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CATHOLIC TIMES Friday. Feb. 3. 1956 THE CATHOLIC TIMES Published Every Week by The Catholic Times, Inc. Columbus. Ohio NOTICE: Send All Changes of Address to P. O. Box 636 Columbus Ohio Executive and Editorial Offices: 246 E. Town Street. Columbus 15 Ohio Address all communications tor publication to 0. Box 636 Columbus 16. Ohio Telephones: CA 4-5195 CA 4-5196 Prie* of The Catholic Tine* in $!* pe AH nibscription* should be presented to our office through the pastor* of the parishes. Remittances should be made payable to the Cath 11 te Times. Anonymous communications will be disregarded. We do not hold ourselves responsible for any views tr opinions expressed in the communications of our eorrespondenta. Entered as Second Class Matter at Tost Office. Columbus Ohm. 1 __ St. Francis de Sales. Patron of th* Catholie Press, Pray for us 1 _____ This Paper Printed by Union Labor fcThe Duly and Honor... It is the dul) and honor of 'he press Io en lighten, nourish and elevate minds and heaits Such is the evaluation of the aposiolate nf the pre-v by Pope Pius XII. His words apply to all newspapers, not just to the religious press. No higher honor or solemn duty could he given to writers and publishers. Tn give out half truths about other nations pt even about opposing political parties is not giving enlightenment. Receiving and publishing as fair and unbiased news dispatches from per tons known to he prejudiced against the Catho lic Church is not enlightening the reader. For instance, reports continue to come out of South American countries and out of Spain insisting that Protestant missionaries are being persecut ed there by the Catholic Church First of all, fhfsr missionaries have no business being thcic tn disturb and take away their Holy Faith from good, pom people Secondly, this sort of accusa tion nf unfair treatment has been disptoved so often, that by this time even the daily press should recognize it for its worth Nevertheless, the reports continue to come and continue to he published. Information that is instructive, that will nour ish the intellect, that is educational, should he the aim of the press the background of the news is ofttimes more important than the news. Rut the newspaper must adhere to truth, whether it he historical 01 an explication of moral principles. Culture and appreciation for the true and beau tiful. can and should be on.” of the lolty aim1- of the press. In a day when much of the secular press is truly secular, there is little wonder that ma terialism and secularism cloud the minds and hearts of men and women everywhere. What there to counteract the materialism of the present era.' What is there to elevate the minds and hearts o| readers'.' There once was a time when spiritual reading was common enough among good people Every effort must ho made to i estore reading of the Holy Scripture to the family circle. The lives of saints, coming to us fodav in splendid and attractive form, should be giving inspiration to the active and eager minds of youth Good Catholic spiritual literature is not lacking in our day even attractive reprints of nldet classics may he had, and many are already obtainable in small inexpensive editions. '1 he mind and heart of man are made lor Cod. It is but natural that the pi-ss assume its proper plate in helping man direct his thoughts in the one area where he will find peace and happiness This is not only the duty hut the high honor of the prcs5 Catholics need not told that th”ir own publications working in this aposiolate air successful to an eminent degree. Making Krady For the Sou ing Closer draws the season of Lent the forty days of consistent prayer and penance upon which the Church relies Io renew in her children a realization of the sublime truths of Christian ity. During those forty days she will sow in their hearts the word of Gori with all impressive ness. in order that they may be stirred to deeper spirituality and may hr won from the distrac tions and allurements of the world s materialism she will call upon them to practice self denial *n that they may gain strength foi| the hattie against sin The spiritual gains achieved during Lent arc Io he deep and lasting the Church will strive with all her resources to make the sowing a mighty one. so that the harvest may he abund ant and life giving Anri so it is that the Gospel of Sexagesima Sunday, on the threshold of lenl, presents the parable nf the sowar- telling how some of the seed he scattered fell where wayfarers trod it under foot or the birds consumed it how some fell on the rock, where there was no chance for it Io take root some among thorns, which chok ed the young gram as soon as it had sprung up. but how some fell on good ground so that it germinated and produced “fruit a hundred fold 1 .lust as the condition of the soil at the time of the spring planting determines whether or not the fields will be productive so, in the spirit ual order, does our response to the sowing the Church is about to undertake determine the health and strength of our souls. Unless we now make "good ground" in our hearts the lenten sowing cannot be productive If we arc indifferent, we shall he offering only rock for lb" planting if we refuse to abandon harmful habits or companions we shall he fool ishly expecting the grain to flourish among thorns but if we zealously cooperate with the graces of the penitential season it is a splendid spiritual harvest that must result. As a reminder that we are not to let misgiv ings nf our human frailly stand in the way of re solving to spend lant with zeal and sincerity, Bunday s Epistle presents St Paul's "boasting of the hardships and suffering hr endured in ful filling the mission to which hr had been called Yet be asks, "Who is weak, and 1 am not weak?” Abd for the encouragement of all he cites the Lord's promise: "My- grace is soft' lent fov thee The tunc of the great sowing is at hand it sounds a call to each of us (o stir up all the good will and fortitude of which we are capable so that the word of God about to be planted in our heart* may find there good ground and yield fruit in abundance Ea*v ‘Education' Almost every factor in the lite of the school, the home and the community is ranged solidly against the notion of increasing the work load nf the secondary school student. The school, a* currently operating, multiplies extra-curricu lar activities in a manner that occupies nearly ev fry one of his waking hours The record craze and the ever-present television may hnth be •durational hut for long periods they make aer Ifiis intellectual labor almost impossible The teacher, surely one to he piled in this picture, must trim ^the wind to the short lamh and make the cour’r as palatable as possible, hoping to win out over the more glittering at tractions of the hit record, th-? winning team, the TV drama and the corner drug store. The parent, confused if not totally bewildered, speaks exclusively of a new era in which things are dif ferent. although not prepared to admit that the difference is principally that they are much worse than ever before Industry and deligence are the inseparable companions of success and when men no longer are interested in intellectual labor the mind itself, like any unuseu faculty tends to atrophy. We are witnesses to the rise of a generation un skilled in th-? art of hard work and, unhappily, we have found nothing to take its place.—The Boston Pilot. Just Among Ourselves Passing Comment Considered or Inconsiderate It is strange how words lose meaning and take on new implications. Sometimes the new meaning is the opposite of the old. Consider the word charity. Jt is no exaggerated claim to say that charity is the noblest noun in the language, et to-day many people consider chanty as a term unacceptable for the expression of human relationships they regard the word as cold and haughtily condescending. The trouble is that one work of charity, which is the giving of alms, has been allowed to appropriate the word charity to itself. This is a great damage to the word, and to the human mind. Anri then the term "giving of alms" has hern restricted to an outward gesture which often stresses the lowly condition of the poor and the unfortunate. All this is sari mischance. For neither the word almsgiving nor the word charity is rightly used to express the cold and prideful and some times mechanical dole that constitutes much of modern giving. For that sort of thing there is a word, as cold and mechanical as what it ex presses. Indeed, there are two words apt for this purpose: they are the words philanthropy and u ma nitartanism. The great word charity is really a word of Hip Nay, it is a divine word, lor Scripture cries triumphantly "God is charity,” Deus caritax ext. Think of St. Paul and his listing of indispensable virtues: "Faith, hope, charity and the greatest of these is charity.” We are divinely directed to "have a constant mutual charity" among ourselves. We are care fully to preserve charity in the bond of peace. We are urged Io consider the qualities of charity: charity is patient, is kind, dealeth not perversely, is nof pulled up, is not provoked to anger. Char ily thinketh no evil. Without charity, all other virtues fail and fade, "if I have not charity, I am become as a sounding brass and a tinkling cymbal.” 1 may give all my goods to teed the poor 1 may deliver my body to be burned for the noblest of causes, but, without charity, it profiteth me nothing. Charity is a word of Latin origin the Eng lish language merely adopts the word (which was once spelled charitas in Latin) and ends it in y instead of as. English does not translate the word it only transliterates it. But there is a word in English, a Saxon derivative, which accurately translates the term charity it is the word love. Every Catholic is familiar with those prayers called acts. An act as the name of a prayer means a formula in which one professes a virtue and then says why this virtue is professed. For in stance, an act of faith proclaims one’s belief in all that God revealed, precisely because God has revealed it. An act of hope declares one’s un faltering trust that God will give aid and ulti mate salvation to the earnest penitent. Why is that trust unfaltering? Because God has promised His aid, and God 'S infallibly faithful to His promises, And the act of charity expiesses one's love for God, a love sovereign and supreme, because God is infinitely worthy of all love. And here we discern the very soul of the word charity. First and foremost, it a supernatural virtue, and it means the love and grace and friendship of God which God Himself pours into the hearts of His children 1/ they will only accept the gift. The science of sacred theology tells us that if we get Io heaven, the measure of our capacity lor its joy will he (he measure of supernatural charity in our souls. We have the important busi ness, therefore, of advancing steadily in charity. For, while every soul in heaven has complete fullness of beatitude in the Beatific Vision, there are different fullnesses: a wine-glass and a gal lon container can be equally full but they do not hold equal amounts. To behold God in heaven, to have a direct grasp ot the Divine Essence Itself, our under standing requires the divine gift and grace of special illumination: "In Thy light we shall see Light." And this special gift is called the Light of Glory. Now. the measure ot the Light of Glory imparted Io each soul in heaven is deter mined by the measure of charity in each soul. The unthinking people who dislike the word chanty have, to do them justice, no notion of its supernatural meaning. The man who cries, "I don't want charity,” does not reject the most essential of all virtues he merely means (hat he doesn't wish to have a dole thrown at him as a bone might be thrown to a dog. Yet it is too bad that even natural and human charity should have fallen to low estate in the current opinion of men. For even natural charity is essential. Super nal urc builds upon nature. And natural charity is the reasonable lose which a normal human person has for his hind, because his kind, like himself, arc the children of Gori. Charity is love. It is not necessarily a love which finds expres sion in an emotion it is that true lose which is the act and habit of an enlightened good will. We are to love our neighbor, that is, we are to love all humankind, as we love ourselves. This is not measure. the formula is not as much as, hut only as. and it means that we acknow ledge the fact that every man is God's child, equally important with ourselves, and that we wish lor each man the good things, temporal and eternal, which we wish lor ourselves. Further, it means that «e stand ready, in the measure of opportunity, Io do our part to see that he has these good things. Herne charity expresses itself in prayer for others in the corporal and spiritual works of mercy in words and acts and attitudes which befit a decent man in respect to his fellows. So almsgiving appears on the scene. This is an important work of charity, but it is not the only one. Anri almsgiving is not even almsgiving if it be hut a cold, material, and spiritless "dona tion.'' It cannot hr merely humanitarian or it is nnt even human if must hr. to rrach human stature, a thing divintforuin. I WASHINGTON LETTER WASHINGTON—The wisdom and timeliness of the 1955 Christmas Message of His Holi ness Pope Pius Xll is illustrat ed here with almost each pass ing day. The message is the one in which the Holy Father spoke so forcefully on the subject of nuclear arms and armaments control. Disarmament has been very much to the fore here in recent W'eeks, and, while men tion is not always made of the Holy Father's words, there are clear indications all along the line that the message has been well read in this capital. There has been evidence, too, that there was deep official concern here over the fact that in some quarters the Pontiff's words were misconstrued. Harold E. Stassen told a Sen ale subcommittee on disarma ment that the United States will never disarm except on a basis of “complete reciprocity" under “rigorous, unremitting, thor ough, forehanded international inspection and control.” This vigorous statement might seem to dash hopes for any early disarmament but, act ually, it serves to recall the words of the Pope last Christ mas. The Holy Father did not call for disarmament that would be doomed to failure from the start. He called for a workable disarmament, and Mr. Stassen s MONSIGNOR HIGGINS Catholic educators in the United States have had their tune to time differences from with the National Education As sociation in the field of legislation, as well as in the broader and more import ant field of e u a tional philosophy. In the final an alysis, alt these disputes have centered around the fun damental question as to wheth er or not parochial and other private schools are to be rec ognized, in fact as well as in theory, as an integral part of the American educational sys tem and whether or not they are to be accorded equal status with the public schools. The long-range importance of the principles and issues in vol ed in this continuing de bate probably accounts, to some extent at least, lor the reluct ance of many of us in the Cath olic social action movement tn criticize the NEA more vigor ously and more forthrightly for its outmoded position with respect to the organization of teachers into unions. Over the years we have said very little ahout this subject for fear of being accused of picking on the NEA in retalia tion. as it were, for some of its mistakes in the field of legis lation and educational philos ophy. Taachars Hava This Right Whether or not this was a w is-? policy on our part, the time has come, in the opin ion of some of us, to abandon it in favor of a policy of com plete frankness. Our difference of opinion with the NEA nn this subject can be ataled very simply. Ac- Stolen Hat Pon tiff’s Message unidy remarks seem to indicate that he knew what the Holy Father called for. Pope Pius said a renunciation of experimentation with atomic weapons, a renunciation of the use of such weapons, and a gen eral control of armaments must all go hand in hand. His Holi ness said “the sum total of those three measures as an ob ject of international agreement is an obligation in conscience of nations and of their lead ers.” He said if only the first point were put into effect, there would be sufficient reason to doubt the sincere desire to put into effect the other two con ventions. President Eisenhower’s Spec ial Assistant for Disarmament told the Senators that a bar rier to banning atomic weapons is the inability to detect stock piles of nuclear materials. 113 said no scientific device known today could make such a detec tion. The Holy Father anticipated these difficulties in his Christ mas Message. He said various means of inspection and control had been suggested airplane surveys, observation posts, and centers equipped with delicate and precise meteorological and seismic instruments, devices for chemical analysis, spectographs, etc. He said “they would ren der possible the real control of The NEA and Teachers Unions cording to Catholic social prin ciples, teachers have the right to organize into unions of their own choosing and, according to the majority of Catholic ex perts in the field, they ought to be encouraged to exercise this right. The NEA, with a view to consolidating its own position as the dominant organization in the field of American educa tion, has always been unsympa thetic. if not opposed, to the organization of its teacher mem bers into unions. The NEA has taken the posi tion that teachers’ unions are unnecessary on the grounds that the economic rights of teachers can be and are ade quately safeguarded and de fended by the NEA and its af filiated units. Equivalent of 'Company Union' The obvious answer is that the NEA, from the point of view of the economics of the teaching profes sion. is the equivalent of a "company union." Its member ship is made up not only of classroom teachers hut of school administrators—including prin cipals and superintendents, w ho are the equivalent, in ordinary industrial relations terminol ogy. of the teachers’ “bosses.” To pretend that such an or ganization is capaable of ade quately representing the legiti mate economic interests of its teacher members is just as naive as to pretend that com pany unions are an adequate substitute in American indus try for thri 200 odd legitimate unions affiliated with the AFIr (10. When the chips are down —as somebody has aptly re marked such an organization in the field of education is likely to pay more attention “to principals than to principles." This is not a Catholic issue as such, and it hasn’t anything to do with the above mentioned controxersy between the NEA many, unfortunately not all, of (he activities which antecedent ly would be outlawed in the field of atomic experimenta tion.” Mr. Stassen held out to Sen ators the hope that “the force of world opinion" might event ually bring the Soviet Union to agree to the “unremitting" and “thorough” program in in ternational inspection and con trol that the U. S. demands as an integral part of disarma ment. Senator Hubert H. Humph rey of Minnesota observed that “perhaps the best and most realistic hope of the moment is the possibility that the Krem lin leaders may be learning, as we in the United States have learned, that the time may be running out for human sur vival.” It will be recalled that Pope Pius XII said “our peace pro gram cannot approve of an in discriminate co-existence at all costs with everybody certainly not at the cost of truth and justice.” Also the Holy Father warned that “efforts toward peace must consist not only in measures aimed at restricting the possi bility of waging war, but even more in preventing, eliminating or lessening with time ths quar rels between nations which might lead to war.” and our Catholic educators over matters of legislation and edu cational philosophy. Further more, in criticizing the NEA lor its outmoded stand on teach ers unions, we do not mean to suggest that the teachers ought to resign from the NEA. There is, admittedly, a place for a na tional professional organiza tion along the comprehen sive lines of the NEA. To Gain and to Give Our only purpose is to defend the right of teachers to belong to a teachers’ union, such as the American Federation of Teach ers, and to encourage them to exercise this right in greater numbers. They have a lot to gain from becoming a part of the AFL-CIO, and they have a lot to give to the new Federa tion. If they want to belong to a professional organization like the NEA in addition to be longing to a union of their ow n. w ell and good, but it mere ly confuses the issue to pretend that the NEA is an adequate substitute for a union. We would like to make it very clear—for the sake of rec ord—that we are not giving a blanket endorsement to the American Federation of Teach ers. Catholic educators have had serious differences of opinion with the Federation, and with one of its locals in particular, on legislative and philosophical matters. Furthermore, even from the trade union point of iriew. the Federation as a whole and some of its locals in particular are, in the opinion of many ex perts. open to serious criticism. As a matter of fact, some of its locals have been accused of slipping into the very “com pany union” practices which they rightly criticize in the case of the NEA. This problem is one that ought to be faced up to very honestly hy the lead ers ot the AF of T. At his first Inquiry Corner Father Healey Q. Why does bt. John speak of the crucifixion as happen ing at '‘about the sixth hour” when St. Mark has it at the third hour? (John 19:14: Mark 15:25). A. The Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark and Luke) fol low the older method of divid ing the day (i.e. the daylight hours) into lour three-hour per iods, called the morning, third hour, sixth hour and ninth hour. In St. Mark the third hour would mean that period from 9:00 to 12:00 a. m. The hour as a time measure was not com monly used by the Jews. St. John, however, consistently uses (1:39: 4.6 4:52) the divi sion of the day into twelve hours, so his ‘sixth hour” means the period from 11:00 to 12:00 a. m. Q. What is a mental reser vation? It sounds to me very much like a lie—as I heard it explained by a friend of mine who attended a Catholic col lege. A. A pure mentai reservation by which we adG some expres sion secretly to ourselves which changes the meaning of a state ment is a lie. There is some misunderstanding of this mat ter even by those who have studied it in Catholic high schools or colleges. An evasive reply is similar to a mental res ervation and it is permitted for a proportionate reason. By it we avoid telling what we know (or at least all that we know) by giving an ambiguous or equivocal answer. An evasive reply must be capable of being understood two ways: one way, which we hope the inquisitive and troublesome quest i 0 n e will accept and retire without further trouble and without having his feelings hurt: the other way would represent the whole truth, which we do not think it proper to reveal at this time. A common example is the expression: Mr. is not “at home.” The unwanted salesman can understand the expression as meaning that his potential customer is not present or he can guess that he is present but does not wish to see him. It is especially appropriate when someone is seeking information which can do great damage to someone’s reputation, to the JOHN C. O'BRIEN Will He, In th.? current speculation as to whether President Eisen hower will seek a second term, one guess is as good as another. No one knows which w a y the President is leaning, not even pro fessional Re publican poli ticians who are boldly predicting he will run again. with the Washington press corps since his heart attack, Mr. Eisenhow er said he still was weighing all the considerations that would influence his decision when the time com-ss to make it. Again, he made it clear that the question that is troubling him the most is whether in his present state of health he would be justified in offering himself to the American people as a candidate for reelection. Some Light It so happens that this re porter is in a position to throw some light on how sincerely Mr. Eisenhower feels that it is the duty of a candidate for the Presidency to be frank with the voters on the matter of his health. This is not a conviction that grew out of the situation that now confronts him. It is one that he expressed to a group of newspapermen dur ing the 1952 campaign. On a cold, dismal day in Oc tober of that year, Mr. Eisen hower flew from St. Paul, Minn., to New York to make an ad dress to the executive commit tee of the American Federation of Labor. In mid afternoon he emplaned lor Rock Island, ill., where he made a speech at a political meeting that evening. Mr. Eisenhower usually travel ed in his own plane. On this particular day, for some rea son. he chose to return to Rock Island in the newspapermen s plane. When he came aboard, his aides shooed him forward into a cabin behind the pilot’s cockpit and thrust a sheaf of papers in his hands. But in a moment or two, Mr. Eisenhower, who dislikes soli tude, tossed the papers aside, framed himself in the doorway leading to the main cabin and started tu grin. Voters' Right to Know It was obvious that he wanted to talk, and this reporter, who happened to be sitting in the seat nearest the doorway, asked him how he was bearing up un der the fast pace of the cam paign. Mr. Eisenhower replied that he was not finding it in any way exhausting. He was feeling just fine. Then he volunteered the in formation that he believed very strongly that the voters had a right tn know what slate of health a candidate for the good of the community or to the Church, etc. Men in pub lic office must protect them selves and the public welfare by certain formal statements which can he called evasive re plies. They may not be used when the person asking has a clear right to know the full truth, nor is this in any way permission to tell a direct lie at any time for any reason. Q. Is 12:00, 12:30 or 1:00 o'clock the time from which one should fast for Holy Com munion in the Columbus dio cese? A. The most obvious and nat ural time for the Eucharistic fast (and for any reckoning of midnight) is 12:00 o’clock. Or dinarily there would seem tn be little reason’to use any other time. The Church docs permit her members to use any varia tion of time that is accepted locally, however, so we can fol low local mean sun time. That this is not unreasonable is evident for we know that nur time zones do not indicate real time but are simply convenient compromises. In Columbus when a person’s clock shows 12:32 it is midnight by Incal mean sun time, so a person may begin at that time the Euchar istic fast for the next day. There seems to be at present no reason for 1:00 o’clock as a variation of local time, espec ially since th.? diocesan synod of 1952 which stated: Izgal Re gional Time in the Diocese of Columbus is Eastern Standard Time. Q. In regard to fasting does the obligation bind until a per son is sixty years old or is it un til you're fifty-nine. A. The law of the Church states that the law of abstin ence binds all who have com pleted their seventh year (i.e. from the seventh birthday an niversary). The law nf fasting binds from the completion nf a person’s twenty-first year (again, from the twenty-first birthday) to the beginning of hi.s sixtieth (i.e. from the fifty ninth birthday). (Canon No. 1254). Send questions to Father Ed ward F. Healey, Inquiry Cor ner, The Catholic Times, Box 636, Columbus (16) Ohio. Won’t He? Presidency actually was in H» said ihat within the past 10 days he had had a thorough physical check-up. He would he glad to make the doctors’ re port available to the report ers. Moreover, he added, he thought they owed a duty to the public to publish it. In the light of what Mr. Eis enhower said then, it seems to this reporter that the import ance he seems to be attaching to the state of his health in his present deliberations takes on a special significance. One Term “Erosion'' It is only natural, to he sure, that the matter of health should have dominated his thinking since the heart attack. Rut hp had been concerned about it long before that. As far back as last March, at a news conference, he mention ed his health as one of the considerations that would in fluence hi.s decision as to his future political plans. Even then, when he had no reason to believe that he was not physic ally sound, he seemed to he un certain whether a man of his years, having undergone the "erosion” of one term in of fice would be justified in ask ing for another. In recent weeks, of course, Mr. Eisenhower’s doctors have been issuing most reassuring statements about his recovery. The upshot of these reports has been that the state of health need be no bar to his seeking n second term if he wants one. Providing Issue in Quotes Mr. Eisenhower could have gone along with the doctors. But to the utter dismay of his supporters, he bluntly warn ed the American people that he would never again be able to exert himself as fully as he had done in the first three years of his term in the White House. From all this, it would he folly, of course, to jump to the conclusion that Mr. Eisenhower will not be a candidate again. But for a man who wants to be reelected, he has made admis sions that his opponents can use against him. For a long time th.? Democrats have been pondering how they could make the President’s state of health a campaign issue. Mr. Eisenhow er solved their problem: now all they have to do is quote hi« own statements. By now the president is shrewd a politician not to have realized the implications of his press conference diagnosis of his condition. But apparently he still holds to the conviction he expressed on the airplane in 1952. Then the doctors found him sound: today his own ver dict is that he cannot expect to regain the health he had four years ago. Either*way, hr seems Io feel, the public is entitled to know.