ably St. Catherine of Siena. She was a famous figure in the his tory of the Church, at the same time being a great mystic and spiritual author. Her feast day in April 30th. Donna is listed as as variant of Donata, and that saint’s feast day is December 31st. She was one of a group of Christian women put to death for the Faith in the early persecu tions of the Church. Nothing further is known of her. Send questions to Father Ed uard F. Healey, Inquiry Corner, The Catholic Times, Rox 636. Co lumbus (16), Ohio, The U.S.A. and I.L.O. is undoubtedly true, for, if tht U.S. were to withdraw from the I.L.O., the Soviet Union would then be in a favorable position to use the facilities and richly deserved prestige of the I.L.O. for its own evil purposes. Secretary Mitchell mad? sub stantially the same point when he said that nature abhors a vacuum in politics as well as in the sciences. “If we would quit par ticipating in international organ izations today and remove our selves from positions of influ ence and leadership in these bod ies,” the Secretary said, "you can be sure that by tomorrow morning the Soviet Union would he trying to fill the vacuum we created. I. for one, do not be lieve we can afford to lose by default the battle we are waging for the minds of men." Policy of Withdrawal Disastrous or not, a number of people in the U.S are in favor of this policy. Some of them go so far as to say that this is the only policy which can be defend ed in tht light of Catholic teach ing. Their argument runs as fol lows: We are forbidden by the Natural Law and by Catholic teaching to cooperate with com munism or Communists. But Com munists are represented in the U.N. and th? I.L.O. and in some of the other specialized agen cies. Therefore we ought to with draw from these organizations, for if we continue to participate in their, we are, in effect, co operating with Communists It is true, of course, that we are forbidden by the Natural I^aw and by Catholic teaching to cooperate with Communists in the pursuit of Communist ob jectives. But participation in the UN. and the I.L.O. and th? other specialized agencies is nn? effective means of thwarting these objectives. Therefore, con tinued participation in these or ganizations is at least permiss ible and, in the opinion of many theologians, highly desirable. It is desirable not only as a neg ative means of thwarting Com munist objectives but, equally important, as a positive means of gradually working toward the establishment of an effective in ternational organization of th? world community for social and economic progress as well as for political peace and harmony. In conclusion, it will be epough to note that Pope Pius XII, as recently as November 19, 1954, granted a special audience to the Governing Body of the I.L.O. and on that occasion enthusias tically praised the I.L.O. as an organization “which truly repre sents the great mass of workers with their cares, their troubles and. above all, their desire for a better and juster world."