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The Union and journal. [volume] (Biddeford, Me.) 1858-1882, January 06, 1860, Image 2

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or excrclae complete and exclusive sovereign
rights within tho fairly dUputed limit*.
In acknowledging lh» I
day of Mr. Marcy'a note, the Uritisn Mu.ii i
tcr expressed hi» entire concurrence "in the
propriety of tho course recommended to lh<
Governor of Washington Territory by you:
(Mr. Mitrcj"») instruction® to t!.:»t oilicfr," ;
and stating that ho had "loat no time in trans
mitting a copy of that document to the Gov- I
ernor General of Rritish North America." '
and had "earnestly recommended to his K\- '
cellener to take such tnea»ures a# to him mat
appear beat calculated to securr, on tho part
of the British local authoritiea and the in
habitant* of tho neighborhood of the lino in
question, the exercise of tho aame sprit «l
lorbcarancu which ia inculcated by you (Mr.
Marcy") on the authoritiea and citizcns of the
United State*."
Thus matter* remained upon the faith ol
this arrangement until the Oth of July last,
when Gen. Ilarney paid a vi»it to the Island,
llo found upon it twenty-lire American resi
dents with their families, and also an cstab
liahment of the Hudson's Bay Ci>m{ any for
tho purpose of raiaing »hee;». A short time
before hie arrival ono of those residents hau
shot an animal l>«longing to the company,
whilst tre*pas»iiig upon hia premises, to.
which, however, ho ottered to pay t*ico it*
value; but that was refused. Soon aftei
"tho chief factor of the company at Victoiia,
Mr. Dalles, aon-in-law of Governor Douglu*.
camo to the Island in tho liriti«h sloop-of
war Satellite, and threatened to tako this A
merican citizen (Mr. Cutter) by lone to Vic
toria, to answer for tho trespass ho hod com
mitted. The American seised his riile, ami
told Mr. Dalle* if any such attempt waa j
made he would kill hiui on tho spot. The
airsir then ended."
Under thc<o circurastnnccs tho American
nettUrs presented a petition to the General:
"through the United States In»;>eetor of Cus
toms, Mr. llubbs, to placc a force t^on the
island, to protect thcin from the iMiuns as
well as the oppressive interference ot the au
thoritiea of the Hudson Uay C tmpany at Vic
toria, with their rights as American citizens." |
The Gcueral immediately responded to this
petition, and ordered C.ipt. tiej. K. Picket',
Uth infantry, "to estahiuh hia company on
llellevue, or San Juan Inland, on some suita
ble petition near tht* harbor at the southeast
ern extremity." Thia order w«« promptly
obeyed, and a military post wa* eatablihed at
the nlace designated. Tlic f<-rcc was of'er
warns increased, so that by tho last return ti.o
whole number of troops then on the island
amounted in the aggregate to GDI tucn.
Wl.tUl 1 Uo !>• i uec.n r r i- >'
present occaron to go tuither Into the sub.
jeet, and discus* tho weight which ought to
be attached to the statements of the llritish
colonial authorities contesting the accuracy of
the information on wliich the gallant -Gemr*
al acted, it wa* due to him that 1 should thus
present his own rensosis fcr i^uin^ the order
to ('apt. Pickett. From these it is quite cleir
hi* object was to prercnt the llrititli author*
lliea on Varcouver's Inland from cxcrcislng
jurisdiction over American resident* on the
Island of San Juan, a* well n- to protect them
ugiinsl the incursions <>| the Indiai s.
Much excitcmcnt prevailed for sotr.o tlm*
throughout that region, and serious d.n ;erof
collision between tho parties wasaprehended.
The lSritish had a lar^o naval force- in tho vi- j
cinity ; and it is an act of simple justice to the
admiral on that station to state that he wisely
and discreetly forbore to commit any hostile
act, but determined to refer the whole affair
to his Government and uwuit their instruc
tion*.
This aspect of tho matter, In ny opinion,
demanded serious attention. It would have
been a gre.it calamity for both nations had
they been precipitated into act* of hostility,not
on the (Juistion »f titlo to tho island, but
merely concerning what should be i s condi
tion during the intervening period whilst the
two governments mi™ht be employed in set
tling the question to w hich ol them it be
longs. For thN teuson Lieutenant (Jen. Scott
wa» desj atched on tho 17th September last
to Washington Territory, ta t..kimmediate
command of tho Uuitud States forces on tin*
l'jtciilc const should he deem this necessary.
'Die main object of bis mission was to curry
out the spirit of tho precautionary arrange
ment between tho late Secretary ol State and
the llritish Minister, and thus to preserve tl>»
p*ace and prevent eollision I»m «*«••'» the Ilrit
ish and American «»utnoritios pending the no.
UotUilous between the two governments.
Entertaining no doubt of the validity of our
title, I need scarccly add that, in any event,
American citiacns were to bo placed on a
tooting at leakt as favornH'.ca* that of T)iiti«h
subject*, it being understood that Captain
Pickett's cctnj any should tcmain on tho is
land. It is proper to observe that, consider
ing the distance Iron the scene of action, and
in ignorance of what niijjht have transpired
on the spot before tho Ue-neral's arrival, it
w as necessary to leave much to hi* discretion,
and 1 am happy to state the event ha* proven
that this discretion could not have been en
trusted to more competent hands. General
Scott hat recently returned from hi* tuition,
having successfully accomplished its ol jitts,
and there i* no longer any good reason to ap
prehend a collision between ih.» lorccs of the
two countries during the pendency of the ex
isting negotiation*.
Msfican Ajftiirt.
I regret to inform you Hint mere nav occn
Do improvi menl in the atf urn of Mexico sincc
it)y lust annual message, and I nm n^uin oblig
ed to nsk the earnest attention ot Congress to :
tin* unhappy condition of that republic.
The constituent Congress of Mexico, which '
adjourned on the 17th of February, 1337.
adopted n constitution and provided fur n
popular election. Thi« to»>k place in the fol- !
lowing July (1837), and (ieneral Comonfort I
wm cho%en President, almost without oppo
sition. At the same election a new Congre** |
was cho.*en, whoso flrst session commenced
on the Iflth of September, 1837. Hy the eon- I
stitution of 1837 the Presidential term was to '■
legin on the 1st ot December, 1837. and con- I
tinuc for four year*. On that day General
Comonfort appeared before tluj assembled
Congress in tho city of Mexico, t«*>k tho oath
to support tho new constitution, anil ua» du- i
ly inaugurated ns President. Within n '
month afterward* ho has been driven from
tho capi.al, and a military rebellion bad as*
aigucd the supremo power of tho Republic to
Uen. Zuloaga. Tho constitution provided '
that in the ab»en"0 of the President his otHcc |
aVuld devolve upon the ChM Justice of the
Supreme Court, and lien. Comonfort having I
left the country, this functionary, Ueneral Ju> i
ares, proceeded to form, at (Juanajuato, a con- |
atitutional government, lteforc this was
officially known, however, at tho capital, the
government of Zuloaga had been rccognixed
by the entiro corps, incluilitu'the Minister of
the United States, as the do facto government
of Mexico. The constitutional President,
nevertheless, maintained his position with
firmness, and was i«oon established with his
cabinet at Vera Crux. Meanwhile, the gov
ernment of Zuloaga was earnestly resisted in
many parta of tho republic, and even in the
capital, a portion of tho army having pro
nounced against it, its functions were declared
terminated, and an assembly of citizens wa*
Invited for tho choice of a new President.
This assembly elected General Mirainon, but
that officer repudiated the plan under which
ho was chcien, and Zuloaga was thus restored
to his previous position. Uo assumed it,
however, only to withdraw from it, and Mir*
amon'having become, by his appointment,
. "President Substitute," continues, with that
title, at the held of the insurgent party.
Id my last annual message I communicated
to Congress tho circumstances under which
the late Minister of the United States sus
pended his official relations with tho central
government, and withdrew from the country.
It was impossible to maintain friendly inter*
course with a government, like that at the
capital, undor whoso usurped authority
wrongs were constantly committed, but never
redressed, llad this been an established gov*
eminent, with its power extending, by the
consent of the people, orer the whole of Mex
ico, an sort to hostilities against it would
• have b*en quite justifiable, and indeed necea*
aary. But.the cowatty wa« a prey to civil
war ; and It was hoped »h»t the aueceaa of
tho eoMtituUonal President might lead to a
A condition of things loss injurious to the Uai
od States. This success became so probable
that, in January last, I employed a reliable
egent to visit Mexico, and report to mo the
actual condition and -prospects of the contend
in : parties, In cot!sc(|uenco of his report,
and from information which ri ached mo from
other sources, favorable to the prospccta of
the constitutional caute, I felt justified in ap
pointing a new minUter to Mexico, who
might rmbracc the earliest suitablo opportu
nity of restoring our diplomatic relation* with
that republic. For Tkh purpose a distin
guished citizen of Maryland was selected,
who proceeded on his n lwion on tho 8th of
March last, with d. -i'jnarjr authority to
rcco^nize tho government of l'rusidcnt Jua
rez, if on his arrival in Mexico he should find
it entitled to such recognition, according to
tho established practice ol the United States.
On tho 7th of April fallowing, Mr. McLsue
presented his credentials to President Juarez,
having no hesitation in "pronouncing the
government of Juarez to he the only existing
government of the republic." He was cor
1 dially received by tho authorities at Vera
Cruz, ami tiicy have ever since manifested
the most fiicmlly disposition towimls the
United States. Unhappily, however, tho
constitutional government has not been ablo
to est ibluh its powor over tho whole repub
i lie. It is supported by a largo majority of
the people and the Slates, but there aro im
portant parts of the country where it can en
force no obedience. General Miranscn main
tains himself at the capital; and in some of
the distant provinces there aro military gov
ernors who pay little rc.<|»ect ta tho decreet
ot cither government. I.i tho mean time tho
excesses which always attend upon civil war,
especially in Mexico,'are constantly recurring.
Outrages of the wont description are com
mittal upon both j>ersons and property.—
i'ticro is scarcely an) form of injury which
has not been suite red by our citizens in Mcx
iro during the last fe»v years. Wo have been
nominally at peace with that republic, but
"so far as the interests of our commcrce or of
our eirisens who have visited the country as
merchants, shipmasters, or in other capacities,
ato concerned, wo might as well have been at
war." Life hat been insecure, property un
protected, and tndo impossible, except at a
ii»k of Lh> which prudent men cannot be ex
pected to incur. Importaut contracts, in
volving inrj-r expenditure', enters'd into by
the central government, hare been set at da*
tianco by the locul governments, l'eaceful
American residents, occupying their rightful
possessions, havo been suddenly expelled tho
country, in dciianco of treaties, ami by tho
mcro t fcr of arbitrary power. Uvcn tho
course r.f jnstico t.as not ncen raw irom con
trol, and a recent riecrco of Miramon per
mits the intervention of government in *11
whir* uither j-tity is n foreigner. Yet
*« * of tho United States havo been seized
wit mut ]nw, and A consular officer who pro
tected against such seizure has been fined and
impii< uu 1 for disrespect to tho authorities.
Military contributions have been levied in
violation of every principle of ti^h', and tho
American who roistod tho luwlcas demand
has had his properly forcibly taken away, and
In* hi en himself banished. From a conflict
«>t authority in different parts of the country,
tatilC duties which have been | a;d in one
place have teen rxicted over ogain in another
place. Larje numbcis of our citixon* have been
arrrsted and imprisoned without any form of
ex limitation or any opportunity for a hearing,
and even when released, have only obtained
their liberty after much suffering and injury,
and without any hope of redress. The whole
sale massacre of Ciubbo and his associates
without 11i ll in S<>noro, as well as the seizure
an I murder of foUTsuk Americans, who had
taken shelter in the house of an American,
upon the foil of the United States, was com
municated fo Congress at its last session.
Murders of a still more atrocious character
have been committed in tho very heart of
Mexico, under tho authority of Miramon's
government, during the present year. Some
of the*e*wcro only worthy of a barbarous
t and if they had not been cleat ly proven,
w ould have seemed impossible in a country
which claims to bo civilized. Of this de
scription was tho brutal massacre in April
la»t, by order of Uvncrul Marquez, of three
American physicians, who were seized iu tho
hospital at Taeitba) a, w hile attending upon
the sick and dying of both parlies, and with
out trial, a* wiil»o>n crime, w«?ro hurried
•wsy 10 sj ecdy execution. Little less shock
in' was tho recent fwto of Ormand Chase,
who shot in Tepio on the 7th of August,
by ordt-r ot the same Mexican General, not
only without trial, but without any conjec
ture by his friends of tho cause of his arrest.
He is represented as a young man of good
character, and intelligence, w ho has made nu
merous friends in Tepie by the courago and
humanity which he had displayed on sovcral
trying occasions, and his deat was as unex
I o.-tcd as it waa shocking to tho whole com
munity. Other outrages might be enumera
ted, but th«'»p are sulli.'iciit to illustrate the
wretched conditinn of the country, and tho
unprotected condition of the persons and
property of our citizens in Mexico.
lu all then* cases our uiimstcrs have been
constant and flithful in their demands for re
drew, but both they and this government,
which they hivosuccessively represented, havo
been mholly powerlcMt to make their demands
eifcctive. i'beir tcstimouy iu thia respect, and
in reference to the only remedy which, iu their
ju Igmout.i, would meet flic exigency, has been
I' th mi;:< mi ami eiupnauc. "doming oui a
tuanifcetution of the povtr of the (5o\crnment
of the United SUtee (wrrjtc our hue minister
in ls'< .) nud of its purpose tOpttBlshUmN
wroniM will avnil. I axsure you that the uni
versal belief hsro is that there is nothing to Ihj
apprehended from the Government of tho Uni
t l Slates, untl that local Mexican officials can
c intuit these outrage* upon Ame-ican citizens
»Uh absolute impunity' "1 ho|>e the Presi
dent," (wrote our preeeut minister in August
lost) "will feci authorised to ask from Con
gress tho power to enter Mexico with the mili
tary forces of the United States, nt the call of!
the constitutional authorities, in order to pro
tect the citizcnx aud the treaty rights of the
I aite I State*. I'nl* vs Mich a power is conferr
ed u; on him, neither the one nor the other will
be respected in the existing utile of anarchy
nod disorder, and the outrages already perpe
trated will never be chastised; and, as I assured
you in my No. 'J3, all these evils must increase
until every vestige of order and government
dis ip]M mi s from the country." 1 liavo been re
luctantly led to the same omnicn, ami, iu jus
tice to my country men who have sullered wrongs
from Mexico, ui.d who may still sutler them,
I l-el bound to announce this conclusion to
ton^rnii
The rn-p presented. however, is not merely a '
cm1 ofindividud claims, although uur just
claims afaiu»t Mexico have readied a very
largo amount. Nor Is it merely the case of
protection to tliv live» and property of the few
Americans who may still remain in Mcxico, al
though tho* lite an<l property of every Ameri
can citi>en ought to be sacredly protected in
every quarter of tho world. llut it in a ques
tion which relates to the future as well a* to the
|>re*nt an 1 tho past, ami which Involves, indi
rectly at IomI, the whole subject of our duly to
Mexico as a neighboring State. The exercise
of the power of the United States in that coun
try to re lr»w thi wrung* and protect the rights
of our own citizens is none the less to be desired
bfcaut efficient .in I necessary aid may thus be
rendered at the samo time to restore peace and
order to Mexico itself. In the accomplishment
of this result the people of the United States
must necsmarily feci n deep an 1 earnest inter
est. Mcxico ought to (hi a rich and prosjtcrous
and powerful republic. She possesM-sancxtcn
sivo territory, a tertile soil, aud an incalculable
store of mineral wealth. She occupies an im
portant |K*ition between the flulf and the ocean
for transit routes ami for commerce. Is it |k»
siblo that such a country as this can be given
up to anarchy ami ruiu without an effort from
any quarter for its rescue and its safety ? WUl
the commercial nations of tho world, which
have so many interests connected with it, re
main wholly inditferrtit to such a result? Can
the Uuited Statca.-wjiecially, which ought to
share most largely in lU commercial intercourse,
allow their immediate neighbor thus to destroy
itself and injure thein? Vet, without support
from some quarter, it is impossible to perosm
how Mexico can resume her position among na
tions and eater upon a career which promises
any good results. The aid which she requires,
and which the interests of all commercial coun
tries require that she should have, it belongs to
this Government to render, not only by virtue
of our neighborhood to Mcxico, along whose
territory we have a continuous frontier of near
ly a thovaand miles, but by virtue, also, of our
established polk?. wldch is inconsistent with
the intervention of any Kuropcan Power in the
domestie concerns of that republic.
The wrongs which we have suffered from Mcx
————————
icoaro before the world, and must deeply im
press ©very American citlxen. A government
which is either unable or unwilling to tvircn
•;uch wrongs JftlcreUct (>« It h:; hi t duties.—
I The difficulty coil* sts in sclectingand enforcing
ncdy. Ue may in vain apnly to the pon
•titutional government nt Vera Itux, although
I it is well disposed to do us justice, for adequate
redrew. Whilst its authority is ackuowledgrd
in all the imjtortant ports and throughout the
sca-oonsts or the rej)ublic, its power docs not
extend to the city of Mexico and the States in
its vicinity, where nearly nil the recent outru
| pes have been committed on American citizens.
1 We raust jicnetrate into the interior before we
| can reach the oflenders, and thi^ can only be
i done by posting through the territory in the
j occupation of tho constitutional government.—
The most acceptable and leant difbcult niodo of |
accomplishing the object will be to act in con
cert with tint government. Their conscnt and |
their aid might, I believe, be obtained; but if i
not, our obligation to protect our own citizens j
in their just rights, secured hy treaty, would
not be the less imperative. For these reasons,'
I recommend to Congress to pans a law author
izing the President, under such conditions as i
they may deem expedient, to employ a suflicient
military force to enter Mexico for tho nurposo
cf obtaining indemnity for the past and sccuri
ty for the future. I nurposcly refrniu from
any suggestion as to whether this forco shall
consist of regular troops or volunteers, or both.
This question may be must appropriately left
to tho decision »>l I I would merely
observe that, should volunteers be selected,
hucIi a forco could be easily raised in this coun
try among those who sympathl e with tho suf
enngs of our unfortunate fellow-cltizcns in Mex
ico, and with tho unhappy condition of that
republic. Such an accession to the forces of
tho constitutional government would enable it
soon to reach the city of Mexico and extend
its power over tho wholo republic. In that
event there is no reason to doubt that the just
claims ot our cltiscns would t o ntufk I and ad
equate redress obtained for tho injuries inflict*
ed upon them. The constitutional government
have ever evinced a strong di -<irc to do us jus
tice, and this might be scoured in advance by a
preliminary treaty.
It may l>c naul tnat tii e measures nm, m
least indirectly, be inc«>n i-lent with our wis*
and settled jxiliey not to interfere in thedonics
tic cunccrns of foreign nation*. Hut docs not
the present case fairly constitute an exception?
An adjoining republic in in a stale of anarchy
and confusion from which she tins proved wliol
1/ unable to exiricate herself. She is en
tirely destitute of the power to maintain peace
u|h»ii her Itordeis, < r to prevent tlio incun i>>).
of banditti into our territory, lu her fate nnd
in her fortune—in her power to establish and
hi tintain a settled government—we liave a far
deeper interest, socially, commercially, and po
litically than nuy other nation, yiic is now a
wreck upon the ocean, drifting about as #he is
impelled by different f.ietio'.s. As a good nci^li
bor, shall vo not extend to her a helping hand
to save her? If wo do not, it would not be
surprising should some other nation undertake
the task, and thus force us to inteitcro at lust,
under circumstances of inorea«ed dillictilty, for
tlie maintenance of our established policy.
I repeat the recommendation contained in my
last annual message,that authority may bo given
to the President to establish one or more tem
porary military posts across the Mexican line
in Sonorn nnd Chihualun, where tlicso may be
necessary to protect the lives and property of
Ameriean and Mexican citizen* ngamst tho in
cursions and depredations ot tho Indians, as
well as of lawless rovers on that remote region.
Tho establishment orTtne such )>ost at a point
called Arispe, in Sonora, in a country now al
most depopulated by the hostile inroads of tho
Indiaus from our side of the line, would, it is
believed, have prevented much injury an I many
cruelties during the past season. A stato of
lawlessness and violence prevailson that distant
frontier. Life and property are there wholly
insecure.
Territory qf ,1riz<> la.
Tho popalation of Arizona, now num
bering more than ten thousand • >m!«, nro prac
tically destitute of government, of lawn, or of
any regular administration of jiiKtico. Mur
der, rapine, and other c> iiiiei are committed
with impunity. I, therefore, n~ain call the at
tention of Congress to the necessity for estnb
lishing a territorial government over Arizona.
Treaty with1 .Yiritrayia, fyr.
Tho treaty with Nicaragua of tho 10th Feb.
ruary, IR.T7, to which 1 referred in my Inst an
nual message, failed to receive the ratification
i»f the government of that republic, for reasona
ivhich I uee<l not enumerate. A similar treaty
lias been sinco oouoludcd between the parties
inuring date on the Kith March, 1K30, which
lias already been ratiflc.1 by the Nicuaguan
Congress. This will be immediately submitted
to tho Senate for their ratification. Its provis
on> cannot, I think, fail to be acceptable to
[ho people of both countries.
Our claims against tho governments of Cos.
ta Rica ami Nicaragua remain unrodrr -ed,
though they arc pres.sed in an earnest manner,
!iml uot without hojw of suocess.
Protection of the Trie, til Houtci.
I deem it to be my duty unco more earnestly
to recommend to Congn s the pa^.t're of a law
authorising the Preside! t to employ the naval
force at his command for the purpose of pro
tecting the lives and property of American cit
izens passing in transit across tho I'annma,
Nicaragua, and Tehuantrpeo routes, against
sudden and lawless outbreaks and depredations.
I shall not rc|*cat the arguments employed in
former messages in support of this measure.—
Sutlioe it to say that tho lives id' many of our
people, ami tho security ot vast amounts ot
treasure passing and re-paying over |UiO or
more of these routes between the Atlannc and
l'aoific, may be d»ejdy involved in the action ot
Congress on this subject.
I would, also, again recommend to Congress
that authority be given to the President to em
ploy the naval forco to pi-otcct American mer
chant vessels, their crew* and cargoes, against
violent and lawless seizure and confiscation in
the porta of Mexico and the Spanish American
States when these countries may bo in a dis
turbed aud revolutionary condition. Tho mere
knowledge that such an authority had been
conferred, as I have already states!, would of
itself, in a great degree, prevent the evil. Nei
ther would this require any additional appro
priation for the naval service.
The chief objection urged against tho grant
of this authority is, that Congress, by confer
ring it, would violate the constitution—that it
would be a transfer of the war-making, or,
strictly shaking, the war-declaring ]Mtwer to
the I'.xeculivc. If th's were well founded, it
would, of course, bo com. I iimvo. A very brief
examination, liowdvar, will place this objection
at rest.
Congress possess the «ole ntiu exclusive pow
er, under the constitution, "to declare war."
They alone can "raise and support armies,"
and "provide und maintain u navy." lSut after
Congress shall have declared war,and provide*!
the force necessary to cirry it on, the President,
a* Commander-in-Chief of the army and navy,
can alone employ th!* forc»» in making war
against the enemy. This is the plain language,
an«l history proves that it was tho well-known
intention of the framcrs of the Constitution.
It will not be denied that tlie general "power
to declare war" is without limitation, nud em
braces within itself not only what writers on
the law of uations term a public or perfect war,
but also :\u imperfect war—and, In short, ev
ery species of hostility, however contincd or
liniwed. Without the authority of Congress the
President cannot fire a hostile pun in any case,
except to rej>el the attacks of an enemy. It will
not be doubted that timler this |>ow<^r Congress
ci.uM, if they thought proper, authorize tho
President to employ the force nt his command
to seixe * vessel belonging to an American citi
zen which had been illegally and unjustly cap
tured in a foreign |x>rt and restored to its own
er. Hut cau Congress only act after the fact—
after the mischiethas been done? Have they
no power to conter upon the Prr.-ddcnt the au
thority in advance to l\iroiah Instant ndiw
should such a case afterwards occur? Must they
wait until the mischief ha* been done, mid can
they apply the remedy only when it is too late?
To confer this authority t>» meet future cases
under circumstances strictly ftpocltlcd, is as
clearly within the war-declaring power as such
an authority conferred upon tiie President by
act of Congress after tho deed has been done.—
In the progress ot a great nation many cxigcu
eke must an.- tively requiring ibatGon
gress should authorize the President to act
promptly on certain conditions which may or
may not afterwards arise. Our history has al
ready presented a number of such cases. I shall
refer only to the latest.
Under tho resolution ol Jnno 2, 1858, "for
tho adjustment of difficulties with the republic of
Paraguay," t)ic President Is "authorized to
adopt such mntsures and uso such force as iu
his judgment may be accessary and advisable in
the event of a refusal of just satisfaction by the
government of Paraguay." "Just satisfac
tion" for what? For "the attack on the U. S.
steamer Water Witch," and "other matters re
ferred to in the annual message of the Presi
dent." Here the power is expressly granted
upon tho condition that the government of Par
aguay shall refuse to render this "just satisfac
Hon." In thin and other similar cases Congres.'
liuvo Conferred upon the President powerin ml
vane« to employ the at my and nary upon the
happening of contingent future events;nn I thh
most certainly is euiuruced within the power U
declare wnr.
Now, if thin conditional and continent pow.
cr conld l« constitutionally conferred upon tin
President in th«» cn*e of l'aru^uay, why may il
not be conferred for tlxparpoM of protecting!
the lives and property of American citizens in
the event tlmi they may bo viulently and un>
1 iv. tully attacked in passing over tho transil
routes ti»»nd from California, ornsitailcd by tin
Bcistireof theirrenewIn* foreign port? Tc
deny till" |»)wer is to render tho navj in a grcal
degree useless f>r the protection of the lives and
property of American citizens in countrio
where neither protection nor rtdrcss can b(
otherwise obtained.
Pott Ofjift .Ijfairt.
The thirty-fifth Congms terminated on tin
3d of March, 1859, without having passed tlx
"net making appropriations for tho service ol
the Post Ollieo Department during thoji^cal
year ending tho !10th of June, 18 .0." This net
also contained an appro]>:-'.itloiv "to supply dc.
fioiencicj in tho revenue ot the I'ust Otlico Its
p-irtment fur the year ending the liOth of June,
1S33." I believe this Is the tirst instanco sincc
tho formation of the Federal Government, now
.more than seventy years aero, when any Con
gres wents out of existence without having
pn.' H 1 all the uMieral appropriation bills nece*
bury to carry on the government until the rcg.
ular period for the meeting of a new Congress.
This event imposed on the executive a grave re
sponsibility. It prunlld a choice of evils.
1111 this omiision of duty occurred at the
fir-t session of tho lust Congress, the remedy
would have been plain. _ 1 mittht then have in
stantly recalled them toeompletc their work—
and this without expense to the government.—
Hut on the 1th of March Inst thcro were fifteen
of the thirty-three Stnt<s which had not elected
any representatives to the present Congress.—
Had Congress been called together immediately
these States would have been virtually disfran
chise 1. If nn Intermediate |ieriod lind been se
leeted, several of tho S;ntcs would have been
compelled to hold extra >> Wions uf their Lcgis
latures.at great Inconvt nicnce and expense, to
provide for elections at nn carlbr day ilmu that
previously fixed by law. lu tiu* : .*g u In r course,
ten of these States would not elect until after
the beginning of August, n: lii.eof these ten
not until October or Jfovcn ' er.
I'll uiu onr.T u imi, i uvii i c;iin - i«> < \ u. .ii
carcftilly the a n iition of th > i'ont O.Vre I c
p irtment, I did not n eet as many or as {Jreat
dllli jidtit t us I hid apprchcmtt i. li t i ilio bill
vliiv li failed been conlined to.•j-ifrtmriiilioiialor
tie fi-cal year ending on the3t;:!i orJune inxt,
thtro would bin been no renon of pnalng
importance for tho call of nn extra ; don.—
Nothing would becotno due on contracts (ill ••
v.itli railroad companies only cx <1 (<•!) for car
rying the ninil for tho first quar.er of'the pu -
ent lis *ul year, commencing on t !n* I at of July,
until t ic li rat of December—less than one week
before the meeting of the prevent Congress.
The reason is that the mail contractors lor this
the current year did not complete their first
quarter'* service until the 30th September last;
and by the terms of their contracts sixty days
more arc allowed for Ilic settlement of their ac
c i;n s licloretho Department could be called
ui on for payment.
The great difficulty and tho great hardship
eons'hted in the failure to provide for tho pay
ment of the deficiency in the fiscal year ending
the 3!>th June, 18A>. The department iiad en
tered into contracts, in obedience to existing
laws, for the service of that fiscal year, and the
contractors were fairly entitled to their com
pt Motion us it became due, The deficiency as
state I in the bill amounted to £3,838,7*7, It ,t
after a careful settlement of nil these accounts,
it has been ascertained that it amounts to 1,
5i9'i,009. With the scanty means at his com
mand the Postmaster General has managed to
j .y that portion of this deficiency which oc
curred in the tirst two quarters of tho past lis.
e il year, ending on the 31st December lust. In
the mean time tlie contractors themselves, un
der these trying circumstances, have behaved
in a manner worthy of all commendation. They
h id one recourse in tho midst ol their embarrass -
mcnts. After the amount due to each of them
had been ascertained nud finally Mttlcd accord
ing to law, this befame a specified debt of rec
ord against tho United States, which enabled
them to borrow money on this unquestionable
security. Still they were obliged to pay inter
est in consequence of tho default of Congress,
ami on every principle ot justice ought to re
ceive Interest from tho government. This inter
est should commence from tho date when a war
rant would have issued for the payment of the
principal had nn appropriation been made for
this purpose. Calculated up to 1st Dcceiuber,
it will not exceed tc SVO,MiO—a sum not to bo
taken into account when contrasted with the
great difficulties and embarrassments of a pub
lic :fjid private character, both to the people nud
the States, which would have resulted from con
vening aud holding a special session of Con
gr«>«.
For these reasons I recommend the jmrsagc
of a bill, at as early a day as may be practica
ble, to provide for the payment of the amount,
with interest, duo to these last mentioned con
tractors, as well as to make the necessary ap
propriation* for tho service of tho Post Offijo
Department for the current fiscal year.
I lie 11:11111» t<» pa s me ro>.t umcc mil neces
sarily gives birtla to serious reflections. Cou
pre ■<, liy refusing to pass the ponoral appro
print ion Itiilo neccs.siry to carry on the Govern
mi nt, may not only arrest (Ihnotion,but might
even destroy its existence. The army, llio tin
vy, tho ju.iiciniy, in sliort every department
ot t lie (JovcrnmeiU, cnu no longer perform
their functions if Congress refuses tlic money
necessary fortheirsupport. Ifthis fuiluicshould
te»ch tlic country the necessity ofclccting 11 full
Congn s in sulhcient timo to enalilo tho l'rcsi
di'iit to convene thcin in any emergency, even
immediately after the oi l Congress has expired,
it will have been productive of prent good. In
a time of sudden and alarming danger, foreign
or domestic, which nil nations must expect to
encounter in their progress, the very salvation
of our inotitutions may bo staked upon tho as
sembling ofCoogTM without delay• If, under
Mich circumstances, the President should lind'
bin eU ill the OOUlltion ill which bo VU placcd
at the close of tho last Congress, with nearly
half the States of the Union distitutc of repre
sentatives, the consequences might bo disas
trous. I, therefore, recommend to Congress to
carrj into effect the provisions of the Consti
tution 011 tills sulijcct, and to pass 11 law ap
pointing some dav previous to the 1th March
in each \ f ir of odd number fir the election of
•it itivi • tliroiiL'hout all the Stales. They
ban* already appointed n day for tho election
of electors tor President and Vice President,
and this measure has been approved by tho
country.
Pac\fic H til road.
1 would ngaln express a »io.st dccided opin
ion in favor of the construction of a Pacific
railroad, for tlio reasons stated in uiy two lost
annual me^n^es. When I rellect upon what
would be the defenceless condition of our States
and Territories west of the Ilocky Mountains
in caw of a war with a naval power sutlicicutly
strong to interrupt all intercourse with them
by tho routes across the Isthmus, I atn still
more convinced than ever of tho va»t impor
tance of this railroad. I havo never doubted
the constitutional comjwtcncy of Congress to
Provide for its const *uction. but this exclusive
ly utt'ler tho war-nnking jiowcr. Besides, the
constitution expressly requires, as an im|>cra
tive duty, that "the United States shall protect
each of them (the States) against invasion."
I am at n loss to conceive hor this protection
can be afforded to California and Oregon against
such a naval jxtwer by any other means. I re
peat the opinion contained in iny last annual <
message, that it would be inexpedient for the
government to undertukc this great work by
agents of its own a|>|H>intment aud under its
direct and exclusive control. This would in
crease the patronage of tho Executive to a dan
gerous extent, and would foster a system of.
jobbiug and corruption which no vigihiiice on
the part of federal olhcials could prevent. The
construction of this road ought, therefore, to
l>c entrusted to incorjioratcd companies, or oth
er agencies, who would cxcrcise that active and
vigilant *u|*rv!s!on over it which can be in
spired alone by n *ense of oorporsto and indl
vntaal merest. I venture to assert that addition- '
al cost of traus]>orting troops, munitions of war
and ueccssary supplies for the anuy rcross tho
vast intervening plans to our j»os?<»sions on
the Pacific co<u>t would be greater iu such a
war than the whole amount required to con
stauct tho road. And yet this resort would af
ter all, be inadequate for thir defence and pro
tection.
Financial.Iffairt.
Wc hive yet »carecly recovered from the
habits<4"extravagant cx|»cnditure, prodacod by
.11 » re.u>ury, during s vcrsl years
• t.i commencement of my adiuinstration,
• I reverse* which we have since ex- j
loght toteaeh oaaH toMratlaiaootir j
■' -t vcilancr, and to |
reiluco them to the lowest )H>ssibIe point. The
Rgeetttlve Departments of the Government lime
deroted themselves to the accomplishment of
this object with considerable success, as will,
appear from their different reports ond esti
mate*. To these I Invite tho serutluy of Con
gress, fin- (ho purpose of reducing them ntill
lower, if this be practicable, consistent with tho
};rcnt public interests of the country. In ni>l
of the policy of retrenchment I pledge myself
to examine closely the bills appropriating lands
or money, so that if any of tbcae should inad
vertently pan both houses. in must sometimes
I be the case, I may nffonl thorn an opportunity
j for reconsideration. At tho same time, wo
' ought never to forget that true public economy
consists not in withholding the means necessa
ry to accomplish important national objects
confided to us by the Constitution, but in
taking care that the money upproprated for
these purposes shall bo faithfully and 'frugally
expended.
It will ap|)car from tho report of the Secre
tary of tho Treasury that it is extremely doubt
ful, to say the least, whether we shall be aide
to pass through the iirrtcnt and the next fiscal
year without providing additional revenue.—
This can only be accomplished by strictly con
fining the appropriations within the estimates
of tho different departments, without making
an allowance for any additional expenditures
which Congress m»y think proper, in their dis
cretion, to authorize, and without providing
for the redemption of any portion of tho S20,
000,000 of Treasury notes which have been ui
read/ issued. In the event of a deficiency,
which 1 consider probable, this ought never to
bo supplied by a ir < i t to additional loam. It
would bo a ruinous practico in the days 0/
]>eaco and prosperity to go on increasing the
national debt to meet the ordinary expenses of
the government. This policy would cripple
our resources and Impair our credit in ca*e tho
existence of war should render It nee v-ury to
borrow money. Should such a defijicncy oc
cur a* I apprehend, 1 would I'vcu-iniei.d that
tho neccsaary revenuebe raised l.,s in increase of
our present duties on imports. I need not re
peat the opinions expressed in my 1 ist annual
message as to the l>e«.t mode and manner of ac
complishing this object, and shall now merely
observe that these have sinco umkrgoao no
change.
J nc report oi ine Pitrswrj- «i »w irouurj
will explain in detail the operation.* of that de
partment of the go\erumeut.
The receipts into the tr<*asury froin nil sourc
es during the fiscal year ending 30th Juno,
1859, including the loan authorized hy the net
ol 11th Juno, 1858, and the N«uc of treasury
not.n authorized by existing lawn, were eighty
one million* six hundred and ninety-tivo thous
and four hundred and tcYcntv-ono dollars and
one cont ( (810 \ 171 01), which Htm, with tho
balance ot's x million.", three hundred and nine
i ty eight thousand three hundre I and sixteen
| dollars and ten cents ($0,308,310 10) remain
ing in tlio treasury at the commencement of
that flsoal year, made nn aggregate fur the ser
vice of the year of ci^ht v-cight millions ninety
thousand seven hundred and eighty-sc\cn dof
larn and eleven ccntH (#88,090,787 II). *
The public expenditure* during the fiscal I
year ending 30th June, 1839, amounted to
eight v-threo million seven hundred and My
otic thousand five hundred and eleven dollirs
an 1 fifty-seven ccnls ({•83,731,511 37). Of
this Finn seventeen million four hundred and
five thousand two hundred and eighty-live dol
lars and torty-four cents (#17,405,'<8344) were
applied to the payment ol interest on tlio pub
lic debt and the redemption of the issues of
treasury notes. The expenditures for all the
other branches of the publicser\ice during that
fiscal year were therefore sixty-six million three
hiindrtd and forty mx thousand two hundred
and twenty six dollars and thirteen cents (fc'tiO,
340,99013).
The balance remaining in the treasury on the
1st July, 18.?.), being the commencement of the
present liscal year, was foui^uillion three hun
dred and thirty nine thousand two hundred and
soventy-fivo dollarsand fifty-four cents (y4,.'139,
W75 5I).
The receipt* into tno treasury during me nr.-i
quarter of tbo prwnt Rml j«'ar, oomiMnelaff
July I, IS"**, were twenty million six hundred
and eighteen thousand eight hundred ami sixty
Ave dollars and cighty-tivo ccnts, (#.0,GI8I
8:>5 85). Of this amount three million eight
hundred and twenty-one thousand three hun
dred doll irs (.'1,821, 30D) wan received on ac
count of the loan and the fesuo of treasury
notes—the nmountof sixteen million seven hun
dred nnd nlr.ety.fcven thousand live hundred
nnd sixty-live dollars and eighty-fi\e cents—
(810,797,50.') 85) having been received during
the quarter from tho ordinary sources of puh
lie revenue. The estimated receipts for the re
maining three-quarters oftho present liscal year
to 30th June, 1800. are flfly million four hun
dred an I twenty-six thou.- ind four hunilrcd
(hllnn, C8fl0,4w9400.1 Of this amount it le
estimated that five million seven hundred and
•ifty-six thousand four hundred dollars (1*5,
703,400) will ho received for treasury notes
which may ho re-issued under the fiftli section
of the not of 3d .March hut, nnd one million one
hundred nnd seventy thousand dollars (SI, 170
000) on account of the loan authorized by the
act of June 14, 1858—making six million nine
hundred and twenty-six thousand (barhundred
dollars (86.030,400) from the e extraordinary
tourccr, and forty-three million Ave hundred
III n I dollars (843,$00,000) front tho or
dinary sources of tho public revenue—making
an aggregate, with the balance In the treasury
on tho IsrJuly, l&.W, of geventy-tivo million
three hundred nnd eighty-four thousand flvo
hundred nod forty-one dollars and oighty-nino
cents ($75,381,511 SO) for tho catliuatod im>nni
of tho present liscal iear, ending 30th June,
1800.
Tlio expenditures during tlic first quarter i>t
Hto pftaent nwikl year «n twenty millions
uotcu thousand one hundred and soventy four
dollars and seven t y-M xottiti, (I 20,007,17470).
Four million six hundred and sixty-tour thou*
sand tliree hundred nnd sixty-six dollars nnd
seventy-six cents (£4',&U,3Ct( 7M) of this rum
were npplied to tho pay incut of interest on the
public debt and the n Linption of flic UbQC* ol
Treasury notes, and the remainder, being fif
teen million three hundred mid forty-two tliou
ennd eight hundred nnd eight dollars (?!(»,312,
80S), were applied to ordinary expenses during
tho quarter. Tho estimated expenditures dur
ing the remaining three quarters, to Juno 30,
lb- 0, are forty million nine hundred and nine
ty-live thousand tivo hundred nnd titty-eight
dollars nnd twenty-three cents (6 40,003,-iWS
*2.1). Of which sum two million eight hundred
and eighty-six thousand tlx hundred nnd twen
ty-one dollars and twenty-four cents (82»8t»'»
621 24) nro estimated for the interest of the
public debt. The ascertained nnd estimated
ex|K>nditiircs for the liscal year ending IlUth
June, K> >0, on account of the public debt, nre,
nocordingly, seven million five hundred nnd
lilty thousand nine hundred and eiiriity-cijilit
(lolwn and ten Hfltl. ^7,690,088 10)| and I >r
the ordinary expenditures of the government,
fifty-three million, four hundred and fifty-one
thousand, seven hundred and forty four dol
lars and eighty-nine cents, ($.">3,431,744 80),
making nu aggregate of sixty-one million two
thousand seven htfhdrcd and thirty-two dol
lars mill ninety-nine ccnts, (gtil ,002,732 00);
leaving an estimated balance in the treasury
on tho 30th June, 1K>0, of fourteen million
thrcelnindrcd and eighty-one thousand eight
hundred nnd eight dolluis and forty ccnts,
(£14.381,808 40.)
Tlio estimated receipts during IX»c next n<u
vear outline 30th Juiio, 1H»»1, are sixty-six mil
lions two hundred mid twenty-five thousand
dollars, ($06,225,000,) which, with tho bal
unco, estimated us before stated, as remaining
in tho Treasury on the 30th Jnue, 18M), will
make an aggregate for the service ol Ttio next
fiscal year of eighty million nix hundred and
six thottsud eiffbl hand rod mmI eight dollars
and forty cents, (£80,< 00,808 40.)
The estimated expenditures during tlio next
fi.-cal year ending 30th of June, 1MJ1, arc sixty
•ix million seven hundred and fourteen thousand
nino hundred and twenty-eight dollars and
reventy-ninc cents, (00,714,928,79.) Of this
amount, three million three hundred and eighty
•ix thousand six hundred nnd twenty-one dol
lars and thirty-four cents, (£3,390,0*21,34,1
will be required to pay the iuterr.it on the pub
lic debt, luaving the sum of sixty-three millions
three hundred and seven dollars ami forty-five
cents ($03,90,307,43) for tho estimated or
dinary expenditures during the flscnl year end
ing 30th June, 1MJ. L'pou these estimates a
balance will l»e left in tho Treasury on the 30th
June, 1801, of thirteen million eight hundred
and ninety-one thousand eight hundred and
seventy-nine dollars and sixty-ono cents, (13,
891,870,01.)
Hut this balance, as well as that estimated to
remain in the treasury on the 1ft July, 1M10,
will be reduced by MM appropriations as shall
be ma<lo by law to carry iuto effect certain In
dian treaties during the present fiscal year,
asked by the Secretary of the Interior, to the
amount of live hundred ami thirty-nine thou
sand three hundred and fifty dollars, ($330,
330,) and upon the estimates of the Postmaster
General for the service of his department the
last fiscal year, ending :10th June, 1859, amount
ing to four millions two hundred and ninety-six
thousand and nine dollars, ($4,290,009,) to
gether with the further estimate of that officer
for the service of the present fiscal year ending
30th June, 18 0, being five million five hundred
and twenty-aix thousand three hundred and
twenty-four dollars, (.*3,.VJi,:)24,) making an
aggregate of ten millkn three hundred and
sixty-one thousand six hundred and eighty three
dollar*. («JO,301.683.)
Should thete appropriations ho maue as re
quested by the proper department*, the hal
aitco in the treasury on the 30th June,
will not, it is estimated, cxcced three million
five hundred and thirty thousand one hundred
and ninety six dollars umlsixty-oncccnts,(£3,
830,100,01.) - , _
I transmit herewith the reports of the Secre
taries of War, of the Navy, of the Interior, and
of the IWuiostcr General. They each contain
vatuablo information and important recommen
dations well worthy of the serious consideration
of Congress.
It will appear ftom the report of the Secreta
ry of War that the army expenditures hare
hfcu materially reduced hy a system of rigid
ecouomy, which, in his opinion, offers CTcry
guarantee that the re<luction will he iterinanent.
The estimates of the Department for the next
year have been reduced nearly two millions of
dollars I clow the estimate fur tho present fiscal
year, and half a million of dollars below the
amount granted for this year at the last session
, I < • II. ! .
The expenditure* of the Past Office Depart
ment during the past fiscal year, ending on the
30th June, 1890, e xclusive of paynicuts for mail
service specially provided for by Congress out
of the general treasury,amounted to (£14,904,
493,33. and its receipts to $7,908,484,07; show
ing a deficiency to bcsupplied from the treasury
of 90,990,009,28 against #3,'#5,077,13 f„r the
year ending 30th dune, 1838. The increased
cost of traus|H)rtation growing out of the ex
pansion of the service required by Congress ex
jdains this rapid augmentation of the expendi
ture. It is gratifying, however, to observe an
iucicano of receipts for the year ending ou tho
30th June, 1H.V>, equal to $181,091,21, compar
ed with thoso iu tho year ending on the 30th
June, 1838.
It is estimated that the deficiency for the cur
rent fiscal year will be 83,988,424,04, but that
for the year ending 30th June, IH31, it will not
excccd $1,342,473,90, should Congress adopt
the measures of reform projtosod and uiged by
the l'o&tmastcr General. Since the month of
March retrenchment* havo been made in the
expenditures amountingto gl.S^vni annual
ly, which, ffowevr-, diil not take effect until af
ter tho commencement «<f tho present fiscal year.
The period seems to have arrived for determin
ing the question whether this Department shall
bcoomc a permanent and ever-increasing charge
upon tho Treasury, or shall be permitted to re
sumo tho self-sustaining policy which had so
long controlled its adminis tration. Tho course
of legislation recommended by the Postmaster
General for tho relief of the Department from
its present embarrassments, and for restoring
it to its original indcpcndcncc, is deserving of
our early and earnest consideration.
In conclusion, I would again commend to the
Just liberality of Congress (bo local interests of
the District of Columbia. Surely the city bear
ing the name of Washington, and destined, I
trust, for ages to be the capital of our united,
free and proslierous confederacy, h is strong
claims on our • ivorablc regard.
JAMES BUCHANAN.
Washington Citt, December 19,183.1.
Bltlilcforil, Me., Friday Mornin?, Jan. G. l'CO.
The Itopiiblican Natlonnl Convention.
A National RepuMK in Convention will moot nl
Chicago on WKUMMDAY, tlio 13th day or June
next, nt 13 o'clock, (noon) fur tlio nomination of «an<
didntc* to bo mipported for President iuhI v!co I'rii'
Idcnt at tlio next election.
Tito Republican electors of Cie severnl Htatci
tho member* of tlio People's party of Ponnsylra
ula, and of tlio Opposition party of New Jersey,
ati.l all others who arc willing to co operate with
tlicui lit support of the candidates who shall there
bo nominated, and who nro opposed to tho policy
of the present Administration ; to Federal corrup
tion and u urpatloui to tlio extension of Slavery
Into tlio Territories | to tho new and dan^eroui
political doctrino that the Constitution, of its own
force, carrlo* Hlafery Into all tho Territories of
tlio United States} to the re-opening of tho Afri
can alavotrado} tonuy Inequality of rights amon^
citizen* i and who aro in fivor of tho Immediate
admission of Kan«as into tlio Union under tho
t'onstltuti m recently adopted hy its people ( of re
storing tho Federal Administration to a system of
rigid economy, and to the princ'plcs of Washing
ton and Jefferson j of maintaining Inviolate the
rights of the .Stilus, nnd defending tho aoll of ev
ery State and Territory from lawless iiiv.islon;
and of preserving tho Integrity ot this Union, und
the supremacy of tho Constitution ami laws passed
In pursttanco thereof, against tho Conspiracy of
tlio lenders of a sectional party to resist tho ma
jority principle as established in this Oovormncnt
nt tho cxpen«o of Its existence—nro invited to send
from each ht ita two delegate* from cvory Gongrcs.
■lonal District, and four dclogatQi at largo to tho
Convention.
Edwin I). Sformn. New Vurk.
Joaepli PartU11. Maine.
tlcor e (I. Ko«, New lliiinp«!ilre.
Ltwrmri) Uralnard, Vermont.
John Z tioodrlch, .Husicliun tU.
Will In in M. Clin*", Hliodo Maud.
(ildeon Well*. IVum eticuf.
Tlioinii* William*. Peniu|lranlii.
Jatm-a O. blicrnuiii, New Jct*cy. ,
(Jronre Ilarrl#, Jinryland.
Alfred Caldwell. Virginia.
Tliomivi h|)'» ner, Ohio.
<'u*?tu? M. Clay. Kentucky.
James HKclilc. Indiana.
Norman 11. J mid, Illinois.
Znelmrlnli t'handler. Mh-hl-^an.
John 1(. Tweodv, U IsconMii.
Alexander II. llantMy, Minnesota.
Andrew J. Stevens, Iowa.
A«aH. Jones, .Mls-'otu I.
Martin H. Conway, Kansas.
Lewis Clepfiano, District of Coluiulda.
New YorL, Dec. £». IflW.
.11 nine 'IVinpcnwior .Wooiition.
The annual meeting of Ihla Association will lio
heldln ai i.i rrA,«n Weoxpiiur, Um lAta dijf tC
January. I. *>, and i\cill rantinur in union tiro tUyt.
It It lariH-tl* hoped that a lar.'e delegation |NM
every inirtlon of the Mate. wlllhc nt tli« meeting
An Invitation to attend. and freely participate In
thedlsoursiomi of thooogaslon. Is hereby cheerfully
extended l-» every friend of 'temperance, of what
ever order,rellni• ussret,<>r |*olitlcal oarty.
The l ik. of piohlhltlnri !» the n't or the pcoplo.
Th>' |n*o,iio require prohibition, n. tonly an a rem
edy lor existing evils, hut also n« a preventive of
other evils, which must Inevitably iluw from the
■uh' mid u«o i f Intoxicating drinks.
Tht un-pcakr.blo blesaiu;;* of Temperance aro
railed In question by none. I'mt since there 's di
versity of .H'titlincnt yet remaining; hut rapidly dU
MlnUoInf:wnongUmIHiif.-11 hapiraw•.m t1
Uie 1 promoting the «m, It ie«tiu
iteeuliarly appropriate that thcro should tx» a free
JntTclinnjre of opinion. In order that tliu most be
neficent reMilUmuy l»o secured.
Not ovorluoL Ins tlio power of moral suasion, the
adaptation or laiv an n neci swiry iiirencv, Is hImi
cleatly perceived, while it« enactment I* tlio direct
oonsvquenco of apjM-aland persuasion. It* action,
under a u • mid . -!. -matlu application, has lieen
uniformly »ti«,oef-f-('iil. nnd nil rally dMMBltllMd
l»oth the wImIoiii and necesally ot tlio measure. The
perfection of the law, however, i» not yet readied.
It may Imj deriued cxjicdient, therefore, to urjje ro
Tlsloti lu soine of It* more Important provisions.
While the Committee moit heaftlly rejoleo Jn the
Eeut proarirs which has thus far be«n made In thl«
0 | li nt callfe, they IN B't unmindful of the
dan^ci ot don,already I'-.lining to threat
en, Iroiu the apathy or lt< friend*. I<et the attend
anee, then, at the annual im-itinc, Ite full j let
friend* a^'emtile with warm heart* and earnest
pnri>'.«e, and the n -ult wil, iiiinentlv lielielleinl
to the material ami moral welldiclng of the Mate.
NI'AL DOW, 1
C. A. iTTACKPOLn,
NOAII .sMITII, Jr .
I.KoNAKDANimKWS, Ktato
FUHDKIUI'K 110 III E, } Kxeeutlve
JOMIH'A NVI*. I Committee.
D. 11. KANDAIJ.L,
». 1^ CA ItM.TON,
JOHN 8. CAHLhTON,
lUlHTh FoR/iia.hcc'y. C2
Tiik Mount—Wc publish the message of
the President in our columns to-day. We have
no comments to make u|>on tlto document, ex
cept to ask the attention of our readers to the
position assume-1 by the President that slavery
*un<ler the constitution is extended into tho ter
ritories, and that if the present Judicial power
U insufficient for its protection, legislative aid
must be granted. The position b considered
, tho lowest bid yet, [for Southern support for
i the I'rcsi Jcncy, and a direct cut to the doctrines
I of Douglas.
CoxnnrMiosAL.—Since our Isat, Congriws
I has been going on in the usual way—* great
• deal of talking, and a little voting, both arriv
ing at the some result—nothing.
Editorial Correspondence.
Auuem, Jan. 3, 18G0.
Wc find, on our arrival here to^lay, that the
unpleasant rumors that have been current for
a few days, implicating Mr. I'eck, our Trea*.
urcr ofState, in improper, and as it seems high,
ly culpable financial transaction*, in which tho
money of the State has been used by him in
private simulations are, in the main correct.—
There are many stories told resiling the na
ture and extent of these transactions,aud*D «m
not without ilifliculty that we were able to get
at (lie material facts of the we.
Unfortunately for Mr. Peck, in an evil hour,
he was drawn iuto the snares of >orac men in
Ilangor, the roost prominent of whom are lead,
ing Duchanan Democrats in that city, and fed
eral offico holders, who have victimised him,
and plucked him to a large extent, by drawing
hint into an-extensive lumbering concern in
Canada, to support which and to carry on its
exteuilvo operations, he has used the money of
the State to tho amount of some $73,000 or
£b0,000. This money he has used unbeknown
to Mr. Caldwell hig assistant Treasurer in tho
ofiice, alien lie has been away from Augusia,
checking it from the Banks in which it was de
posited as his wants required, and managing it
ill such a way as to prevent its coiiftng to tho
knowledge of the assistant Treasurer, who keep*
the books and does the general oi!ico business.
The books, which are all straight, show an aj>
parent balance of $104,000 or thrrcabouts dis
tributed among quite a number of Hanks in tho
State. The cu^uiry of the Dink Coinn>in«loii
crs into the affairs of the N'oromliega Dank re
vealed evidences of his improper conduct, and
the Governor mid Council were immediately
apprized of the facts, and they took measures
at once to learn the true state of affaire. It turns
out on enquiry that of this $101,000, perhaps
there may be $30,000 on deposit, and that tho
balance has been improperly used, and in* ad
dition to this, Mr. I*. in come instances has
overdrawn to large amounts, placing his i>fli
c'al signature on checks f>r that purpose, and
what is equally reprehensible, he has accrpti-d
private drafts in his official capacity. On liia
bond there are nine nawies, several of them men
of reputed wealth, so mo residing in Danger ami
some in Portland. On being apprized of tlu^o
facts, n portion of them who are extensively
engaged in business, as it is said to gain timo
to learn more fttlly the iiinouut I or which they
arc reprehensible, transferred their property to
other creditors.
I lorn to ilny that tno proi>eriy id vamvia
fur which Mr. I'eck used this money,consisting
of timber limit* and a large •team saw-iuill, baa
been transferred to tlic signers of the bond, and
that the State will In the end suffer no loss. Wo
liavr nothing to say in extenuation of Mr. l"n
conduct, and shall not, Ittcausr he sympathized
with us in political opinion, palliate or defend
it. There in not a member of the Ilepuhlicni
party bore, or can there be found ono in tho
State who will do so. Mr. IVxk was in somo
measure entrusted with the honor and integri
ty ol the party, anil the excuscthat he fell "in
a den ofthierca" who havo used him as stool
pigeon to pluck the treasury is of no avail in •
our view. The men in whom company lie is
found were a portion of them his |>olitical op
ponent*, and he ought not to have been there,
ft would have been l'iir at least to have looked
u|M>n theiri>o)itical position a* presumptive ev
idence of their being unsuitable men with whotn
to have ]>ecuu:ary transactions. Then again tho
law of tho Stato expressly forbids tho Treasurer
from using the public money for privato pur
poses, and makes him criminally rvsponsihlo
for any improper use thereof. Mr. Peck knew
this and ho must take tho consequences of his
conduct. The Republican party has no sym
pathy with public plunderers, and no matter
whether peculation is found within its own
ranks, or the ranks of its opponent.", it* presses
and its leading men will denounco it nnd will
not screen offenders from tho consequences of
their acts.
This much \rc have ti» say now. Ilcgretting
ru ovrry Itepubli&in will tl»o culpability of ono
who linn received nt tceir hand* honor* ami
emoluments, nml one from whom they had a
right to c.\|icct different things, tlicy will not
coucludo that the Individual conduct of ouo
mm can depredate the value of the principlon
they profess, or lesacn their anxiety to pro
mote them.
The affair will suggest to tho Representa
tives additional legislative safeguards to prc
vent a recurrence of like character, and the ex
erclsc of great caution in the selection ofanoth
er man to fdl tho office hereafter.
L. O. C.
AcatrsTA, Jan. 4, 1800.
Tho republican members of the leghdaturo
in their caucus hint evening, made the follow
ing nominations for ofheent of the two branches.
SWUTB.—'Thomas II. Marshall, President;
James M. Lincoln, of Hath, Secretary; K. C.
llrett of Oldtown, assistant Secretary; Hlako
ot Farming^n Messenger; Hall, nrsistaut.
Ilouut.—Frederick A I'ike, Calais, S|>eaker;
Charles A. Miller, Clerk; Frank A. Drew of
Fort Fairfield, assistant clerk; K. P. Pareher,
of Biddeford, Messenger; Norton, assistant.
The ctiueusce were entirely harmonious, and
the best ot feeling prevail* among tho republi
can members.
The Democrats nominated Mr. I.udwig, of
Thoinaston, for S|>cakcr. L. 0. C.
ry A puldio installation of the officer* elect
ofthe&ico Lodge of Odd Fellows, took placo
at the Town Hall Sic Tue»lay evening
last. A largo number were present to witness
tho ceremonies, which were of a very iutcreaU
!ng character.
Tur. Tndrpkxdrxt.—An advertisement of this
valuable religious newspaper will b« found In
another column. It will be seen that greater
inducements than ever before are offered to it*
patrons.
Tin: InnKrnwiuLK CowruiT.—A letterdated
Cynthia, Ky., says:
" Three t*rson* (preachers) were arrratrd
tor tam|>ering with negroes in county
Ky., last week. They were tarred ami leather
ed and sent luck to tho North from whence
they came. They arc considered murderer*
here. A ntlemm has Icon notified to
leave the 8ta e. The jirople here aredcterinin
ed to drive all *u:h |>craoiia out."
17" Monday wai the coldest of the •eason—
30 to 31 below iero at sunrise.
Of' Fernando Wood and his immediate
friends have engaged moms for a hundred per
sons in Charleston, at the time of Uie [Conven
tion's meeting. This indicates a bruising
match, which shall be equal to that we saw at
Syracuse. The Mack Guard of Charleston will
have to be on hand, to restrain the bands of the
blackguards of the Convention.
FiinrKixa fAnrAirr.—Ki«ht female* were
burned toMcatb on Tueaday morning, by tha
destruction of • Iom factory in Bioubury,
Conn. Tbey ware in the tecond «)ory and tha
flantea sprawl to rapidly that they could not
eacape. Two more were badly burned yd two
men were seriously injured.

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