Newspaper Page Text
4—THE CATHOLIC TIMES Friday, August 10,1956
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIHIIIB The Washington Letter WASHINGTON The 84th Congress has adjourned and its members, for the most part, have gone back to their con stituencies to “mend political fences.” This is a national elections year and forward looking politicians must be seen and heard among precise ly those people who keep them in office. A by-product of this exodus Is a shift of the political spot light from this city to several other places in the nation, no tably Chicago and San Fran cisco, where the Democratic and Republican national con ventions, respectively, will be held. It has become politically popular to attack the record of a departed Congress. Not only to capture control of the next Congress, but also to aid in winning control of the admin istrative branch of the Gov ernment. The 84th edition of our national legislature will not escape this searching ap praisal. As happens every two years, all of the Representa tives and one-third of the Sen ators must be elected. Things won’t be altogether quiet here, either. The inter national stage is a bustling place, and Soviet Russia can confidently be expected to come up with a proposal that Let us see what differences God has put in man and woman besides the physical ones. Canon LeClercq of Ixiuvain university says that “feeling plays a greater role in woman than in man. She reasons less and feels more. This is not to say she is less intelligent. She. is intelligent in a different way. In the woman intelligence Is more closely linked with feelings." Man is said to stress reasoning. Woman stresses in On the average of six or eight times a year, the pres ent writer is called upon to de liver a prayer at the opening of a trade union conference or convention. There is nothing unusual about his experience In this regard. All of the priests in the United States who are working more or less full time in the field of social action have the same experi ence in their own communi ties. They are all called upon rather frequently to invoke the blessings of Almighty God up on the delegates to union gath erings. This practice of opening labor conventions with a prayer (or a series of prayers on succes sive days by clergymen of dif ferent faiths) is observed at the present time by the over whelming majority of unions in the United States, regardless of the particular religious af filiation of their officers. We have never heard anybody in the American labor movement question, much less object to the practice either publicly or privately. As a matter of fact, we have seldom even heard it discussed. It is simply taken for granted hy the majority of American trade unionists as Catholic Veep? Making Marriage Click Man’s mind and woman’s mind are equal, but they go in dif ferent directions. Just tell your wife after vis iting friends that Mary, whom you have just visited, has good taste. That is all you have said, but she pouts for a week. She thinks you are implying that she does not have good taste. Just tell her the roast on the table is good. “Where did you get it, honey?” you ask. And she probably leaves the fable in a huff—ax if she couldn’t cook it herself. When she tells a friend, "Gee, you've got a n*w dress What’s the matter? They didn’t have your size?" she means exactly what is implied. A young married girl was lit erally wailing. A neighbor rushed over and pleaded, "What’s happened, Alice?” "Oh, Helen! It's Jim!” she said. "The brute! What did he do to you?” Helen queried. “Oh, he bought me a new washing ma chine!” “But that’s not so bad, is it?" “Yes," lamented Mary, “now I can't complain any more." Though she asked for a machine, that was not exact ly what she wanted. will throw things off balance, just in the midst of a heated political campaign in this country. Shortly before Congress ad journed, talk was stimulated here and across the country over the possibility of having a Catholic as a vice-presi dential candidate for one of the parties. The availability of a Catholic for the presidency was not mentioned. This could have been because it was thought that the presidential candidates were pretty well “set.” It also could have been because it was not thought that a Catholic could yet be elect ed President of the United States. In fact, the talk about a Catholic for vice-president was presented in some quar ters as being a little daring, because of the possibility that the president might die and the vice-president succeed. Catholic press editorial com ment in this country was fair ly limited, and restrained. Uni versally, where there was com ment, the Catholic press re jected the proposal being pre sented as “smart politics." The editors did not find fault with the names put forward as pos sible Catholic vice-presidential candidates, but it was uniform ly held that a man’s religion should not become something You're Incompatible By Msgr. Irving A. LeBlanc tuition. Reasoning is that slow, cold, exact knowledge more or less lacking in sentiment or imagi nation. Reasoning is distinctly man’s field. He thinks, calcu lates, deduces foresees ob stacles draws conclusions studies every angle weighs ev ery possibility. Woman, on the other hand, has a knowledge which is spon taneous, warm, colorful. She quickly observes all details. Her heart influences her un derstanding. Her feelings af fect her more than her power of reasoning. She possesses the power of putting herself in the other person’s place. She so deals with people that she can change her ideas rapidly to fit people. Often man thinks woman is superficial. She thinks he is a schemer. But each has a dis tinctive vocation and unless both are aware of this, there will be constant misunder standing. Woman has the role of moth er to fulfill. Her gentleness will cause her to attach great importance to the most minute details of daily living. This tal ent for detail carries over to her social life. She quickly ap preciates or disparages a per son because of their apparel. She can also adapt herself to new circumstances more quick ly than can her husband. He is, slow with his logic. She can change as long as it assists her in reaching her immediate goal. If it is ever a choice that the husband or the wife tpust go more than 50 per cent in the give-and-take of life, it is much The Yardstick Unions and Prayer the proper and the normal thing to do. Twofold Reason for Surprise The reaction Of foreign vis itors has generally been the same as that of the Japanese trade union leader, Toshio Nishimaki, who attended the AFL-CIO merger convention in New York City last December as an observer. Upon his re turn to Japan, Mr. Nishimaki reported to his membership as follows: "I was much impress ed by the fact that prayers were offered during all four days of the convention. It is easy to associate America with all-out materialism but when I saw the people standing up and praying together with eyes closed, and saw’ how on many occasions they emphasiz ed the incorporation of spiritu al and religious elements in their labor movement, it somehow made me realize the strength of the foundations of America’s economy” In many of the other coun tries of the world the domi nant labor organizations have been anti-clerical, if not actu ally anti-religious. We in the United States, by and large, have done a mediocre job of i n e e ing the so-called to be traded in a political deal any more than it should be held against him as a liability. It was pointed out that there was a time when politicians shied away from Catholic can didates, and now they want Catholics to “run for their Faith." It was held that one practice is just about as bad as the* other. The Ottawa Journal, a Can nadian- secular newspaper, mar velled editorially that the pos sible candidacy of a Catholic for the vice-presidency should be “treated as something unique risky” in the United States. It called the develop ment “an odd sidelight" in the political campaign in this coun try. The Canadian paper noted that no Catholic has ever been a president or vice-president of the United States, but that one had run for the presidency as the candidate of a major party “with disastrous results." “Actually,” the editorial add ed, “United States Catholics (30,000,000 of the country’s population) (Ed. Note: The lat est figure is 33,574,017) seldom find themselves in high office. It is more than 40 years since a Catholic has held the chief justiceship of the Supreme Court there is no Catholic on the court at the present time. easier tor the wife to give and fo take. Her quick intuitions are learned early. There are few scenes more beautiful than eavesdropping on the intimate conversations carried on be tween a mother and her tiny baby. She understands her child before he is able to talk. Trifles Loom Important A woman is gifted with a sensitive nature. Trifles give her much pleasure, but a tri fle will also cause her to dis solve into tears. Gifts must be as a token of love or she is not happy. She is not inter ested in great fame and for tune she wants to love and be loved. Her judgments are not based entirely on reason as man tends to do these judgments then can be easily cast aside for new ones. In expressing ideas women frequently do not make them selves clear to men because they are not so restricted by 'the rigid channels of logic. It is easy for them to jump in tuitively to conclusions. They are so observant of details, which men overlook, that man may think a woman arbitrary and finicky, when she knows she has solid reasons on which to justify her way of acting. Her one risk is that she be come too personal, too one-sid ed, and then she may not see all facets of the picture. She is often so sure of her views that she seeks to impose them upon others not because she is selfish, hut rather In the sin cere desire to get others to do whkt in her judgment is best for them. By Msgr. George G. Higgins American way of life to the rest of the world. Too much of our propaganda has unwittingly left the impres sion that we are a non-relig ious, if not a materialistic peo ple. More specifically, we have too often left the impression that our so-called secular un ions are secularistic. The truth of the matter is that they are secular only in the sense of being non-denominational. Un like so many of the European unions, they are not secular in the sense of being indifferent, much less opposed to religion. Merits Repetition Life magazine recently per formed a useful service hy pub licizing this fact in the fotm of a brief quotation from an arti cle by the well known econo mist, Peter Drucker, which had appeared in the July issue of Notre Dame’s Review of Poli tics. The paragraph from which the quotation was taken de serves to be reprinted as wide ly as possible, particularly in Western Europe and Latin America. It reads in part as fol lows: “We do not have, to be sure, a ‘Christian trade union federation’ such as is com monplace on the Continent. It is a concept alien alike to our *S'-‘iSr3 «J,W- 1 ’I 1‘ 1 Yet we realize that such in interpretation would be evading the obvious meaning of the word “neighbor.” What then? Are we obli gated to include all those who are neighbors in the sense of living near us, even the ones with whom we have quarreled, the ones we consider unworthy of our respect, the ones we It Won ’t Balance Who Is My Neighbor? Standing at the very heart of Christianity is the question asked, and answered in Sunday’s Gospel—a question that is a stumbling block to many today, just as it has been all through the centuries. The man who put the question to the Savior was learned in the law. He had shown this by correctly explaining what is required of a man that he may gain eternal life: “Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with thy whole heart, and with thy whole soul, and with thy whole mind and thy neighbor as thyself and had been enjoined by Christ to “Do this, and thou shalt live.” And then the man. as if he were speaking for all the millions who know the law but draw back from its observance, said: “And who is my neighbor?” What was running through his mind is the same thought that comes to everyone who pauses to reflect on that part of the Great Command ment declaring “Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.” “Love” is a word that implies deep feeling and consideration are we really ex pected to love all our fellow-men? But perhaps we say to ourselves, we are taking the term too literally and can find a reasonable limit to its application. If we are allowed to decide for ourselves the ones to whom we will apply the description "neighbor,” It will simplify the the commandment we can select persons we find pleasant and agreeable, those with whom we have common interests, those who have done favors for us or who are in a position to Help us. Elvis, Ingrid, and Ed TV Impressario Ed Sullivan has managed to project his image to the American public as the grown-up version of the All-American boy. We tend to think of Ed as the champion of all that is clean and decent in TV entertainment. A local Catholic institution chose him once as its “man of the year.” How Sullivan has achieved this lily-white reputation while running a va riety show that always, it seems to us, has car ried its share of spice is, we suppose, his trade secret. Undoubtedly, a large portion of Sullivan sponsored attractions has been morally accept able, but generous samplings have never been wanting of the brand of glorified burlesque that currently passes as Broadway musical theater. Of late, however, Sullivan seems to be find ing it more difficult to sustain his twofold role of Sir Galahad and successful television pro ducer. For a coming program Sullivan has signed up that young entertainer who is doing so much to make America a finer place to live in, Elvis Presley. Although it is reported that when the Tennessee teen-ager appears on TV he will be required to tone down the obscene wigglings that have brought him the title of "Elvis the Pelvis,” is is plain that in sending this attrac tion into the nation's living rooms, Sullivan will have chosen commercial expediency over moral principle. Now comes another, and perhaps even more tradition of political action and of spiritual life. Yet it is quite wrong to conclude therefrom, as practically every European labor leader has been doing, that our labor movement is ‘non-religious’ ... On the con trary this totally non-denomi national labor movement may well be much closer to organ ized religion than the typical European ‘Christian union’ .” While the importance of this fact should not be naively overestimated, neither should it be minimized or disregarded iq telling the story of Ameri can trade unionism to the rest of fhe world. It is one aspect of the bo-called American way of life in which we can take legitimate pride. flatly dislike? And can it mean that we are obliged to love strangers, peoples of foreign lands, enemies of our country? “Who is my neighbor?” indeed, we want to know. And in the beautiful parable of the Good Samaritan Christ has given us the answer for all time. The traveller who had been robbed and beaten, and left lying helpless on the road to Jericho, had a right to expect neighborly treat ment from his people who passed that way, but one after another they went by, ignoring his distress ... At length a Samaritan came along, a stranger, a member of a hostile race, and see ing the injured man “he was moved with com passion,” bound up his wounds and took care of him this was the one who proved to be a neighbor. The two had never before seen each other the injur’d man had no claim of relation ship or nationality on his benefactor it was merely that they were fellow-men and one was in need of help. The answer to the question as to who is my neighbor, whom God commands me to love, is plain, then: every human being is my neighbor. Christians, professed followers of Christ, still ask that question, although they have heard the answer since childhood. It must be that they do not accept it if they did, if they really prac ticed love of neighbor, how could the injustices and hatreds that disfigure Christendom persist? We say we love God, but we refuse to love our fellow-man, we refuse to relieve his distress, we try to find justification for inflicting hard ship upon him. We have no right to complain, then, that what should be a Christian world is, instead, a place of dissension and confusion If we really want to have God’s assistance in finding a way out of our trouble we should show our love for Him by actually loving our neigh bor. shocking, violation of good taste. A news item announces that Ingrid Bergman will be featured on one of Ed’s fall programs. Sullivan was unavailable for comment on the report, the papers stated. Perhaps the news story was a trial balloon to test the reaction of the public to a proposed return to the American screen of the world-famed adulteress. If so, a flood of honestly indignant protests is surely in order. The widely publicized persons whose prom inence in the entertainment world makes them heroes and heroines of the younger generation have a minimum obligation to avoid at least the grosser breaches of public decency. Bergman has wisely stayed on the other side of the At lantic ever since her betrayal of even our re laxed present-day standards by bearing another man’s child without even the formality of legal divorce from her legal spouse. If Ed Sullivan is counting on the notoriously short memory of the public to promote an American comeback of Ingrid Bergman, we be lieve his usually shrewd judgment has failed. Forgiveness is properly conditioned upon re pentance and atonement. The Swedish actress has given no public sign of these qualities, so far as we can learn. Parents will no longer feel safe in permitting their children uncensored access to Ed Sulli van’s TV programs unless he improves the judg ment he has manifested in the cases of Elvis and Ingrid.—H.M..—Tha Michigan Catholic. THE CATHOLIC TIMES Published Every Week by The Catholic Times, Inc. Columbus, Ohio NOTICE: Send All Change of Address to P. O. Box 636 Columbus, Ohio Executive and Editorial Offices: 246 E. Town Street, Columbus 15, Ohio Address all communications for publication to P. O. Box 636 Columbus 16, Ohio Telephones: CA. 4-5195 CA. 4-5196 Price of The Cttholie Timo* Is $3 per year. All subscriptions should presented to our office through the pastors of the parishes. Remittances should be made payable to The Catholic Times. Anonymous communications trill be disregarded. We do not hold ourselves responsible for any views or opinions expressed in the communications of our correspondents. Entered aa Second Class Matter at Post Office Columbus, Ohio. St. Francis de Sales. Patron of the Catholic Press. Pray for us! THIS PAPER PRINTED BY UNION LABOR JUST AMONO OtKSELVLS Corndered or lnconsiderat« One of the questions frequently asked by non-Catholics is this: Why do Catholics receive Holy Communion under one form only, and not under forms of both bread and wine? The answer is simply that the Holy Eucharist, under the form of bread, and under the form of wine, is Our Lord Jesus Christ whole and entire. To receive under either form, or under both, is to receive Our Lord and God Himself. Thus it is manifest that receiving under two forms is not necessary. But why is it found useful or convenient to receive under one form only? For twelve centuries the faithful communicated under both forms. They still do in the East. There must have been strong reasons to move the Church to prescribe Communion in one form for the laity of the Latin rite. Yes, there were strong reasons, and we shall speak of them in a moment. But first it will be useful to recall the teaching of the Council of Trent, “Laymen (and clerics when not celebrating) are not obliged by any divine precept to receive the Sacrament of the Eucharist under both kinds neither can it be doubted that Communion under either kind is sufficient unto salvation.” Many non-Catholics who acknowledge the divinity of Christ and the reality of His coming to them in communion, do not believe in the actual presence of Christ in the Blessed Sacra ment Itself. They teach that Christ comes present in the action of receiving the bread and the wine, Catholics, on the contrary, believe that, after consecration in Mass, there is no bread and no wine, but only the true Christ,—Body, Blood, Soul, Divinity, under the appearance of bread, and also under the appearance of wine. Therefore, for Catholics, it is not the eating and drinking of bread and wine that brings Christ truly present Christ is truly present, in His objective reality, in what appears to be bread (but is not) and what appears to be wine (but is not), so that to receive either or both forms is to receive the one ob jective Christ. At the Last Supper Our Lord said "This is my Body” over the bread, and “This is my Blood” over the cup of wine. Now, the Body of Christ is not a corpse it is the living Body with its Blood. And the Blood of Christ is not lifeless, but is the living Blood of Christ’s living Body. Ti e separate forms of tread imd wine (solid and liquid) symbolize the separation of Our Lord’s Body and Blood: that is, they symbolize His death. For when a body and its blood are actually separated, the result is deatlt But no Christian maintains that Christ dies in the Eucharist or that a dead Christ is received in communion. “Christ, rising from the dead, dieth now no more.” The death endured by our Lord on the Cross is symbolize but not actualized in the separate consecration of bread and of wine. What is actualized, and not merely symbolized, is the true presence of the whole Christ under each of the consecrated kinds. Therefore the Mass, in which the bread and the wine are separately consecrated, is a memorial of our Lord’s death (that is, calls it to memory), but is no memorial or symbol of the living Christ the Mass is the actual offering of that Living Christ Himself. But, it is argued, Our Lord said (John tn, 54), “Except yotl eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink His blood, you shall, not have life in you." We answer, Our Lord also said, in the same Chapter of Scripture (John v, 59), “He that eateth this Bread shall live forever.” When we receive Our Lord in Holy Communion, we both eat His Flesh and drink His Blood. That is, we receive Christ, God and Man, whole and entire. While the early Church gave Communion under both forms, it was not uncommon for the faithful to receive under one form alone. St. Cyprian (3 century) speaks of Communion given to in fants, under the form of wine alone. And both Tertullian (2 cen tury) and St. Basil (4 century) explain that early Christians were permitted to take the Holy Eucharist,.under the form of bread, to their homes, and to administer Holy Communion to themselves there in the morning before breaking their fast. Perhaps the most pressing reason for the disciplinary law of the Latin Church (no doctrine at all is involved, for all Catholics of all times acknowledge the complete and entire presence of Christ under either and both forms) as to receiving under the form of bread only was the Hussite heresy which maintained that it is necessary to salvation that adult Christians should receive the Blessed Sacrament under both forms. Some times the most effective answer to heresy is the answer of action or practice. The Church made clear, to learned and un learned alike, her position on this question, by prescribing for the laity Communion under the one form only. And the Church is the Infallible Teacher established by Christ to instruct all nations, to speak with His voice and authority, and to manifest His guarantee that He would be with her all days even to the end of the world. Long before this disciplinary law was made (Council of Constance, 1414, and Council of Trent 1545-1564), the custom of receiving Holy Communion under the form of bread only was widespread in the Church. This happened for reasons of useful* ness and convenience, to which we referred above. Such reasons (as mentioned by the Council of Trent itself) were: the danger of spilling the consecrated cup in administering Holy Commun ion the difficulty of preserving the Blessed Sacrament under the form of wine and the dislike of drinking from a chalice touched by other and perhaps infected lips (thus inducing a distracting and unworthy thought at the sacred moment of com municating) the difficulty of obtaining wine for thousands of communicants. During World War I, on the eve of “going over the top,” an Anglican chaplain said to a priest chaplain: “I can’t do a thing for these men up front that I cannot do as well right here: Why should I go? I used to believe in Communion under twe forms I see now that in the present circumstances such Com munion is impossible. I used to oppose the idea of a celibate clergy I now see its present need, for I have a wife and four children depending on me.” Father Healey’s Q. If we are judged right after death why should there be a judgment at the end of the world? Will people have to come back from heaven and hell? A. St. Paul refers to the Particular Judgement immed iately after death (Hebrews 9:27) and it is the teaching of the Catholic Church that it ex ists. A person has completed his time of probation at death and his eternal destiny is set tled although he may be Tem porarily delayed in Purgatory The General Judgement at the end of the 'world is also cer tain from Scripture and from the teaching of the Church (e.g. Matthey 25:32-46) This assembly of the "living and the dead” (Apostle Creed) Will make manifest the justice and goodness of God to all. The complexities and problems of the divine pattern for life on earth will be resolved (e.g. prosperity of tne wicked, suf fering of the good). Heaven and hell are primarily states of being and once a person has entered either after the Par ticular Judgement he remains in that state forever. If the General Judgment involves a change of location for the oc casion that would not change the earlier eternal judgment Send questions to Father Edward F. Healey, Inquiry Corner, The Catholic Times, Box 636, Columbus (16) Ohio.