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VOL. I—NO. 1.
THE DAILY EXCHANGE. PUBLISHED EVERY MORNING, (SUND.VTS EXCEPTED,) BY KERR & CO. OFFICE, CARROLL IIALL, 8. E. CORNER OF BALTIMORE AND CALVERT STRH'.T.L EDITORS AND PRORIETOR3. CHARI.KS. <al. KERR. THOMAS W. HALL, JR. TERMS: In the city TWELVE AND A HALF CENTS per week, paya ble to the carrier. Mailed to subscribers, out of the city, at .six DOLLARS per annum; THREE DOLLARS Tor six months and ONF. DOLLAR for two months. Invariably in advance for the time ordered. ADVERTISING RATES. TABLE: (SQUARE—EIGHT LINES.) One insertion..' f0 Two insertions T , Hl *° " SI.OO I* our $1 25 Five " ....'.'.'sLso One week $1.75 One mouth *4.00 Advertisements occupying a larger or smaller space, or inserted for a longer or shorter time, charged for propor tionatoly. THE DAILY EXCHANGE. PROSVF.CTUS. UNDER the above title it is proposed to conduct anil publish in the city of Baltimore a first class Commercial and Political MHKXIXG NEWSPAPER. 1 his enterprise lei ■ been prompted by the conviction that the rapid growth of Baltimore in population and wealth, its constantly augmenting trade, and its conse quently increased commercial and political importance not onlv justify but demand an effort to introduce into the field of journalism that < lenient of competition, which in all other branches of business, has so materially contribu ted to the prosperity of the city, "THE EXI'IIAXGE." With regard to the name, —if an apology were needed, for thus introducing what may per haps be deemed a novelty in the nomenclature of journal ism.—it hat been adopted, not simply for its peculiar ap propriateness in connection with those commercial inter ests to which a paper of the character proposed must be largely <1 -voted, but in its wide and more comprehensive acceptation, as embracing within its scope ail those topics which come within the province of the public press. Ist, NEWS. It will, of course, be the first aim of the ; proprietors to furnish the readers of THE EXCHANGE with the most prompt, lull and authentic intelligence upon all matters of public interest, at home and abroad : and to secure the accomplishment of this result, and theperfec- V. N ' arrangement required to place THE EX- ; . V , 1,1 thls I 'articular on a level with the best jour- : nals of the country, no necessary expense or exertion will i be spaivL. 2d, COMMERCE.— The commercial department of the pa- ! per will include, not only the usual daily reports and i weekly reviews of the markets,domestic and foreign, com- j piled with fulness and accuracy, hut a frequent editorial ! discussionl of the leading financial questions of the day, w it it regard to which the mercantile community naturally look to the public press for comment and suggestion. i AT, POLITICS.— The interests of commerce and the state or the markets are SO constantly and intimately affected b\ the ajpectof political affairs throughout the world, that ajourinil WLUEI. aspires to HE any thing more than a mere commercial reporier or daily price current, must necessa- 1 sanly devote a large space in its columns to the dissemi nation of political intelligence, and the discussion of polit- : " lU ~ l,; im r tment (,r the Paiier. which, apart fiom its commercial importance, also possesses a ' peculiar and exclusive interest of its own. it will be the objectofTHE EXCHANGE to preserve a position ~r honest 1 and fearless independence, equally removed from servile i partisanship upon theone hand, and timid lieutralitv upon the other. * 1 ,4th. LITERATURE AND ART.—FAN did and impartial re views of current literature ami contemporaneous art, mu sicalland dramatical criticisms, by competent judges, and original contributions upon subjects of literary or scientific interest, ,will always find an appropriate place in the col umns of IHE FC.\(JLLA.\GK. and it will be the constant aim of t., • proprietors T RENDER it a valuable and interest ing journal for the family AS well as for the counting- i room . 0 | (fkcation. PATAP3CO FEMALE INSTITUTE MARYLAND I 111 Si EES oi the Patapsco Female j '""Bute nnnouncetu the public that the additional buildings and iroprorcmeutscommenced In- them at ear ago ' in accordance with the subjoined resolutions, are n'ow com- - PIE * bese improvements have not been made with a v.ew to increase the school, but for the greater conveni- I eiice and (omtoit of the usual number of pupils. The new chapel is a handsome and most appropriate- I structure, for the exclusive use of the inmates of the In i stitute. and in all it- arrangements it is most complete. It I * URNI3 bed with a new organ of line construction and ex- ' eel lent tone. The ailiniiii-trotion of Mr. Archer for the past year and : the present lias been attended with unprecedented suc -1 ''' ' "'stees f , 1 themselves fully justified in recommending the Institute to the continued favor of tile i feouth. j it ha- ;i. no •in Ue..l T pupils avWM- I ing, on the one I,and, the d ■hilitntiug elTects of a Southern I climate and on the other the rigors of the North, have feiv of the interruption* incident to both tliesc climates. ! It is sufficiently near to the city of Baltimore to enjov the ! benetils ot a e'ty without any of its evils. As an Institution of learning it lots the advantage of a I run organization. a resident chaplain, and a corps of ac- i complished teacher* and p-ofessors. called together from j time to time in the long experience of those having charge ' of the Institute. , The Trustees of the Patapsco Female Institute, having j been duly notified by Mrs. Lincoln Phelps of ber intention to resignher olhceofprincipalatthcclo.se of the present ! school year, have elected Kobert II Archer as her sueces i sor. The eminent success of M, Archer in conducting for . many years a School for A ouug l.adies in the eitv of Balti m"rr.'(.''"",l(-'s ' l . im 1° confidence as a person peculiarly qualified to maintain the present high standing, and insure : the permanent prosperity of ihe Institution; and with this 1 view we are engaged in the erection of another building in addition to the present extensive accommodations of the Institute. | CHAS. \\ HORSEY. PRESIDENT. WJC. DENNY M I dVhv U P K lr\*vViTl'lX- VATK1 xs I-IOON. E. HAMMOND; k PKLNNLOY. feiidtf. j LAW SCHOOL OF TIIE UNIVERSITY AT CAMBRIDGE, MASS. The Instructors in this School arc Hon. do EL. PAR K Eli, LED., Royal Professor. Hon. THKOPHILDS PARSONS. LL.D.. Dane Professor. Hon. EMORY \V VSHBERN. LL.D.. University Professor. I t lie course ot instruction embraces tile various branches 1 of the Common Law. and of Equity, Admiralty, Com- i | mercial. International and Constitutional Law, and the ! [ Jurisprudence of the Tinted States. The Law Library i I consists of about 14,000 volumes, and as new works an- ! I pear they are added, and every effort is made to render it i complete. Section is given by oral lectures and expositions, I (and by recitations and examinations, in connection with i them,) of wi.ich there are ten every week. Two Moot i Courts arc also ; n each week, at each of which a cause, previously gi ven out. is argued by four students, and an opinion delivered by the Presiding Instructor. ' Rooms and other facilities are also provided for the Club ! Courts, and an Assembly is held weekly for practice in de- Date, and acquiring a knowledge of parliamentary law and j proceedings. Students may enter the School in any stage of their pro 1 fessional studies or mercantile pursuits, and at the com * menement of either term, or in the middle or other part of ' a term. 1 They are at liberty to select what studies they will pur tainment* "' e ' r v ' ew ol their own wants and at- The Academical year, which commences on Thursday six weeks after tl.e third Wednesday in July, is divided into two teims, of twenty weeks each, with a vacation of six weeks at the end of each term During the Winter vacation, the Library is opened warmed, and lighted, for the use of the members of the School. Applications for admission, or for Catalogues, or any : , further information, may be made to either of the l'rofes- ' •If sors at Cambridge. - Cambridge, Mass., January, 1858. [dCt law Cm. ; itli'Mcincs, 4-LRRFU mcrics, AT. |i BRYAN'S PULMONIC WAFERS FOR A* Coughs, Colds. Asthma. Consumption and all diseases of the Lungs. lor sale at WISEMAN' S Drue Store ii Baltimore and Fremont streets. Baltimore ' P22-dlin. T. PI RYLANCE I'OLK ic CO. J APOTHECARIES, Corner of Fayette and St. P.iul Streets, N- HYNSON JENNINGS 8. co APOTHECARIES, No. 88 X. CHARLES STREET, Respectfully call the attention of citizens and the travel ling community to their large and choice assortment of MEDICINES, PERFUMERV, FINE STATIONERY and FANCY ARTICLES, which may be confidently relied on as being what we represent thera. as we select none hut of the pu rest quality. Also, MEDICINE CHESTS, SURGICAL I.VSTRU ME*T.3 ' TRUSSES, DIETETIC PREPARATIONS, &C., kc. written orders filled promptly and with care, subject to /2 dI ? at our expense if not of standard quality. fe22 tf. TLfCSTARD SEED OIL LINIMENT, I ""J, , |een effective wherever used for the relief of I ThJ 1 I );tlDS °f a Hheumatic or Neuralgic character. ■ ! u ,"' c P re P' Teci only <ll Dr. O Neal s Drua Store. ? Mauisoa and Eutauj Strp*t* feb22-1t Pu £t>* , l ; i V; SAM of WILD CHEKKY, RLI ABED AT DR. O'NEAL'S DRUG able remedy fnr Str f U ' U * re "' " tiaiiis in the t l . ' 1 "oarsenecs. Soreness and vantage fX tv*?!" , ' tive 011863 derive much 0,1 ! tnd Indian Hemp enter Into 'it'T- 0 Tar ' , Bloodroot ' pleasant and its e Compoa ' t ' on - >* rpHOSE OF SCROFULOUS" HABIT A with Swelled Neck, Tumors r.ii T ~ ' curial and Syphilitic diseases ami i,- r " ing from a taint in the svstcin n'miir' Dßgener ? y aris " course of treatment, are reoornmend.' l to Sii?S lt, Y e TERATIVE SYRUP.' made at i" ffw'n THk AL " Corner of Madison and Eutaw Streets It ri ,u .h" 8 St ? re ' Im'T" hUmorS ' Te " er ' BoiU ' P'mple^Rin" J feb22-3t \\f ISEMAN'S VERMIFUGE; n, ■ WORM DESTROYPn i Tins remedy for Worms is on.' of the most extraordinary ever used it effectually eradicates Worms of all sorts from children an.l adults' | othlr mTn'eral""' C " nUi " MerCnry in any forra ' nor nny | ti^°L' Sa,e ISEMAN', Druggist, corner of Baltimore ' Fremont streets. Price 25 ceuta. dim. I to" 1 FRISBY HENDERSON, _ ' ■ If * ATTORNEY AT LAW |\ COMMISSIONER FOKVENNSYLVANIA I % fes-' t- 6 CoosELLORs'HALL, I Lexington street. THE MERCANTILE LIBRARY ASSOCIATION. (Founded in 1839.) : Occupies the First Fluor of the Athena-um Building. X. W. Corner of St. Paul and Saratoga Streets. nr*HF. BOOMS arc LARQ-P and comfortable, JL well heated and lighted, and quiet. The Library contains now about 15.000 volumes care fully selected, of History. Poetrv. Drama, Theology Arts and Science, Biography, Voyages and Travels, Essays and Keviews, and Fiction, and is increasing at the rate of about i LOW volumes per annum. It is constantly supplied with the best publications of all these branches of knowledge as well as a fair representation of the current light literature of the present time. The Beading Room is furnished with most of the Maga zines and Keviews of this country and England, as well as a number of American and English newspapers. RR T PNI?A 9 ??J? T 'I^ W^J>R NE<L FO . R THE S P ECIAL benefit of the LERKS OF THE CITY , and is exclusively under their control. They alone are eligible for ACTIVF/membersliip. , Hie fee for this class is $3 per annum, payable in advance, but the use of its Rooks and Rooms is open to all other classes, as HONORARY members, upon the payment of S5 per annum, in advance. They may draw books from PUTRIR R^7" RSO ISLT FC,IE ROOMS * ARE entited to ALL THE • RI. TL,E A * S O<:MTION. except voting and hold ing office. Ladies may become Honorary members in their own right. The accounts of either Active or Honorary members may be transferred for the use OR ladies or others. _ R V ' R ,E ROOMS are open from 10 o'clock A. M., till 2 o'clock RECEPTION of ladies— and from 2 o'clock till 10 o clock P. M., for Gentlemen. Of persons now using the Library, 84 ACCOUNTS ARE FOR LADY SUBSCRIBERS, " U HONORARY MEMBERS. U ACTIVE MEMBERS. fe22 tf IYLPORTATION OF BOOKS I i BY i I U JAMES S. WATERS. I I 244 2 g BALTIMORE £ C STREET. S I ! * FROM EUROPE. MATTERS. HT. ROBERTS, • MERCER AXI) TAILOR. No. 205 BALTIMORE STREET. . ly. Baltimore. Ready ma D E CL6 T H I\l JOIIX If RE A, <£ CO, NORTH-EAST CORNER OF PRATT AND SOUTH STS . CHAJJ/I?, 11 LALFC ' E AML 3ELL " CT ST " CK " F WINTER " btu t11.M,, that they are running offat a LOW FIGURE to make room for SPRING STYLES. Persons in want would do well to give them a call. Also—A large stock of PIECE GOODS, suitable for cus tom trade, which will be got up in good style at low prices. fe22-lm. S AM UE L T AN E Y HILL, U r MERCBAXT TAILOR. . No. 2 LIGHT ST., OPCOSITE FOUNTAIN HOTEL. \\ ill HI a few days receive his full SPRIXI; STOCK of ■""jls—cousisting of CLOTHS, CASSIMEItES. VEST INt'S, &c., and will be Pj.leased to take Orders from his friends and the public. A lit guaranteed. Prices reason * ble fe22lm. JOHN A. GRIFFITH'S MERCHANT TAILORING AND FASHIONABLE READY-MADE CLOTHING ESTABLISIIMEXT, No. 187 BALTIMORE STREET AND lji LIGHT STREET ' The advertiser has opened his SELECTION OF GOODS from this and other markets, which he solicits gentlemen to examine, confident that his assortment is COMPLETE both in quality and styles. ■ R 'f RE-ADY -MADE DEPARTMENT abounds in variety in which any taste can he suited, and where gentlemen' can lie accommodated at LOW PRICES, considering the quality of the Goods offered. | Gentlemen selecting goods from his stock can have ' Garments made to orders in his Custom Department with dispatch and promptness—two characteristics of his es tablishment, where he itas lite best cutters that can be i l"-'"-""' 11 fe22-l,„. PM ANLR :tUisic. (P HICKERING & SONS' ' AND NUNNS & CLARK'S CELEBRATED PIA.XO FORTES, Constantly receiving and for sale onlv by F. i>. BEXTEEX, 181 Baltimore street and 84 Fayette, „ , third store west of Charles st. ! urcnasers will find it to their interest to examine for themselves the superior qualities of the above Pianos. tools, F"NCE & Co.'s Melodeons from $45 upwards. fe22-lm. IV ML. SM .—JUST PUBLICIUAI, i>\* -L n MILLER tf- HE AI'HAM, LSL BALTIMORE si: A DAY DREAM— by J. C. Lngelbrecht. ANY IL CHORUS— from Y'erdi'S Trovutoro i'£?F l ?ni?-,9 RA, , )RLL ' LES - TAIL '-' HT IW Fd. Lehmami. •BOARDING-SCHOOL LlFE—by Cltas. Grobc. t •Thishcautiful,,lion, describing a day at a FE A ' G SCIIOoL. is one of tlie Author's best e . fforU '„._ h'22-lm. HENRY MoCAFFRKY. MUS I C P UIJ L ISHEB, M No. 207 BALTIMORE STREET, l SIC PUBLISHED and received daily. MUSIC BOUND ill the NEATEST STYLE. fog Aim MI'SIC FOLIOS at ALL I'll ICRS WILLIAM II A R 11 I S; MAKER AND IMPORTER OF GUNS, RIFLES and PISTOLS, 11G West Pratt street, keeps constantly on hand a large assortment of Bird and Ducking Guns, (double and single barrel; (Six barrelled Revolvers; Rifles made to order: Dupout s Gun Powder- Powder Flasks, Bird Bags, Shot Beits and Pouches, and many other articles necessary fur Sportsmen. Repairing done at the shortest notice, and with neatness. [fe'22-lm. JAMES M. ANDERSON & SOX, ENGRAVERS, Xo. 148 Baltimore Street, BANK NOTE, STEEL & COPPER PLATE PRINTING TINVITATION, WEDDING, VISITING J. Cards, etc., Engraved and Printed in the most fashion able styles Corporate and Notarial Seals, Letter Stamps etc. London and Paris Visiting Cards, lie La Rue's Kn velopes, etc. fe22tf. BOUDOIR SEWING MACHINE. ~~ PRICE $40.-THIS MACHINE IS RE commended by I. JL Singer k Co., Wheeler k Wilson ana (.rover k Baker as being the liest single thread Ma chine in the known world; and the price la in" low our chasers will find it greatly to their advantage to exam Also, Wheeler & Wilson's superior FAMILY MACHINE, in Rosetvood, Black Walnut and Mahogany cases. Wheel er and Wilson's Machines are really the best article ever invented for sewing. A great number ,f certificates can be seen at our store from ladies and gentlemen who have had them in use for a length of time. , , E - M. PUXDERSON & CO.. A NEW ERA IN PHOTOGRAPHY AT E. L. PERKINS' METROPOLITAN GALLERY AN". 99 BALTIMOEE STREET. OPPOSITE HOLLIDAV. LL IHE VARIOUS BRANCHES OF the art successfully carried on at this establishment ana no humbug used to cheat or deceive the public Mr I .'s new invention of producing Life-Size Pictures from small daguerreotypes on CANVAS is the admiration of all who see them. Mr. Kirkhvoer. the Great French artist has been retained for coloring, in his beautiful stvie the above gems. The public will please call and see. f.-22 lm. I. 0. 0. F. ODD FELLOWS AND MASON'S RE <;AU'A- BANNERS, kc.. U. S. Bunting and Silk nags, Military Goods ami Ladies' Press Trimmings al way on hand and for sale ly A. SISCO. - , No. 95 BALTIMORE ST, fe22l y Baltimore- JL. M'I'LL AIL &. BUG'S • HAT, CAP AXD Fl'R STORE. So. 132 BALTIMORE STREET. Between Xorth and Cat vert streets, (north side.) fe22tf. ELDON HALL HESTAURANT. No. 78, WEST FAYETTE STREET, REAR ENTRANCE IN BANK LANE. r |'HE undersigned have very recently fitted up -A- the building in Fayette street, between St. Paul and Charles Sts. known as-Kldon Hall",as a restaurant of the nrst class. No expense has been spared to make i t acceptable in all its appointments, to gentlemen who luay feel disposed to pay it a visit. There is at all times upon the - snack" amllf -?i i "il! ich can be scrv d "P at a moment's notice and at all hours there are always private rooms for the ac comodation of gentlemen, who rn.iv desire to "exchange" T£ 1° s r something which may cheer the inner man. GOOD I IS! ats competition in the matter of CIGARS. VANTS .115 ai ; d ATTENDANCE BV FAITHFUL SER rant altogether make up the comforts of a restau -Iv' A YD^Ai'lT'r L '■ 'J, s ' " '''l fw PARTIES prompt T^itS^ the There are peculiar advantages, in this establishment for the accomodation of gentlemen. The building has a rear entrance from Bank Lane, while there is a private entrance admiting to all parts of the house, without passing through thehar REI LLY & SNYDER fe22d lwi:2aw2w. HI NX'S EATIN G SA LOON", Xo. 40 WEST PRATT .STREET, Between Frederick and Market Space. THE PROPRIETOR OF THIS WIDE- Iy known Saloon, having recently made extensive improvements in several departments of his buildings, is prepared U> furnish DIXXERS, SUPPERS, kc ., at as cheap rates and in a style which he will not jierniit of being sur passed. Families supplied with Oysters, in every variety of style; also, Terrapins, Turtles. Poultry, Venison and Hsli; the last named he is daily in receipt of by Express from the South. All articles delivered free by RIXX'S Express Wagon. fe22 tf. (CHARLES E. PHELPS, No. 2 LAW BUILDINGS, and 'mwAßrai" tV ~C C ° UrtS ° f BALTntOI CTfY OOBERT D BURNS, A A TTORNE Y AT LA IF, „ NO. 5 COUNSELLOR S HALL, LEXINGTON STREET. j BALTIMORE, MONDAY, FEBRUARY 22, 1858. §oolis anil .^tationmr. AUCTION STOCK, THE REFUSE OF the publishers, never purchased by us: but our cm : turners are invariably offered the liest, in editions, varietv and style of binding, &c., that can be purchased Uwav's at moderate prices. JAMES S. WATERS. fe22-tf. 244 Baltimore street. BOOKS AND STATIONERY. CUSHIXGS & BAILEY, BOOKSELLERS AND STATIONERS 2t>2 BALTIMORE STREET Offer for sale at low prices the largest and most complete assortment of 1 LAW, MEDICAL, CLASSICAL AND MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS, I r A J X AX P FA - v c Y STATIC NER Y, to be found in the city. ' r<J\ Uy !'. eSl> t!: t , f ! ,llv inviteau examination of their Stock. < Orders attended to promptly. fe22-tf HOICE ENGLISH SEALING W \\ Vy The subscriber has had made to his own order in London a very choice assortment of SEALING WAX em bracing for ' HEMOTOREOFFF®I BRAND3OF SU ' ,ERIOR " UALIT >" L ANYTHING . >A NCY COLORS, lor ladies'use and notes, viz: Bron -1 Red Fawn and'?n Jal ?' Ue ' , Navy Rlu0 ' Caret, Blood ' drop' weU ° a ° f whicU wi " l,uni ,u.al!n M of J F IA /- n IZE EXX EI.OPES. made of a superior pondence. I,a|>er ' SUUa, " L ' f " r I' :lrti v ular corres ! extra'lieaA-'v LKTT^R . p APERS, of superior ~ualities, some r .1.™,, } JAMES". S. WATERS, ' _ 2W Baltimore street. LINEN PAPER, FOE BLANK ACCOUNT BOOKS JAS. S. WATERS, 244 BALTIMORE STREET, HAS IN STORE, DIRECT FROM LONDON, a supply of very superior ENGLISH LINEN PAPIR, So generally used by the Boston Blank Book makers, and , Lii'T.* ° make up a single Bonk. or SET,, which we j will warrant to be of equal quality with the Boston books and are superior as to quality of material to those hereto fore made in this city. One quality this paper possesses miiri'O'R Tl'*' ERAS r CRCAN USE, L SUV< ' L:LI times without im pairing the surface. CHKAP BOOKS and SHORT QUIRES also on hand, or made to order when desired, as low as they can be pro ! duced anywhere. | Bookkeepers are requested to call and examine the su penouty of our paper, if they desire to have comfort with economy. fe22-tf BLANK BOOK, PAPER AND STATIONERY WAREHOUSE, SAMUEL E- TUBXEB, No. 3 SOUTH CHARLES STREET, TJASON HAND A VERY SUPERIOR no,^r t, T,o,Vc. 1 ' U ,' l ' :R ' STATIONERY mid BLANK WRinvr . TL^^,M"" NFR ,LIS WI " L. f, r I ' tTTKR I,APKR S, both domestic and V!W?L MOST A PL >ROVED manufacturers, rietv PAPERS— RuIed and Plain, in very great va- ENVELOPES of all kinds. I U V L-V' V . DE O, RI . PTION ' F " R ° NICEA "d private WU V™ , P mn S ' i KV '""-"HRS. SEALING STANIIS Ae ic' SLATE i ' KXCI . I " S . IXK f of a " makers. MON N UPS&c &e SSLS ' I'ORTEOLIOS i'ORTE i assortment of WRAPPING PAPER ' price's CARDS, '"HUNTERS' do.. &c., Sc.. all'at low fe^Af™ 1 ' MERCHAXTS will do well to call. TMPORTATION OF BOOKS FROM , LNGLAND, FRANCE, AND GERM WY IN THE QUANTITY OR THE SINGLE VOLUME BV T A^ C „" B ,R'J. HRO . U,? " L " N,I " N von-czTtotulents. and DY agency on the Continent, is able to vivo tliu most care . ful attention to all orders front private persons COLLEGES ! Seminaries. Public Libraries Societies Ve F..- lii.TL' I'KRIOPICALS. STATU IN FRY . MAPS*, TE. anil wIu'FUR i : , M ! ,N MOST favorable terms, and with the "re-it , est despatch, and to Public Institutions. Semintlriesoff/am i 7." "v, 1 "' 1 Literary Societies, duty free. cliea A ii°st? E L° F XBW ', ! "" KS ' L ,A, '"SH IN London, with "•I . 1 - - A " A "' PUT up monthly in small packages, and forwarded gratis to ail who desire them. 1V.0.> , F JAMES S. WATERS, No. 244 Baltimore street T ON DON AND PARIS MADE YVRI ] J-J TING DESKS, of very superior styles, of various qualities of Leather. Rosewood. Pearwood, Maho.-any Ebony, &C., suitable for ladies or gentlemen; ofour",.tvu ; direct importation, are now opening. . , f JAMES S. WATERS, j 244 Baltimore stm t. T ONDON STYLES OF VISITING J.M CARDS, altogether new; Wedding Envelopes, all I the choice styles, for sale by JAMES S. WATERS, ' '' "• "44 Baltimore -tri-et. I AW BOOKS. L_JThe subscribers invite the attention of the Bar. to then large stock of LAW BUHKS. which they offer for sale at lowest rates. BUSHINGS & BAILEY _ Just published VolumeJO Established 1837. MURPHY'S GENERAL PRINTING AND PUB LISHING ESTABLISHMENT. BOOK, PAPER, AND STATIONARY STORE. MARBLE BUILDING, 182 BALTIMORE STREET, BALTIMORE. MEDALS awarded by the Maryland insti stitute 1851-5 for Printing, Boot Bindin< r and Bank Chocks. By the Metropolitan Institute, Washing Ji l °. ma for su l>erior Blank Books. BOOKS, PAPER, BLANK BOOKS AND STATIONARY, ~adlS- ConS,aUtljon liand a la '* e „ , , BOOKS IN GENERAL LITERATURE, School, Classical, Miscellaneous ami Juvenile Books , . _ FOREIGN BOOKS. nin a Hn a ?hir rieil BtOCk k , ept constant, y on hand, to which constant additions are made, by direct importation. For eign Books imported to order. BLANK BOOKS, PAPER, STATIONERY Ac of English. French and Amer ican Letter, Cap and Note Papers. Ax., of the best qualities, BLANK BOOKS, made to or(i, ' r - in superior styles MLRIIIis UNALTERABLE STEXtEOGRAPHIC' AND PLAIN BANK CHECKS, in every variety* PROMISSORY NOTES, DRAFTS, BILLS OF FXCH VNGF BILLS OF LADING. BLANK DEEDS UO V MF.RCIAL AND LAW BLANKS &V kept constantly on hand, and sold wholesale and retail at the very lowest rates. PLAIN AND ORNAMENTAL BOOK AND JOB PRINTING, BOOK BINDING <£ Bi ll\fj of every description executed in the very best manner at the lowest rates. Particular attention paid to , FIXE WORK for Banks, Insurance. Railroad, Telegraph, Steamboat, and other Joint Stock Companies. Public Offices. kc kc Orders from abroad, for anytlijng appertaining to our business Will receive the most careful and prompt atten tion and will be furnished at the same low rates, as if at tended to in person. fe22-tf. JOHN MURPHY & CO. MURPHY &. CO„ BOOKSELLERS, PUBLISHERS I'KINT ERS AND STATIONERS, MARBLE BUILDING, f e 22 tf 182 BaLTIMORE STREET, Baltimore OUR OWN DIRECT IMPORTATION LONDON AND PARIS MADE WRITING DESKS ALTOGETHER NEW STYLES, LEATHER. Illustrated; ROSEWOOD, Inlaid; MAHOGANY, Brass Bound- BRAZILLETTO WOOD, a new and beautiful style of finish. p J!' e made at our own order in London anil l,e3t workmen, are far superior to those gener ally offend for sale, and coming to us direct from the man ufacturers, we are enabled to sell them at the same or low- OTUarf\an a ds theinferiorßrtiCle COmiDB sec °n | t An inspection of our styles and prices is respectfully so- Uc J t 2h, JAMES S. WATERS, fe22 tf - 2+4 Haltimore st. PRAYER BOOKS AND OXFORD BIBLES can lie had of JAMES s. WATERS 244 BALTIMORE STREET, in greater t ariety of stvie and cost than elsewhere in the eitv Sonn- new stVl... i.. RICH BINDINGS, of VELVET, OAK. EBONY , SILVER MOUNTINGS, suitable for PRESENTS ■"! never liefore exhibited, have just been received. fe-22 tf pi.AYLNG CARDS! i rS-, , , . , FOR FABLOR USE! Of beautiful designs and of very superior quality, just re j ccived from London. | A ISITING CARDS, of new styles and superior quality, ; of London manufacture. vnTi.M.llv!;t; S f AX , l ', ( ' OL '' RS 0F FINE LETTER AND .Mil K l ArLKb. for Indies use j LO.VDUX MADE WRITING DESKS, for ladies, a hand some assortment. j Just received by JAMES S. WATERS, feZZ-tf No. 244 Baltimore staeet, Ready made ouili, pens. The subscriber has just received from London an in voice of those very superior hand-made QUILL EEXS ALSO, Cla r k ,""" fndellible permanent MARK [NY; I.NK, which has withstood the test of 50 vears and is war -1 nl ", te ' i " u,ellible - JAMES S. WATERS, fei! tf. ._>4q Baltimore street. NOTICE.—Just received from -t. London a very choice assortment of IXKSTAXDS suitable for the Library, Office or Store: CKD Alt Tit \ Vs• ENVELOPE BOXES, of Oak and Leather, a very usefui article for the different sizes of Envelopes- TOI7RISTS' CASES, a very handsome and superior article, altogether new, and well adapted for Holiday presents Of our own r P^"? l>ortation - JAMES S. WATERS. THEWA VERLY NO'-VELS.—In mtii J- variety and completeness of editions and style than ever W V le f"5* _the l,rautif " l volume edition, know n as Mr \\ alter s favorite, the splendid • Abbotsford edition, with its hundreds of illustrations. The twentv-flve J°I u ™ e . rray^ y Edi ; ion ' Uncty-eiyht volume e-lition of the complete works, and several other editions, all in exquisite London bindings, together with the several American edi '><<-• now for sale by JAM ES S. WATERS, . STOCKETT MATHEWS, ATTORXEV AT LA ll' OFFICE No. 1 COUNSELLOR S HALL (46 LEXINGTON STREET,) _ ...... Baltimore, j \\ ill attend promptly to all kinds of busiatjs appertaining ; to bis profession. ft' 22 tf To Advertisers— in order to afford the public an opportunity to judge for themselves of the. merits of the Ex j change, large editions will be issued for the first few days of l i ls publication, and distributed widely and gratuitously | within the city, and also in those sections of the country which are connected with Baltimore, by business relation's ' Merchants and others who may propose to advertise in our \ columns, will do welt therefore to send in their advertise■ | ments at once, and thereby obtain the advantage of the extcn I ded circulation which such gratuitous distribution of the : pnjur. both in town and country, will afford, an advantage ; which none who understand the value of legitimate adv. rt'is ' 1 "PP reci '"• For rates of advertising, see ' ! Table elsewhere. | To Readers.— By means of the gratuitous distributions ' | above adverted to. it is designed to make the Exchange tier ' < form in part its own canvassing. Persons distiosed to en courage the Enterprise can continue, the exp riment at their ' own pleasure if residing within the city, by s, tiling from time i | tot.me with the carrier upon the tarns stated elsewhere- ifout ' of the city by sending their orders to the office of the tuner ac I companicd by prc-payment for the time specified. ' j To Correspondents — Every communication intended ; for publication must be. accompanied by the name of the writer. Manuscripts should be written on one side of the I paper only. BALTIMORE: MONDAY, FEBRUARY 22, 1858. i . ~ l In assuming the office of public journalists, it ! may, perhaps, be expected that we should make some exposition of the principles by which we mean to be guided in the discharge of the duties j j and responsibilities incident to that position, j This we propose briefly to do. It is a necessary j I )iece of egotism on our part, justified by tiie nov- j ; city of the occasion which requires it, but which j | once performed, shall not soon again be repeated, | fur the last subject which we design at any time to | discuss in these columns is ourselves. Personal i matters and private affairs are not, in our judg | ment, a legitimate subject for newspaper comment, and, as we do not intend to meddle with those of j J others, neither do we propose to give unnecessary j publicity to our own. We design to deal simply j with public men and public interests, and upon J | these we shall claim and exercise the right, at all j times, freely to print our opinions, j | What these opinions 'may be, cannot, of course, be indicated with any certainty or precision, in ad vance of the occasion which may require their utterance, but, so far as our political sentiments may be referable to any well-defined and ascertain able general principles or mode of thinking, we have no hesitation in disclosing them at the present time. \\ e will state, however, byway of preface, that with reference to the dead and buried issues of the past, the questions of fifty, twenty or ten years ago, tve shall have as little to say as possible, and any confession of our opinions in respect to them, would be therefore immaterial and impertinent. In like manner, we shall refrain from all vague and random speculation as to the possible questions of the future—the erode and unformed issues of here after. In fine, onr business is with tlie present. AS e do not choose to say what our opinions might have been yesterday, for yesterday is past—nor yet to-morrow, for the morrow is yet to come, but we j do mean and hope that these columns shall show, j 'lay by day, clearly and explicitly, our views with j regard to passing events and current topics, and that in these pages shall be reflected, as in a mirror, i the very form and fashion of the times. Startinglhus, with a clean record, and equally ! untrammelled by the traditions of an obsolete past, ; and by pledges with regard to an unforeseen tutu re, we shall strive steadfastly to preserve the j impartiality and independence of the journal which | we this day assume to conduct. With this defini tion of our position, we invoke in behalf of our j enterprise, the fair and unbiassed consideration of all men of all parties, for we ourselves arc indcpcn i 'l°nt ot any party. \\ e are Republicans, but our I republicanism is neither red nor black, nor of any other . "r/)/-eolon d dye. It is national „.! I servative, based ujion the traditions of the Revolu tion, embodied in the forms of the Constitution, ; and best illustrated bv the practice and example of | the illustrious patriot, upon the anniversary of whose birthday we offer to the public this first issue lof our press. We are Americans, but the Ameri j canism which we uphold is that not of a party, but i of the country. The name of American is too I broad and lofty an appellation to be dwarfed or j narrowed into a mere party designation. We are i Democrats, not as wedded, however, to any par ; tieular political faction, but as believers in the ca i pacify of man for self-government, and in the doctrines of popular sovereignty. This idea of , popular sovereignty, which, in common with every ! body else in this country, we thus accept as a fuu j damental article of our political faith, is not, with us, a mere abstraction, but a living principle and practical guide, by which we shall he enabled to determine with accuracy our position upon many | important and exciting questions. In the first , place, it furnishes us in "the greatest good of the | greatest number," with the only true test of the ! wisdom of any proposed legislation or particular j line of policy, and is therefore utterly at war with j all sectionalism and sectarianism in politics—with | all partial and class legislation of every kind and description, and is wholly intolerant of any abuse of the legislative, or prostitution) of the executive ! powers conferred and delegated liy the people, and designed to he exercised solely for their benefit, to ; personal or party ends. It also implies the right ot the majority to govern, a principle incorporated ! into all of our constitutions, and underlying the whole fabric of our political institutions, and which, if rightly understood by us, determines at once the true position of a republican journal in this country, to be one not of opposition, at least. ! to the powers that be. Under a government of popular creation, whose functions are administered by individuals ot the popular choice, thepresumji tion at least, until rebutted by positive evidence to the contrary, should always be that the govern ment really reflects the popular will, and that its administration faithfully represents the interests and sentiments of the majority to which it owes its elevation to power. Upon grounds of principle, therefore, apart from the considerations which may influence us with respect to particular acts and measures, we shall give lo the present administra tion of James Buchanan our support, so fur as may be consistent with our own convictions of what is right and just, which constitute with us as they should with the conductors of every press, a "higher law " in subordinate to which all other pledges must he construed; always reserving to ourselves, entire and unimpaired, that right of free and independent criticism and dissent, which no party shackles prevent us f-om exercising, and with which we never mean to part. Finally, this idea of popular sovereignty, in its most comprehensive acceptation, implies the right of every people to settle uicir own anatrs in tnur own way. In other words, we hold to the principle of non-intervention, which in its practical application to our own coun ] try, means, non-intervention on the part of the Republic in the affairs of foreign nations—non-in i tervention on the part of the General Government in regard to the domestic regulations of the states and territories—and non-intervention on the part of the North in respect to the rights and institutions of the South. We have thus briefly but sufficiently indicated some of the leading principles by which we mean to shape our political course. A similar spirit of independence and moderation shall characterize, as far as possible, every other department of the paper. Whatever may lie die subject of editorial comment, whether a new hi ok or a new law—a question ot finance or a dramatic performance— upon all matters great and small, we shall endeavor to write with candor and £iirness. We may not always succeed in coining up to our own standard of journalism, but whatevtr may be our short comings and deficiencies, if an honest desire to adhere to the best of our ability to the principles t\e have laiddown for our guidance in our career, shall avail any thing in our favor, we may hope to prove ourselves not wholly unworthy of the liberal support which we have already received, or of attaining a yet larger measure of public confi dence in the future. FROM ont LOXDOX CORIIESI'OXI)EXT. i LONDON, February 1, lsjs. 1 ou will see that the return to easy times in the I ™°ney market is as rapid in this country as on your side of the water. In less than three months the I rate ot interest at the bank lias come down from 10 i to 4 per cent. The country is now suffering under that stagnation of trade that is certain to follow a | crisis. Those with little or no capital have gone ; down, and those that have capital and are doing ! business, are sailing near the wind, buying spar~- j ingly, and using all due caution as ti credit ae j counts. Those who may have supposed that trade j and credit between this country and America would I be permanently affected, or altered in consequence j of the large amount of American indebtedness and | bankruptcy, will have to have'to revise their opin , ions. Still there are reasons for believing that ! American merchants and importers will not be able to obtain large credits as easily as they have here tofore. There is one course that could be taken bv your national legislature that would do more than everything else to put American merchants on a good standing with all ;he world, and that is a just, equitable, stringent and permanent national bank j rnpt law. The system of making preferential as j signments, so common in the United States and i Canada, puts the British and other foreign creditors j at a great disadvantage, and the manifest injustice j and dishonesty of those proceedings in many cases | must operate unfavorably in this country. A mer j chant doing business in New York, Philadelphia or Montreal, seeing that he must fail, goes and makes an assignment to a relative, a near neighbor, or a personal friend, and the British creditors have to go whistle, and find themselves among non-preferred creditors, with an offer of 15 cents on a dollar. Yesterday there was a meeting of the creditors of | Mr. John Henderson, of Toronto, held in this city, and this matter of assignments anil preferred cred i itors underwent a good deal of discussion. .Some j strong resolutions were passed denouncing the sys tem, and it was a matter for consideration whether merchants in this country would not do well to re fuse all credits, both in Canada and the United States, until the laws there were altered as to as signments and bankruptcies. It is, of course, a difficult thing to pass laws that shall prevent men from swindling when they are inclined, but a good and permanent national bankrupt law is essential in all commercial countries. I will not pretend to say what is oris not constitutional in America, and I know your bankrupt law twenty years ago was generally considered defective. Now, ask yourself which is best: to have a spasmodic effort for a hur ried, ill-digested bankrupt law, every twenty years, or after every general financial panic, and allow all to pass through, like porpoises and herring in a hole in a fish net, or to take time and get up a care fully worded law adapted to the wants of the whole country, and make it permanent? There will be loop-holes where unprincipled men will take advan ! ' (1 of a law framed to relieve the unfortunate, and it is ever so;—but how stands it at present with you ? There is scarce a State in America— probably not one—where a man who owes money cannot conceal and keep as much property as lie I chooses, and defy his creditors. Now, look at the law in this country. A man owes money, and can not meet his engagements. It is at once in the power of two creditors to force him to become a bankrupt, lie is obliged to give up all his property, and while matters are pending, until the close of proceeding" and he gets his certifi cate, he is allowed a certain weekly allowance on which to subsist. He has an official assignee, his books and papers go into the hands of an account ant, and he is protected from arrest till the exami nation day. He then surrenders, and if evidence of direct fraud and concealment of property is brought he gets imprisoned, and if it is proved that he has property that he w ill not give up, lie is kept in con finement indefinitely. The certificates are of three j classes—first, second and third. A course of hon- Oiable trailing, and bankruptcy following from causes beyond his control, will entitle him to a first-class certificate. A bankrupt having such a certificate is at once in as good standing as it is possible for a man to be, after getting involved in obligations beyond his means and control. If a merchant has shown a course of reckless trading, or extravagant living, beyond his means and income, he will only he entitled to a second-class certificate. When a man goes on trading, after he knows he is bankrupt, and is guilty of extravagant living, reck lessness, concealment of property, and presumptive evidence of fraud, he only gets a third-class certifi cate, and that is sometimes denied him for six or twelve months, and in the interim he may be left without protection from arrest. Then, after a man becomes bankrupt, and has got his discharge, he can at once go into business, as he finds means, gets assistance, or shows energy, prudence and skill, and has- the confidence of those who know him. Mr. Buchanan's recommendation of a bankrupt law for banks, is a piece of short-sighted policy, and at once makes a distinction between the corporation and the individual. Wherein lies the distinct differ ence? A bank corporation, aa insurance company, a factory or manufacturing concern, a mercantile house with several partners, and a single individual, do not present such a marked difference in their cir cumstances in cases of bankruptcy, as to require that one or more should have privileges, immuni ties or laws that the others do not. The concern owes money that is due; all creditors should have an equal chance, and if there is no immediate pros pect of a resumption, the creditors should have the power to force it into bankruptcy. The lines se parating States occur with you at such frequent in tervals that the advantages of a uniform bankrupt law over the whole country are apparent to every one. Your merchants and members of Congress may rely upon it that there is no step that could be taken in the United States, that would so immedi ately put American trade and commerce on a good footing in Europe as a uniform, just and permanent bankrupt law. No one need fall back on the idea that because the capital and manufacturing resour ces of Great Britain must find sales abroad, that credit must be given to foreign countries. That may be true to a certain extent, but there is capital enough, and there are solvent and honorable mer chants enough to sell all European goods that are needed in America, and if that capital and those mer chants cannot be found in the United States, this country can send out a sufficiency of both. All is, if'there are laws and regulations that will make it safe and convenient to grant credits to numerous houses, and firms in America, that will be done, and if not, the business will be more concentrated, and will be done by fewer hands. I need not en large upon the advantage of having the trade in foreign as well as in home manufactures in the hands of a sufficient number of individuals as well as in the hands of Americans generally, rather than having it done by few persons, and those princi pally foreigners. How do British manufacturers and mercantile men effect rales of their goods at Rio, Bahia, Pernambuco, Buenos Ayres, Valparaiso, Lima, and other cities in the States of South America? Certainly to a great extent, by sending out to reside there, partners, brothers, sons, and others from the establishments in this country. The laws, the state of mercantile moralitv, the 1 capital and the political condition of things is such ' in those countries that credits cannot be as safely ! extended by Englishmen to natives of those coun tries as to the citizens of their own when residing I there. .Shall the same be said of the United States? The political condition of things seems tolerably , permanent, though grave doubts have arisen on that ; subject during the last year or two, at the near ap- j proaeh of anarchy in America, particularly in some j of the large cities. There is certainly capital enough in the country, notwithstanding the late hard times and the numerous failures. Xow shall it be said that the laws are so imperfect in the j United States, and the state of political morality | so low that there cannot be found a sufficient num- ! ber of individuals in the country to whom can be entrusted the business of supplying the country with British and other foreign manufactures? \ou may loolcG l the establishment of a goodlv | number of new me. an tile houses by individuals and capital sent out from this country. All laws, all customs, and all practises that go to put foreign creditors under greater disabilities in collections than your own citizens, can but operate deleterious ly to the best interests of the commerce of the ; country. Before this letter will have been received by vou j the anxiety respecting the non-arrival of the Steani- I ship Ariel will have been allayed by the arrival of her mails and passengers per Canada and North Star. The steamship America was out during the gales that disabled the Ariel, and 1 see she made an un usually long passage. A statement was made to me by a Liverpool pilot that there were forty-two ships | on shore and abandoned in Ireland, north and west of Cork, principally American merchantmen. The j gales were most severe, and no doubt proved de structive to a large amount of shipping. That unfortunate ship the Leviathan, is at last afloat. Commercially and financially she will, in my opinion, prove a failure, unless the nation o- e ts suddenly into some other war, when she may want her for a transport, and be obliged to buy or charter j iter at a fabulous price. WHO WROTE WASHINGTON'S FAREWELL ADDRESS? | The publication, by John C. Hamilton, of the first volume of " A History of the Republic of the I nited States, as traced in the writings of Alexan i der Hamilton and his contemporaries," has led to a renewed discussion of the claims of Washington and | Hamilton to the credit of tho composition of the i Farewell Address. We have nut yet seen this vol ume, and are, therefore, not able to determine upon | the weight of the testimony, if there be any not i heretofore before the public, upon which Mr. Ham | llton rests the pretension he is understood to set up, that his father was, in all essential respects, the | real author of the Address. Although it is now, perhaps, for the first time, con tended, as it were, on the part of Gen Hamilton, that ! he had any other participation in the Address,-than in many other papers of Washington which were prepared by him under the direction of his oiiicial superior, or as an adviser and li tend, vet our readers will all recollect that the subject has heretofore been before the public without receiving any positive or i satisfactory solution. It may therefore, not. be in appropriate on this day, which, wherever the name j of Washington is known, is regarded as the anni versary of one of the most important events of mod ern times, to set before the public some of those j proofs which not only serve to show that the address was, in form, a legacy of wisdom and warning to his countrymen, by its august putative author, but that in fact, it was conceived by his own mind and writ ten by his own hand. The first intimation that the public ever had of any adverse claim to it, we believe, arose from the discovery amongst Gen. Ham ilton's papers of a copy of the address in his (Ham ilton's) hand writing. In March, 1811, Judge Richard Peters communi cated the discovery to Mr. Jay, who, on the 29th of the same month, made a reply, from which we make tin- following selections: Your letter conveyed to ine the first and onlv in formation 1 have received, that a copy of President v\ aslnngton's valedictory address lia'd been found among the papers of General Hamilton, and in his handwriting; and that a certain gentleman hail also a copy ol it in the same handwriting. T J' is "di'lligcnco is unpleasant and unexpected. Had the address been one of those official papers which, in the course of affairs, the secretary id' the proper department might have prepared, and the president have signed, these facts would have been unimportant: but it was a personal act—of choice, not id official duty—and it was so connected with other obvious considerations, as that he onlv could' with propriety write it. In mv opinion, President \\ ashington must have been sensible of this propri ety. and therefore strong evidence would In* neces sary to make me believe that he violated it. Wheth er lie did or did not, is a question which naturally directs our attention to whatever affords presump tive evidence respecting it: and leads the mind into a long train of correspondent reflections. 1 will , give you a summary of those which have occurred to me; not because I think tliein neccssarv to settle the point in question, for the sequel w ill show- that they are nut. but because the occasion invites me to 1 take the pleasure of reviewing and bearing testimo ny to the merits of our departed friend. Is it to be presumed from these facts, that General Hamilton was the real, and the President onlv the reputed author of that address? Although "they countenance such a presumption, vet 1 think its foundation w ill be found too slight and shallow to resist that strong and full stream of counter evi dence, which flows from the conduct and character ot that great man. A character nut blown up into transient splendor by the breath of adulation, but being composed of his great and memorable deeds, stands, and will forever stand, a glorious monument of human excellence. So prone, however, is "poor human nature" to ' dislike anil depreciate the superiority of eontempo- - raries, that when these facts come to be generally I known (and generally known tliev will be) many, with affected regret and hesitation, will infer and hint, that Washington had li s, greatness id' talent, and less greatness of mind, than his friends and ad mirers ascribed to him. Nor will the number of ; those be few, w ho, from personal or party induce- i ments, will artlully encourage and diligently en deavor to give currency to such imputations. On the other hand, there are men of candor and ! judgment (and time will increase their number) who, aiming only at truth, will cheerfully trace and Jul low its footsteps, and on finding, gladly embrace it. Urged by this laudable motive, thev will atten tively examine the history of his life: and in it thev w ill meet with such numerous proofs of his knowl- i edge and experience of men and things in general, and oi our national affairs in particular, as to silence all doubts ot his ability to conceive and express ev ery idea in that address. A careful perusal of that history will convince them, that the principles of policy which it recommends as rules for the conduct ot other, are precisely those by which he regulated Ins own. ****** * Hut it would not surprise me, if certain classical j gentlemen, associating the tacts you mention witli , the style and lushion ol the address, should intimate i that his ability to compose it substantially in his ! mind, docs not prove that he was also capable of communicating his advice in a paper so well written, i Let those gentlemen recollect the classical maxim ; which they learned at school: j " Scribemli recte, sapere est et principium ct fons." ! They may also be referred to another classical max im. which teaches us. that they who well understand i their subject, will be at no loss for words: •' Verbaque provisam rem nun invita sequentur." ! Hut his ability to write well need not be proved I by the application of maxims; it is established by facts. We are told to judge of a tree bv its fruit"; j let us, in like manner, judge of his pen bv its per ; formanccs. Few men. who had so little leisure, have written so much. His public letters alone are voluminous • and public opinion has done justice to their merits' many of them have been published, and they who read them will be convinced, that at the period of j the address, he had not to learn how to write well. Hut it may be remarked, that the address is higher finished than the letters; and so it ought to be. | That address was to be presented to thewhole na tion, and on no common occasion : it was intended for the present and future generations; it was to be read in this country, and in foreign countries; and ! to be criticised, not only by affectionate friends and i impartial judges, but also by envious and malignant j enemies. It was an address which, according as it i should or should not correspond with his exalted j character and fame, would either justify or impeach I the prevailing opinion of his talents and wisdom, j Who, therefore, can wonder that he should bestow ! more thought, and time, and pains on that address I than 'in a tetter? Although in the habit of depending ultimately on his own judgment, yet no man was more solicitous to obtain and collect light on every question and measure on which lie had to decide. ' lie knew that I authors, like parents, are not among the first to dis ! cover imperfections in their offspring; and that con -1 sideration would naturally induce him to imitate j the example of those ancient and modern writers j (among whom were statesmen, generals, and even men of consular and royal dignity) who submitted their compositions to the judgment of their friends, before they put (lie iasi hand to them. Those friends would make notes of whatever defects they observed in the draught, and of the correspondent amend ments which they deemed proper. If they found that the arrangement could be improved, they would ! advise certain transpositions; if the connexion be | tween any of the relative parts was obscure, thev | would make it more apparent; if a conclusion had better be left to implication than expressed, thev would strike it out, and so \ ice versa; if an addl i tional remark or allusion would give force or light to a sentiment or proposition, thev would propose it; where a sentence was too long, they would divide ■ it; they would correct redundances; change words less apt, for words more apt, Ac., Ac., Ac. To cor ! recta composition in this way, is to do a friendly office; but to prepare a new one, and offer it to the author as a substitute for his own, would deserve ; a different appellation. j Among those to whose judgment and candor Pres ident Washington would commit such an interesting and delicate task, where is the man to be found, who | would have had the hardihood to say to him in sub stance, though in terms ever so nice and courtly— Sir. I have examined and considered your draught , of an address: it will not do; it is really good for nothing. Hut. sir, 1 have taken the trouble to write a proper one for you ; and 1 now make you a present of it: I advise you to -adopt it, and to pass it on the world as your own; the cheat will never be discov ered, for you may depend on mv secrecy. Sir, 1 have inserted in i't a paragraph that will" give the public a good opinion of your modesty : I will read it to you ; it is in these words: "In the discharge of this trust, I will only sav, that 1 have, with good intentions, contributed to wards the organization and administration of the government, the best exertions of which a very fal lible judgment was capable. Not unconscious, in the outset, of the inferiority of my qualifications, expe- PRICE TWO CENTS. i >ence m niv own eyes, perhaps still more in the eves of other*, has strengthened the motives to dillidehce ot myselt. It it be possible to fiml a man among those whom he esteemed, capable of ottering to him such a pres ent, it is impossible to believe that President \Y ash lngton was the man to whom such a present would have been acceptable. They who knew President " ashington, and his various endowments, qualifica tions, and virtues, know that, aggregately consid ered, they formed a "tout ensemble" which has rarely been equalled, and perhaps never excelled. | Thus much for presumptive evidence. I will now i turn your attention to some that is direct. The history (if it may be so called) of the address ; is not unknown to me; but as 1 came to the knowl edge of it under implied confidence, I doubted, when : 1 first received your letter, whether I ought to dis j close it. On more mature reflection, 1 became con j vinced that it President Washington was now alive, | and informed of the facts in question, he would not j on '.3". authorize, but also desire me to reduce it to writing; that when necessary, it might be used to j invalidate the imputations "to which those facts | give color. This consideration terminated my doubts, j 1 do not think that a disclosure is necessary at this : moment, but I fear such a moment will arrive, j YV hether I shall then be alive, or in capacity to give I testimony, is so uncertain, that in order to avoid the : r ' s k of either, I shall now reduce it to writing, and j commit it to your care and discretion, "de bene i esse, ' as the lawyers say. Sonic time before the address appeared, Colonel j (afterward General) Hamilton informed me, limt he j had received a letter from President Washington, and with it the draught of a farewell address, which the president hail prepared, ami on which he requested j our opinion. He then proposed that we should fix ! on a day for an interview at my house on the sub : lect. A day was accordingly appointed. On that day Colonel Hamilton attended. He observed to me, j in words to this effect—that, after having read and j examined the draught, it appeared to him to be sus i ceptible of improvement— that he thought the ea ■ siest and best way was to leave the draught untouch-... Ed and in its fair state; and to write the whole orer j Kith such amendments, alterations, and corrections as j he t/naiyht were advisable ; and that he had done so. | lie then proposed to read it, and to make it the sub j ject of our consideration. This being agreed to, he read it; and we proceeded deliberately to discuss ! and consider it, paragraph bv paragraph, until the J whole met with our mutual approbation: some ] amendments were made during the interview, but ; none of much importance. Although this business I had not been hastily despatched, yet, aware of the ! consequence of such a paper, 1 suggested the giving t it a further critical examination; but he declined it, | saymg that he was pressed for time, and was anx- I ious to return the draught to the president without I delay. It afterward occurred to me, that a certain proposition was expressed in terms too general and unqualified, and I hinted it in a letter to the presi dent. As the business took the course above mentioned, I a recurrence to the draught was unnecessary, and it was not read. There was this advantage in the j course pursued—the president's draught remained I (as delicacy required) fair, and not obscured by iu ! terlineations, Ac. By comparing it with the paper | sent with it, he would immediately observe the par j ticular emendations mil corrections that were pro ! posed; and would find them standing in their intend i ed places. Hence he was enabled to review and to ! decide on the whole matter, with much greater j clearness and facility than if he had received tiieui | in separate and detached notes, and with detailed references to the pages and lines, where they were j advised to be introduced. With great esteem and regard, 1 am, dear sir, Your obedient servant, JOHN JAY. It will be perceived from these extracts, that Mr. ! Jay, who had lived on terms of the utmost intimacy with both Gen. Washington and Mr. Hamilton, ne -1 ver received from either any intimation that the work was not substantially that of Washington—or that the part taken in it by Hamilton was any thing beyond the making of those amendments, alterations and corrections, which me latter considered advisa ble. To what extent these amendments, Ac. went, does not appear by Mr. Jay's statement, for he ad mits that the draught f Gen. Washington was not , compared with Hamilton's. Hut Hamilton in aeon- I fidential interview with his friend Mr. Jay, would not have been likely, we think, to state that ho had i merely altered, amended and corrected a paper, when in fact, he had written a new one wholly ditferent j from the draught submitted to him, which he had thrown aside as unworthy. Ilut, aside from Mr. Jay's testimony, there is anothei circumstance of a ciia.actci so unequivocal as to prove beyond all reasonable doubt, that the composition of the paper was in fact, the work ol Gen. Washington. The first publication of the ad dress was made, it is well known, in Clavpoole's Gazette in Philadelphia. The manuscript from which it was printed was all in the handwriting of Gen. Washington—not a fair copy transcribed for the press—but a paper which had undergone nu merous erasures, corrections and interlineations.— If we are not mistaken, these corrections occur in every part of the composition and are all in Gen. Washington's hand writing. This manuscript was carefully preserved by Mr. Claypoole, and after his death was sold to James Lennox, of New York, who now owns the invaluable relic. Now, it is not to be supposed that, if Gen. Washington had adopted the draught of Gen. Hamilton, lie would have copied it in his own hand, merely for the purpose of interlin ing and correcting it, so as to impose upon a printer. The more natural and reasonable supposition is that he retained a copy of the draught he had seut to Hamilton—that, upon receiving Hamilton's draught, with the alterations, amendments and corrections, lie adopted and inserted them so far as they met his approval, and that thus far, and no farther, the work was Hamilton's. Why General Hamilton should nave anions nis papers a copy in nis own nana writ ing, and why a duplicate of it, in his handwriting, should be iu the hands of another person, is not now, perhaps, susceptible of satisfactory explanation, but these two facts furnish but slender reasons for denying to the foremost man of the world the merit I of a work to which Mr. Jay, one of the most intimate | of his friends, and acknowledged to be a competent ! judge, pronounces him altogether equal, and which is, in all respects, alit type and representative of the unequalled grandeur of his character and patriotism. CRIMK IX HUNGARY.—The Austrian papers l teem with accounts of robberies and murders coin ' initted in Hungary, and things are quite as bad in Croatia. On the 13th, at six in the evening, eight robbers, armed with guns, axes and cudgels, made an attack on the inmates of a house belonging to •the head gamekeeper of Xadap, a village in Hun i garv. Three of the ruffians kept guard outside the house, while the others entered and proceeded to business. The mother-in-law of the gamekeeper, ; two maid-servants, and three children were kept silent by means of guns levelled at them, while two of the robbers made their way into the room of the master of the house. As the latter offered resistance, he was brought to the ground by the axe of his assail ants. The wile of the gamekeeper also received three wounds on the head. After the men had collected I every portable thing of value, they went to the stable and led out two horses, on which they had j previously put the harness. Vn assistant game ; keeper, who attempted to prevent the horses being | carried off. was cut down as his master had before ; been, and beaten about the head while lviug 011 the j ground. The noise was so great that many peas ! ants were attracted to the scene of action. They attempted to seize the scoundrels, but were repul ■ sed, and one of them was severely wounded in the j head. After they had fired several times into the ; crowd, the robbers got into two light carriages and | drove off". At a later hour the same gang broke i into a wine-cellar in a vineyard, and after having ! drunk their fill, stole ten trusses of clover. When J the people had arms they were able to keep the | freebooters and wild beasts with'n due bounds; . but now that the honest men in the countrv are de fenceless, those plagues to society have tilings en tirely their own way. It is said that all the ser vants of the railroad companies, and some of the | citizens who are known to be " well disposed," 1 will be supplied with arms by Government. On another occasion, at seven o'clock in the evening. ■ ten armed men, with faces covered with crape forced ! their way into the house of a M. Kallivoda. at. Also-Lendva, in Hungary, and demanded his money and that of two persons who were playing cards with him. As they refused to part ith their cash, a light ensued, in which M. Kallivoda was killed and one of his friends dangerously and the other slightly wounded. A servant maid, who entered the room and endeavored to succor her master, was also cut down by the robbers with their axes. A ; crowd had assembled round the house during the scuffle, but the miscreants managed to escape after having killed a genderme and mortally wounded another man who came in their way. Two light wagons were waiting outside the town, and into them the ten men got and drove away as if nothing had happened. It is a very singular fact that the assassin Orsini and his intended victim. Napoleon IU.. were iu IS3I brother members of a revolutionary society called Carbonari, which held its meeting.- at Forli. in the Roman States, where the eldest son of the King of Holland died. It is also stated that Orsini was at Stuttgardt when the Kmperor was there last year, but he and twoor three other Italians were expelled. Three steamers are being built in Dutch dock vards for the Kmperor of Japan. One, called thv Jeddo, is about to paddle away from Rotterdam, under Captain Gerkens; it has a scientific library on board.