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The daily exchange. [volume] (Baltimore, Md.) 1858-1861, March 05, 1861, Image 1

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VOL. VII —NO. 930.
!EE FOURTH PAGE.
BOARD OF TRADE.
Committee of Arbitration for month of March,
W. H. D. C WRIGHT,
■I A.SHRIVER. | HUGH SISSON',
ED W'D G. McDowell, jno. walker
jjtatarjj anu tanurcial Sttitto.
BAITIMOBE, March 4, 1861.
The operations at the Stock Board here to day were
rather light, but for stocks generally the market was
firm, and the leading security (Baltimore and Ohio Rail
road) sold at an advance of sltf per share on the final
price of Saturday. There Were 157 shares of this stock
sold at $62,'[email protected] cash, and it left off at $621; bid, J63
asked regular way. Nothing was done in the bonds of
this road, but tl ey closed at 81 bid for 1875'5, 80 bid for
1885's, and CO bid, 62 asked for 18S2's, the extra dividend
bonds. A sale of $5OO Northern Central Railway 18S5
bonds was made at 51 If, but the shares closed without
sales at $l4 bid, sl4,f asked regular way. City C's con
tinue pretty firm. Sales were made at the Board of
41100 1875's at 97. and ISOO's closed without sales at 97
bid, 97)f asked. The Mining stocks were very quiet to
day, the sales embracing only 16 shares North State at
20 cts., and 225 shares Baltimore and North Carol.na at
25;u;20 cts , the closing sale being at the latter figure.—
Gardner Hill left oil at $2.40 bid, $2.75 asked; Springfield
at $1.90 bid, $2.05 asked; Guilford at 70 cts. bid, 75cts.
asked; and Silver Valley at 50 ct3. bid, 60 cts. asked.
In New 1 ork to-day Tennessee and North Carolina
bonds declined 2 per cent, each; Reading $llf; Harlem
if; Rock Island si; Cleveland and Toledo if; and Canton
if; but Missouri 6's advanced 1 per cent.; Erie If; New
York Central Michigan Southern if; Michigan South,
ern guaranteed $1; and Galena and Chicago 41 Virginia
6's sold at the first board at 76, this figure being the same
that was obtained for them on Saturday.
SALES AT THE BALTIMORE STOCK BOARD
... MD „ MONDAY, March 4, 1861.
100 shs. Bait, and N.
500 N.C RR.bds. 'Ba Bl.f C. Min Co *>6
60 shs. B. &O. RR-621f 165 " IOS
'* —62 if 16 shs. North State
57 —63 M. Co. —.20
PKIOSB ill) BALIS OP STOCKS IV NEW YORK
BY TELEGRAPH.
Through WILLIAM FISHER & SON-, Stock and Bill Brokers.
No. 22 South street.
„• . . fat Board 2d Board
Virginia 6'a 7 G oo
Missouri 6's 651.- Gfi /
Tennessee bonds. 73 no
North Carolina bonds SO 00
Canton Company 14 00
Erie Railroad .32?* 32 V
New York Central Railroad 78 V 7!) *
Reading Railroad 440 441-
i'anama Railroad 00 00
Cleveland and Toledo Railroad 35j£ 00
Michigan Southern Railroad 15 00
Harlem Railroad 00 15';
Galena and Chicago 00 73 ~
Michigan Southern, guaranteed 353,' 00
Rock Island Railroad .-,..58% 00
dull, irregular.
The deposits of gold at the United States Hint from all
sources for the month of February, amounted to 45 "U
816, and of silver $153,361. The total of gold afd sii
ver deposited $5,398,177. Copper cents received in ex
change for cents of the new issue, $16,795 The Bold
coinage in the same time was $7,438,016. The silver
coinage was $121,700. Cents coined $12,000. Total num
ber of pieces coined 2.256,153. The total coinage at the
sin t" m °nths of January and February, $15,717,-
810. Treasurer s monthly statement, showing the amount
d r ft in ."T T , rcasur - V - witil -Assistant Treasu
rer s and designated depositories, and in the Mint and
branches, by returns received to Monday, 251h February,
Treasury of the United States, Washington.. 440 018 60
Assistant Treasurer, Boston 39 AAI R9
Assistant Treasurer, New York • 1 "IQIRR'KK
Assistant Treasurer, Philadelphia 84 238 66
Assistant Treasurer, Charleston a's7B 80
Assistant Treasurer, New Orleans... 11 'atsVi
Assistant Treasurer, St. I,ouis ' 71171;
Depositary at Buffalo 1 rass
Do Baltimore 27 10.107
Do Richmond 11*709 QA
Do Norfolk 11RQ?R5
Do Wilm ington " " S n.-.' 1,
o Mobile
no Na5hvi11e...........;;;;;;;; 'H??"
Do Cincinnati OODORI
ll'ittSbUr 1 I ' ittSbUr , C ™
I o Louisville 40! 63
Do Galveston.. 3.492 59
Do Norfolk 1 413 nn
DO litue Rock 's
Do Chicago 9 or: RI
Do Detroit ~'~l6 79
Do Omaha, Nebraska 1 151'
Do F. St. Cr. Wis 17901
Do Olympia City 516 79
Do Omaha, Gil 9.210A0
Assay office of the United States, New York.. 202.513X0
Mint of the Lnited States, Philadelphia .... 104.651 16
Branch mint of the U. S , Charlotte, N. C. ... 32,000X0
Branch mint of the i . S., Dahlonega, Ga 27 950 03
Branch mint of the I . S., New Orleans. 89 267 46
Branch mint of the U.S., San Francisco.... 500,000.00
Net amount subject to draft $2,625,900.55
Transfers ordered to Treas. U. S.,'Wash'n.. $353,000.00
I ransfers ordered to Ass : t Treas., San Fran. 200 000 00
Transfer ordered to depository at Norfolk.. 6 000 00
Transfers ordered to U. S. Mint, Philadelphia 350,000.00
908,000.00
Transfers ordered from Ass't Treas. N. 1 crk.~~sl~o 000 00
Transfers ordered from Branch Mint, N. O. 350,000.00
$860,000.06
13A LTIMORK M ARK KTS.
PWRR[ , , . MONDAY, March 4.
GJlMvL.—There has been nothing done in Coffee to
'-"1 " e k°s
follows, viz: Rio nt llf(7Tl)2 cts. for common, 1! Ii o l2>
i ts. for fair, 12X " 1 2 >7 cts. for good. 13 od3J4 cts for
prime: Laguayra at [email protected] cts.; and Java at 16;- u,17 V
cts. The stock of Coffee here is about 18,000 bags. ~
FLOUR.—There has been but little done to-day in
r lour, and the market for it continues quite heavy. The
sales so far as we have beard embrace only 100 bbls. each
?! lioward Street and Ohio cut Extra at $5 25, and 2CO
bbls. City Mills Super at $5 per bbl. Howard street and
Ohio Super were both offered quite freely at $5.25, but
there were no buyers at this figure, except for very choice
brands, and wequote City Mills do. as closing dull at $5
per bbl. There has been no movement to-day in Extra
Flour, but we quote it as follows, viz: at $5 62>£@|5.75
for Ohio, $5.75 for Howard Street, $6jp6.25 for'regular
shipping, and [email protected] per bbl. for fancy brands City
Mills.
FAMILY FLOUR —Family Flour is still selling to the
trade at the following rates, viz.: $8.75 for Welch's, $8
for the best brands of Baltimore ground, and $6,257(6.75
for Ohio and Howard Street.
RYE FLOUR AND CORN MEAL.— We continue to quote
Rye Flour at $3 87)4 @4, and Corn Meal at $3 for Balti
moie, and $3.12,8; per lib!, for Hrandywine, but we hear
of 110 sales of either of these articles.
GRAlN.—Wheat was in fair supply this morning for
the season, the offerings at the Corn Exchange amount
ing to about 10.000 bushels, and the demand for it was
active, particularly for the better grades. Prices were
about as on Saturday, the rales being ma le at 125(7; 130
cts. for fair to prime red, [email protected] cts. for common and
medium white, 140 o 145 cts for fair do., 150(7x1100 cts. for
good to prime do., 165 cts. for choice do., and both red
and Avhite closed steady at these figures. Of Corn the
offerings amounted to nearly 40,000 bushels, but the
market for it was nevertheless quite firm Yellow sold
at 56 cts. for ordinary, and 58(7(60 cts. for fair to prime,
these figures being an advance of 1 to 2 cts, on Satur
day's rates, and Avhite at 56 cts. for inferior, and 637i65
cts. for good to prime, Oats, of which there were about
2.060 bushels received, sold at 30(7(33 cts. for Virginiaaud
Maryland, but there was no Rye at market.
MOLASSES.—There is still an inquiry for Molasses,
but we are not advised of any transactions in it to-day
worth noting. New Orleans is held quite firmly at 33(7(36
cts ; and we quote Cuba at 18(7(20 cts. for new clayed, 22
(77 24 cts. for new Muscovado; English Island at 18(i£20
cts.; and Porto Rico at 23( 26 cts. We note the receipt
here to-day of 229 bbls. New Orleans, and of 38 casks new
crop Porto Rico.
PROVISIONS.—There has been very little done to day
in Provisions but we see no mateiial change to note in
the condition of the market. Bacon, for which there is a
fair inquiry, is steady at7?4( 8 cts. for Shoulders, and 9X
@lO cts. for Sides, the outside quotations being for re
tail lots, and wequote Bulk Meat at 6)4 cts. for Shoul
ders, 8 [email protected] X cts. for Sides, and 89 cts. for Hams.
There has been no movement to day in Bulk Meat so far
as we have heard, and the only sale of Bacon reported
worth noting is one of 1,500 pieces common Hams, can
vassed, at 11X cts. We quote Lard to dav at 9J( cts. for
Western in bbls. and tcs., Mess Pork at [email protected] Prime
do. at $13.75 u.14. Rump do. at [email protected] 56; and Beef at
sl2 50 for Baltimore No. 1, and sl6 per bbl. for do. Mess.
We note a sale to day of 460 boxes Western English Dairv
Cheese for export at 10X cts.
RlCE.—There has been no movement of consequence
to-day in Rice, but we continue to quote it as raDging
from 3J4 to 4# cts. per lb. for fair to prime lots.
SUGARS.—There has been but little done to day in Su
gars, the sales embracing only 20 hlids. New Orleans at
$5.50, and 30 lihds. do. at $6.37)4(776.50, but wequote
them steady at the following rates, viz: $4.75(775 for re
fining grades Cuba and English Island; $5.12)4 @5.50 for
grocery grades Cuba; [email protected] for fair to prime Porto
Rico; [email protected] for common to fair New Orleans, and $6 25
@7 for good to prime do. Sugars are arriving quite
freely and we note the receipt to-day of 897 hhds. Porto
Rico; 376 hhds. Cuba, and 118 hhds. New Orleans, making
a total of 1,391 hhds.
SEEDS.—The market for Cloverseed continues firm
Sales were made this morning of 160 bushels fair qualitAr
at $5.12,'[email protected], and of 60 bushels strictly prime at
$5.31,"4 per bushel of 64 lbs. Timothy Seed still ranges
T,' I? ,0 * 3 12 —> an<l we again quote Flaxseed at
[email protected] per bushel.
SALT. Salt is still dull. Liverpool is selling in lots
from store at 85(7790 cts for Ground Alum, and 150 cts.
per sack for Marshall's and Jeffrey & Darcy's fine.
There is no Ashton's fine here. We quote Turks Island
Salt at [email protected] cts. afloat, and [email protected] cts. per bushel from
store.
WHlSKEY.—Whiskey continues to improve. We note
sales to-day of 100 bbls. City at 20 cts., and of 50 bbls. Ohio
also at 20 cts., this figure being be ng an advance of half
a cent per gallon on Saturday's price. Ohio was however
generally held at the close at 20 >4 cts. The stock of Whis
key here is quite light.
MARKETS BY TELEGRAPH.
NEW YORK, -March 4.—Cotton closed dull at 11)4 cts
Flour is dull; sales of 10,500 bbls. State. Wheat isquiet
sales of OFF.OOO bushels; red Western $1.31(771.32; white
$1.4,391 68. Corn has a dtclining tendency; new is
!!?.?' o!<J —sales of 57.000 bushels at 66(7766)4 cts—
Whiskey closed firm at 18 cts. Rice is steadv at 3 V Ca'.4.4
U firm- U A r iln/ te J? y; N9worleans 4 *@ 4 * Cts. Rosill
is firm, SI.BO for No. 1; and $1 70 for N'o. 2
IMPORTS INTO BALTIMORE.
„ „ foreign.
im a AB^ Z ' V \ n -~ Bri 1 Echo —33s hhds. sugar. 75
qf TAUV! PpD d l lefl Ds molasses. Stirling & Alircns. '
KM 'v T Eeerless. —lßl hhds. sugar, 50
bbls., 16 casks molasses, 6.000 oranges, Stirling & Ah
rens.
CiENFUEGOS—BnV/ Alfarata. —26s hhds. SUKar 36tcs
do., Spence & Reid. '
MAYAGUEZ.P. R .—firia Frances Jane.— 177 EN
gar, Kirkland, Chase & Co. s '
COASTWISE.
FRANKLIN, LA. — Schooner Louisa. —llß hhds. suirar
229 bbls. molasses, S. G Hand.
GLOUCESTER— jS'c/iooner J. M. Lane.— sßo bbls. mackerel
George H. Rogers.
BOSTON— Steamer Ben Deford — 244 cases boots and
shoes, Brooks. Fulton & Co.; 370 do., Carey. Bangs &
Woodward; 204 do., Tucker A: Smith; 243d0., Warner &
Bro.; 211 do.. R. B. Griffith & Co.; 107 cases dry goods,
Turnbu 1 Slade&Co ; 434pkga. d 0.,290 do. boots and
shoes, 419 bbls. apples, sundry persons.
PETERSBURG— Schooner Ellen Goldsborough l,246 bags
guano, P. Malcom & Co. '
NEW YORK— Schooner Water LL'tfcft.— 4.ooo bushels
Avheat, order.
FAREWELL TO A MISSIONARY.— A crowded fare
well-meeting to the Rev. John Scudder, M D
who is about to sail for the Arcot Mission in India'
was held last evening in the Reformed Dutch
Church, corner of Fifth avenue and Twenty-ninth
street. Mr. Scudder then made his farewell ad
dress. He dwelt first upon the desire he had en
tertained to be engaged in such a work long before
be began it. Three of the missionaries bad been
kept at home, he being one, for want of money,
and there were a number of others who would go
if supported. A collection was taken up. Mr
Scudder sails on the 11th by the ship Uolden Eagle,
trom Boston.—A. Y. Tribune, March 4.
SUNDAY LAROR. —The Cincinnati Daily Drees
which baa always opposed the observance of the
Sabbath, as a civil or religious institution has
after an experience of several months in the publi
cation of a daily paper everyday in the week, ar
rived at the conclusion that the "human system
requires one day in seven for relaxation, rest
and recreation," and the proprietors have accord
ingly resolved to discontinue the publication of the
Sunday paper.
Father Waldo, ex-Chaplain of the House of Re
presentatives, baa reached bis 95th year. He still
possesses much youthful vigor and sprightliness,
ana promises to enjoy life for long time to come.
THE DAILY EXCHANGE
THE SEWS.
1 tie Thirty sixth Congress ended yesterday. In
the Senate the discussion of the Compromise pro
positions continued until 5 o'clock, A. M., when a
vote was had on the following joint resolutions
with Mr. Corwin's amendment:
o Ae Senate and House of Representa
nil fi ,F"'J Slat's of America in Congress assem
,' l two '.'" r< J 8 °f both Houses concurring). That the fol-
Ti ? y e t' ro P° se,i to the Legislatures of the sev
i nii.H.'.' 13 an amendment to the Constitution of the
United States, which, when ratified by three-fourths of
said Legislatures, shall be valid, to all intents and pur
poses, as part of said Constitution, viz :
Art. XII. No amendment of this Constitution, having
for its object any interference within the States with the
relation between their citizens and those described in
section second of the first article of the Constitution as
all other persons" shall originate with any State that
of, n 2' rcco S, ni!!e "'at relation within its own limits, or
shall be valid without the assent of every one of the
states composing the Union.
Corwin's amendment:
"No amendment shall be made to the* Constitution
W , ,- , Wl '' authorize or give to Congress the power to
abolish or interfere, within any State, with the domestic
institutions thereof, including that of persons held to la
bor or service by the laws of said State."
Ihe resolution as amended was adopted by a
vote of 24 to 12, a constitutional majority. This
amendment was passed by the House of Represent
atives on Thursday last by a vote of 133 to 65, and
has now to be sanctioned by three-fourths
has now passed both Houses by a constitutional
of the State Legislatures, when it will ba
come a clause of the Constitution of the United
States.
Ihe Senate adjourned soon alter the passage of
the resolution, but reassembled at 10 o'clock, when
1 ice-President Breckinridge acknowledged the
usual resolution of thanks that had been adopted,
and then administered the oath of office to the new
incumbent, Mr. Hamlin, who also made some re
marks pertinent to the occasion.
The House.assembted at lOo'clock. Mr. Penning
ton bid farewell to the members, concluding his
remarks by declaring the House to be adjourned
line die. Thus ended the eventful Thirty-Sixth
Congress of the United States. Tkn Senate will
assemble in extra session to-day.
According to constitutional requirement, yester
day Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated President
and Hannibal Hamlin Vice President of the United
States, at Washington. A graphic report of the
scenes and incidents attending the inaugural cere
monies will be found in our columns, and also a ver
batim report of President Lincoln's speech deliver
ed on the occasion.
In the Virginia Convention resolutions favoring
secession were offered and referred. Both seces"
sion and Union speeches were made while the
question of reference of the resolutions was before
the Convention. A resolution was also offered
but tabled, censuring Messrs. Mason and Hunter
for opposing the reference of the Peace Conference
propositions to the vote of the people.
The Committee of Thirteen of the Missouri Con
vention, to whom was submitted the propositions
presented b_v tho Georgia Commissioners, have not
yet reported.
Judge Vondersmitb, convicted some time since
of forging land warrant certificates, has been par
doned by the President.
President Buchanan was at the Capitol from nine
0 clock till a few minutes to noon, engaged in sign
ing bills. None of the appropriation bills were
lost. All were passed by both Houses, and signed
by the President.
lIOLMDAY STREET THEATRE. —The Spring season
opens at Holiidav Street Theatre to night. Mr.
Miles' new dramn entitled Uncle Sam's Magic lan
ern f which has met with decided success in New
York, will be presented for the first time in our
city.
THIRTY-SIXTH COXGRESS—SECOXD SESSION
SENATE.
WAIUNGTON, March 4.
CONCLUSION OF SUNDAY NIGHT'S PROCEEDINGS.
Mr. DOUGLAS said he should not reply to the
speech of his colleague which related to his own
course. He had replied to that six years ago, when
it was first made, and several times since, but he
rose to appeal to the Senate to vote on vari
ous questions. Mr. DOOLITTLE proposed to
modify the amendment which he had offered, sim
ply to make it shorter and not to alter the sense of
the amendment. Mr. Doolittle's amend
ment was disagreed to, yeas 18, nays 28. Mr.
BKIGHAM offered an amendment as a substitute,
the same as Mr. Clark's once before offered to the
Crittenden resolutions, but be withdrew it.
1 he question was then taken on Mr. Pugh's amend
ment, which is the substitute of the Crittenden reso
lutions. Mr. CLINGMAN said if the amendment
was adopted, though it would not he touched bytbe
House, it would have a good effect upon the coun
try——Mr. BIGLER explained that he was in fa
vor of the Crittenden resolutions, but wanted a
separate vote .... EUUQ
r.zuj mud if it was adopted it would prevent States ;
from ever abolishing slavery at all. Mr. MA. !
SON characterized the resolution from the House i
as delusive to the South, and spoke at some length ,
against it. The discussion continued some time |
between Messrs. Mason, Douglas andl'ugh. Mr.';
MORRILL said he had been unconcerned for the
last hour in the discussion going on, but
when the honorable Senator from Illinois shakes bis
head in this quarter I have a right to object. We are
standing, at the end of six years terrible agitation,
and alj comes from this trifling administration of
lead pills, and is to end now in a dissolution of the
Union, and yet gentlemen propose to go on in tlie
same practice. A new policy began six years ago j
on the slavery question. The Southern States ]
united upon it, and became Democratic. Seven of
these States are now out of the Union, and gentle- j
men stand wrangling, and threaten.destruction to :
the country if we don't swallow more j
these nostrums. This policv began in !
1854, and culminated in 1861, taking
six States out of the Union. And we on this side
ot the chamber are to be charged with a dissolu- |
tion of the Union! And what have these Senators, ]
or those they represent, done? No body of men at
the North believes that Congress has a right to in- i
tevfere with slavery in the States, and yet we are i
called upon to vote that Congress has no right to ;
do what nobody believes they can do. No party j
in the North entertains any purpose of making a i
crusade against slavery in the States. He referred
to the speech of the Senator from Kentucky, who
says that the whole difficulty was in regard to
the Territory of New Mexico. If that be so,
then there is really no difficulty; but here
is a proposition to amend the Constitution, and
which is to incorporate into that instrument a re
cognition of slavery, and that is what Senators
protest against. He referred to the fact that Vir
ginia had sent an ultimatum, and then armed her
self for the purpose of making an armed interven
tion between the Government and the States in
rebellion; and he argued that under such circum
stances Senators ought not to present propositions
here for our acceptance. He contended that the
attitude of Virginia .was an act of menace. Mr.
WADE said he had once stated his position, and lie
had to say that lie was of the same opinion. He said
the present resolution was extraordinary. There
was a rebellion against the best government in the
world. Nothing in the world ever instituted such
a rebellion except the accursed institution which
it was now sought to extend. He contended that
the progress of this resolution is to assist this ac
cursed despotism; and nothing makes the princi
ples of the free States stand out more clearly than
the fact that the slave States are leaving us, be
cause despotism cannot exist in our midst. You
complain of us, that we have a free press and free
speech, and that we loved liberty too well. The
difficulty is that you cannot exert despotism on the
free States of the North. The remedy for the evil
is not in paper resolutions. When you talk of
going out of the Union and coming back, and of
reconstruction on a basis so as to harmonize with
and uphold your system, yen must first reconstruct
the Throne of God, and change the human mind.
He claimed that the complaints against Republi
canism were all unjust and unfounded; and that
secession amounts simply to the assertion that the
States have the right to' make war on the Genera!
Government, but that the General Government has
n ,° to defend herself! If the doctrine be true,
Florida, which was bought for purposes of defence
by the country, may join herself to a foreign coun
try and turn our guns against us. And how long
has it been since gentlemen stood up here and as
serted the Monroe doctrine? Oh, ghost of Gen.
Jackson, what wouldst thou think of modern Dem
ocrats.' A State could also secede in time of war
and turn her guns against'our own country. A gov
ernment founded on such principles is no government
at all. He then proceeded to argue that all our
troubles had grown out of the repeal of the old
compromise, and that act had now brought the
country to the verge of disunion and destruction.
He said the history of all compromises was full
of disaster and ruin; yet we are asked to make
still another—worse than all the rest. The remedy
is iu the good old.Constitution made by our fathers.
He would stand by that Constitution, and he saw no
place where it needed amendment. Nobody intend
ed to interfere with the institutions in the'States—
no party intended to do it; yet they were asked to
give new guarantees. But he believed that the
South would despise men who allowed guarantees
to be wrung from them in such away. We must
come back to the old ark of safety—the Constitu
tion. And to the old Constitution the proposed com
promises amounted to nothing but a bread pill. He
was not disposed to admit a recognition of slavery.
He would frankly say that he would not do if. If
you can y this resolution, it will keep up the agita
tion and excitement and irritation, and he
was opposed to it. The Republican party
is the only one that is upholding the ark of Ameri
can liberty. All others are attempting to strike
it down. Let us act like men. Many nations are
looking to see how this great struggle is to be de
cided. On Senators is resting the risk of carrying
through safely the doctrines of our fathers; and,
? r d' e io the effort, he would stand by them.
, }?.*• FOOT offered a resolution of thanks to
j ' ce president for the impartial, honorable
ana effective manner in which he has discharged
the duties ot bis office. It was agreed to unauii
mously.
[A private despatch states that at 5 o'clock this
morning Mr. Corwin's proposed amendment to the
Constitution was adopted by a vote of 24 to 12.]
The Senate met again at 10 o'clock, and the
PRESIDENT called the Senate to order. A large
number of enrolled bills were announced as signed.
A joint resolution to correct certain clerical
errors in the tariff bill was passed. Several reports
were made,and the bill to incorporate the Metropoli
tan Gas-Light, Company was taken up and debated
Mr. BRIGHT opposing its passage. [At half-'
past 11 o'clock a message from the House was
received stating that having finished the business
before them, they were ready to adjourn.]
Mr. CLARK said it was a struggle of an overgrown
company so powerful that it could get Senators
to come here and talk the bill down at the close of
the session. Twelve o'clock having arrived, the
VICE PRESIDENT called the Senate to order,
and said:
Senators —ln taking my final leave of this position, I
snail ask a few moments in which to tender my grateful
acknowledgments for the resolution declaring your ap
proval of the manner in which I have discharged its
v t0 ex P reßß * deft P sense of the uniform cour
> which, as presiding officer, I have received from the
members of this body.
rpfn. l oli aVec l in . mltted errors i y°ur generous forbearance
rfmi iir.?i t them - And during the whole period
Una ehnrfti ne7er ppe'ed in Tain to your ju
tlce acd charity. The memory of these acts will ever be
cherished among the most grateful recollections of my
for roj* successor I can express no better wish than that
he may enjoy those relations of confidence which have so
happily marked our intercourse.
how, gentlemen of the Senate and officers of the Sen
ate, from whom I have received so many kind offices, ac
cept my gratitude and cordial wishes for your prosperity
and welfare. '
Mr. HAMLIN, the Vice President elect, then
stepped forward, and said:
Senators:—A n experience of several years in this bodv
has taught me something of the duties of itspresiding
officer; and with a siern, inflexible purpose to discharge
these duties, faithfully relying upon the courtesy and co
operation of Senators, and invoking the aid of Divine
Providence, I am now ready to take the oath required by
the Constitution and enter upon the discharge of the offi
cial duties assigned me by tire confidence of a generous
people.
Vice President Hamlin then took the oath of of
(ice prescribed by the Constitution as follows: "1,
Hannibal Hamlin, do eoleinnly swear to support
the Constitution of the United States." Mr.
BRECKINRIDGE then said: Having now arrived
at the termination of this Congress, I now declare
the Senate adjourned without day. Vice Presi
dent Hamlin then took the chair and the procla
mation calling the extra session of the Senate was
read.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
The House re-assembled at 10 o'clock this morn
ing, and the galleries were entirely empty, no per
son being admitted except the reporters. The
spectators were formally excluded by order of the
Committee of Arrangements.
CLOSING BUSINESS.
After the transaction ot much miscellaneous bus
iness, of no particular importance, with the usual
noisy accompaniments, reports ol the various com
mittees of conference were made and acted upon.
The proceedings were occasionally interrupted by
the reception of messages from the Senate, and the
announcement, by Private Secretary Glosbremier,
that the President had signed certain bills. The
report of the Committee of Conference on the bill
amendatory to the Patent Laws was adopted. Al
most every member bad a proposition or bill to pas 3.
The struggle for the floor was intensely exciting.—
Cries of order were now and then raised. Mr.
HUTCHINS, elevating his voice above the din,
said, this being a deliberative body, theyjought to
know what is going on. A voice—You mistake
—this is not a deliberative body. [Cries of "good."]
A member moved to clear the galleries.
[Laughter.] As heretofore stated, the visitors'
galleries were entirely empty. At half-past 11
o'clock a motion to adjourn was negatived—yeas
40, nays 117. After some unimportant business
various trifling matters were urged and several
motions to adjourn were made. Amidst
great conrusion, Mr. ANDERSON, of Kentucky,
moved to take up the Old Soldiers' Pension bill.
Fifty or more members were striving to gain the
recognition of the Sneaker. Various motions
were humorously made to clear the galleries.
Mr. SHERMAN, from the Select Committee ap
pointed to wait on the President, said they had
performed that duty, and the President had in
formed them that he had submitted his last official
communication to the House. A motion was
now made to adjourn. The Speaker rose midst
marked silence, and delivered the following ad
dress :
Gentlemen of the House of Representatives:
We have now arrived at the close of the Thirty-sixth
Congress. During its progress scenes of an extraordinary
character have been witnessed. Several States have se
ceded, and all their membets, with one exception, have
leftthishall. No lover of his country can witness such
an exhibition without feelings of the deepest anxiety.
I have not felt it my duty to deviate from the estab
lished practice by entering into discussion on the floor
Indeed, the demands upon the time of the Chair are suf
ficient, in its view, without it. And it is wise. The
Speaker should not be entangled in the conflicts of de
bate.
You will permit me therefore, before parting, to say
publicly what is well known to many if not all of you.
that! have ever been, and am now, and I trust ever
shall remain,a devoted friend of the Union of the States,
and favorable to any just and liberal compromise.
The report of the Committee of Thirty-three of this
House met with my cordial approval, and 1 have never
hesitated to declare my belief that a convention of all the
States to consider actual or supposed grievances, was the
proper and most available remedy.
As a member of the Union I declare my conviction that
no veritable ground has been assigned for a dissolution of
the ties which bind every American citizen to his coun
try, and impartial history will so decide.
-My confidence in the American people is such that I
believe no just complaint can long exist without a redress
at their hands. There is always a remedy in the Union.
With this view, I still declare my willingness to join in
measures of compromise.
I would do so because of the ancient ties that have bound
us together under institutions framed by our fathers, and
under a Constitution signed by theimmortal Washington.
I would do so for the national honor committed to the ex
periment of free institutions. I would do so for tile love
i bear my countrymen in all parts of our beloved land
and especially so for the sake of the noble band of patriots
in the border States, who, in the midst of great opposi
tion, have stood firm iike rocks in the ocean for the
peace and perpetuity of the Union.
But, gentlemen, I may not further dwell on these gen
eral subjects For the discharge of the duties of this sta
tion, to which I was called by your kindness, I can only
say that it lias been my purpose to do all in my power to
promote your comfort as members, to deal impartially
with all, and to advance the best interests of my coun
try. So far as any success has attended my administra
tion in the chair, it is to be ascribed very much to the
kindness and forbearance of the members of the House.
I claim for myself only the merit of good intentions and
honest purposes.
The resolution you have been pleased to adopt is truly
gratifying, and will be among my most agreeable recol
lections of this place. I thank you, gentlemen, for this
mark of your approbation. I could not fail to remark
that this resolution was presented by the oldest member
of the House, by whom 1 was sworn into office, and one
whose devoted character is acknowledged by us all.
JMieve that no former Speaker ever received more
iny I'L't. 'Jm'ifatf'itl? af.Ai'.l a .„ H °. a ?.e .than has fallen, JR.
oosiumiir arising, you have never over ruled any deci
sion I have made. I do not infer from this that I was
always right; but I do infer that, if wrong, the House be
lieved it was through misapprehension and not by de
sign, and that it was your magnanimity which led you
to sustain the chair.
Vou will permit me, I hope, to say that I am under
great obligations to the officers of the ilouse for their as
sistance and devotion to my comfort. I return them all
my very warmest thanks.
And now, gentlemen and friends, it only remains that
I take my leave of you. The parting hour is an honest
hour. When I first came among you I declared myself
a National man. lam so still, I trust, and shall ever
so remain.
Often, in retired moments, I shall think of you and the
many scenes through which we have passed. ' My prayer
to heaven for you is that you may have that blessing
which coraeth from above, and that the Great Ruler of
nations, in whose hands are the destinies of us all, may
restore peace to our country, bring order out of confu
sion, and Union to its present distracted elements.
Gentlemen. I bid you an affectionate farewell.
During the delivery of his address, he Avas fre
quently applauded. He concluded by announcing
that the House Avas adjourned sine die, and with
much good humor the members quietly separated.
THE APPREHENDED OUTBREAK IN NORFOLK. —The
New \ r ork Herald has the following despatch from
Norfolk:
Norfolk, March 2.—A number of the members
of the volunteer companies Avere detained last night
for the purpose of patrolling the city. It appears
that information reached the Mayor of Petersburg
to the effect that an outbreak would soon follow
the Inauguration of Mr. Lincoln, and I understand
that a police officer arrived in this citv yesterday
as a special messenger to Mayor Laihb, bearing
the above information.
The city Avill doubtless be under the charge of
our volunteers for some time to come, but more is
feared from the Avhite abolitionists than the blacks.
We are prepared, however, for any emergency that
may arise.
A great many discharges have within the past
few days taken place at the Gasport Navy-yard,
and all who are known to favor secession are
stricken from the roll. Many of our laboring men
are now without employment, and our citizens are
becoming very indignant, as Northern men are im
mediately appointed to fill the places of our own
mechanics and laborers.
THE SOUTHERN ALLEGHANIKS. —At the meeting of
the Teacher's Association held on Saturday even
ing, Tbos. F. Harrison, Esq., a prominent teacher
ot this city, delivered an essay on the Physical
Geography of the United States, with a vietv to its
probable future development. After describing
the continent ac large, he divelt particularly upon
the Southern Alleghanies. These mountains, he
sboAved by Sehroeder's maps, expanded in the
Southern States over a considerably wider sphere
than in the North. They Avere different in character
from the Northern Alleghanies, in that they were
exceedingly well adapted to habitation, to farming
and to manufactures. There was no end of water
power, and the valleys were very fertile and climate
admirable. The woods 'Avere magnificent, and the
mineral resources not inconsiderable. They were
also connected Avith the seaboard by navigable
rivers, it was 'the destiny of this large stretch of
hilly region to be the leading district of the South,
both as to education and material prosperity.—N.
Y. Times.
FLAX COTTON. —Much interest is expressed in the
modes recently discovered of making flax into a
substance closely resembling cotton. By the Ceaus
sen process the flax fibres are chemically separated
—and by the Lvman plan they are separated by
being tired once or tAvicefroin a steam cannon, the
explosive force used being about two hundred
pounds to the square inch. A new mode has just
been tried at the mills of Sampson & Tappan, at
Roxbury, Mass., and samples give much satisfac
tion, as shoiving that the product will be Avell
adapied for mixing with wool, for making line
thread, and for other purposes. By this last mode
the flax is passed through rollers of an inch diam
eter, and the principal difficulty seems to be the
limited amount of Avork that can be done by such
small rollers. Mr. Lyman is about to make ar
rangements far securing a sufficient supply of flax
from Illinois and other portions of the great West,
to keep his steam guns busy.
ADDITIONAL FROM TEXAS. Washington, March 3.
Some additional intelligence was received to-day
by the government Irom the Special Post Office
Agent, who has been travelling in Texas, and who
was in San Antonio three days alter Gen. Tiviggs
had surendered the property "and stores of the Uni
ted States to the State authorities of Texas.
Gen. Twiggs' conduct, he says, was severely
condemned by all the officers and soldiers of the
United States. When the troops AA*ere orderpd by
Twiggs to vacate the barracks in order that the
Texas troops might take their place, the band
played Yankee Doodle, and they kept the stars
and stripes flying, to the great annoyance of the
Texans.
The United States troops were only allowed a
sufficient quantity of supplies to last "them until
they could reach the coast, and very scanty at that.
—Herald's correspondence.
SAD AFFAIR—WEST CHESTER, PA., March 3.
M arshall Bailey, a young man of good family, shot
himself yt sterdav morning, at his mill, in Elk Dale
village, New London township, Chester county, Pa.
Whether or not he intended to commit the act is
not known. His friends generally think it was an
accident—that the pistol exploded while he was
loading it. The ball entered his right eye, passing
through the top of his head, and lodged in the
ceiliDg. No one was present at the time; but his
apprentice entered the mill soon after hearing the
report of the pistol, saw bim lying on his face, and
gave the alarm, when neighbors soon came, but
the wounded man never spoke afterwards, and
soon died. He was about twenty eight years old,
very prepossessing in bis manners, and had been
married but two'months.
GENERAL DEARTH OF MONEY.— A letter from Tu
rJ,D \ a 7 8 . tlie P re s e nt year bids fair to embarrass
the Ministers of Finance in many quarters. In
India there is a deficiency of six millions sterling-,
in England of two, and in France of four, while in
Italy a loan of twenty millions is required to meet
the expenditure and armaments of the n w king
dom; and in Austria the confusion is so great that
not even the Minister is able to prognosticate the
eventual wants of the empire.
The banking law now pending action before
the 1 ennsylvania Legislature reduces the amount
of specie required to be kept in the vaults of the
banks as a basis for circulation, and authorizes the
issne of 15 per cent, of notes of the denomination
of one, two and three dollari.
BALTIMORE, TUESDAY. MARCH 5. 18(51.
THE INAUGURATION.
THE PROCESSION,
The Ceremonies at the Capitol.
INAUGURAL ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT.
CLOSING SCENES AND INCIDENTS,
\esterday, the 4th of March, the lion. James
Buchanan, who for four years past has filled the
Executive chair of a great nation, in pursuance of
the provisions of the Constitution, transferred the
office, with all its honors, cares, perplexities and
responsibilities, to bis successor, the Hon. Abra
ham Lincoln. Our reporters furnish the following
account of the ceremonies, scenes and incidents of
the day.
WASHINGTON, March 4.
THE PREPARATIONS.
To-day was ushered in by a most exciting ses
sion of the Senate, that bodv sitting for twelve
hours—from 7 o'clock yesterday evening to 7 this
morning. As the dial of the clock pointed to 12
o'clock last night, and the Sabbath gave way to
Monday, the 4th of March, the Senate chamber
presented a curious and animated appearance.
The galleries were crowded to repletion, the la
dies' gallery resembling, from the gay dresses of the
fair ones there congregated, some gorgeous par
terre of flowers, and the gentlemen's seemed one
dense black mass of surging, heaving masculines,
pushing, struggling—almost clambering over each
other's backs in order to get a good look at the
proceedings.
Some most ludicrous scenes were the result of the
intense desire of outsiders to get a peep into the
Senate chamber, and the pertinacity with which
the applicant for admission to the overflowing
galleries would urge that he had come all the wav
from Indianny or Vairmount, or some other
place, afforded the seated ones intense amusement.
On the floor Messrs. Crittenden, Trumbull, Wig
tall, Wade, Douglas and others kept up a rolling
fire of debate, while those not engaged in the dis
cussion betook themselves to the sotas for a com
fortable nap during the session, which it was
known would last all night.
As the morning advanced the galleries and floor
became gradually cleared out, when in the grev
morning light the Senate took a recess till ten
o'clock to-day. A few minutes after seven but few
remained.
The morning broke clear and beautiful; and
though at one time a tew drops of rain fell, the
day proved just calm and' cloudy enough to pre
vent the unusual heat of the past few days, and
the whirlwinds of dust that would otherwise have
rendered it excessively unpleasant.
The public buildings, schools, places of business,
etc., were closed throughout the dav; the stars and
stripes floated from the City Hall", Capitol, War
Department, and other public buildings, while not
a few of the citizens flung out flags from their
houses or across the principal avenues.
From early dawn, the drum and fife could be
heard in every quarter of the city, and the streets
were thronged with the volunteer soldiery hast
ening to their respective rendezvous. Three'orfour
hours before there was the least chance of entering
the Capitol, Pennsylvania avenue was thronged
with people wending their, way to the famous east
front. For four hours the crowd poured on to
wards the Capitol in one continuous stream of old
and young, male and female, staid old Qeakers
from Pennsylvania, going to see friend Abraham;
and Lengthy Suckers, Hoosiers and Wolverines,
desirous of a peep at Abe; Buckeyes and Yankees;
men from California and Oregon," from the North
east, Northwest, and a few from the Border States.
The large majority however were Northern men;
and but few Southerners, judging from the lack of
long-haired men in the crowd, attended the Inau
guration.
The order of arrangements as settled by the com
mittee was as follows:
To the left of the Vice President were the Com
mittee of Arrangements; immediately behind them
the heads ot the various Departments of the Gov
ernment, Senators, members of Congress, members
elect, House officers, Army and Navy officers,
Governors of States and Territories, Comptrollers,
Auditors, Registers and Solicitors of the Treasury.
To the right of the Vice President were the
Judges of the Supreme Court, Senators, Diplo
matic Corps, ex Governors of States, Assistant
Secretaries of departments, and Assistant Post
master General, Treasurer, Commissioners, Judges
and Mayors of Washington and Georgetown.
THE SENATE.
Previous to the arrival of the procession, the
Senate chamber did not present a very animated
appearance. Many of the ladies waiting to see the
display did not arrive till late; and the officers,
whose gay uniforms and flashing epaulets relieve
so well the sotnbreness of our national black, were
with the Presidential cortege.
During the passage of the procession to Willard's
Hotel and the march thence to the Capitol, Senator
liriglit killed, in the most approved mariner, acer
tain gas bill, to wit, by talking it to death. Tit,
wbYtdulUn " DS ' mi,UUra watcd BomB '
At five minutes to twelve, V ice President
inridge and Senator Foote, of the CommitteTot
Arrangements, enteced the Senate chamber, escort
ing the Vice President elect, Hon. Hannibal Ham
lin, whom they conducted to a seat immediately to
the leltol the chair of the President of the Senate.
As the hands of the clock pointed to the hour of
twelve, the hammerfeil, and the second session of
the Thirty-sixth Congress came to an end. Vice-
President Rreckinridge bade the Senate farewell
in well chosen and touching terms, to which Mr.
Hamlin appropriately responded.
THE VICE PRESIDENT.
Mr. Breckinridge then administered the oath of
office to the Vice-President, and then announced
the Senate adjourned without day, and left the
chair, to which he immediately conducted Vice-
President Hamlin.
Hon. Mr. Clingman was then sworn in as Senator
for the State of North Carolina; Mr. Clark for New
Hampshire; Mr. Chase for Ohio; Mr. Harris for
New\ork; Mr. Harlan for Iowa; Mr. Howe for
Wisconsin; Mr. Breckinridge for Kentucky; Mr.
Bane for Indiana; Mr. Nesmith for Oregon; Mr.
Mitchell for Arkansas.
At this juncture the members and members
elect of the House of Representatives entered the
Senate chamber, filling every available place to
the left of the Vice President.
The Diplomatic Corps also entered the cham
ber at the same moment, occupying seats to the
right of the Chair. It was the subject of general
remark, that the Diplomatic Corps was never so
fully represented as on this occasion, perhaps to be
the last time that all would ever again be assem
bled on such an occasion. The ministers, attachees,
and others, numbered in all some fifty and over,
and their brilliancy of dre3s, and number of deco
rations, crape 3, etc., added much to the imposing
scene, home of the court uniforms were particu
larly gorgeous, and attracted much attention.
Ihe scene in the Seuate, while waiting the arri
val ot the Presidential party, seemed to realize the
lying down ot the lion and the lamb together, or
mingling oil and water. .Messrs. Chase, Wigfall.
Crittenden and WilsoD, and other oppositcs, were
hobnobbing with the utmost cordiality—Senator
Breckinridge conversing familiarly with the ex
tremist men of the Republicans, while ladies of all
political affinities, Mrs. Hamlin among them, look
ed smilingly down on the animated scene below.
ENTRANCE OF THE PRESIDENT ELECT.
The attendance of the Senators was unusually
full, the only absences noticed being those of Hon.
Mr. Mason and Hon. Mr. Hunter, of Virginia. At
thirteen minutes to one, the Judge of the Supreme
Court of the United States of America was an
nounced by the doorkeeper of the Senate. On his
entrance, all on the floor rose, and the venerable
Justices, headed by Chief Justice Taney, moved
slowly to the seats assigned them immediately to the
right of the \ ice President, each exchanging
salutes with that officer in passing the chair. At
ten minutes after one, an unusual stir occurred in
the chamber, and the rumor spread like wild-tire
that the President elect was in the building. At a
quarter after one, the Marsbal-in-Chief, Maj. B. B.
trench, entered the chamher ushering in the
President and President elect. They had entered
together from the street through a private covered
passage-way on the north side of the Capitol
police officers being in attendance to prevent out
siders from crowding after them. The line of the
procession was then formed in the following
order:
Marshal of District of Columbia.
Supreme Court.
Sergeant-at-Aruis of the Senate.
Committee of Arrangements.
President of the United States and President elect.
Vice President and Secretary of Senate.
Senators.
Diplomatic Corps.
Heads of the Departments.
Governors and others in the Chamber.
\ hen the word was given for the members of
the House to fall in line of procession, a violent
rush was made for the door, accompanied bv loud
outcries, violent pushing and great disturbance.
After the procession reached tbe platform, Sen
ator Baker, of Oregon, introduced Mr. Lincoln to
the assembly. On Mr. Lincoln's advancing to the
staDd, he was cheered, though not very loudly.
Unfolding his manuscript, he proceeded, in a loud,
clear voice, to read bis message as follows:
Fellow Citizens of the United States:
In compliance with a custom as old as the Government
itself, I appear before you to address you briefly and to
take, in your presence, the oath prescribed.by the Consti
tution of the United States, to be taken by the President
"before he enters on the execution of his office." I do not
consider it necessary at present to discuss those matters
of administration about which there is no spec al anxiety
or excitement.
An apprehension seems to exist among the people of
the States that by the accession of a Republican Adminis
tration their property and their peace and personal se
curity are to be endangered.
There has never been any reasonable cause for such
apprehension. Indeed the most ample evidence to the
contrary has all the while existed and been open to their
inspection. It is found *in nearly all the published
speeches of him who now addresses you. Ido but quote
from one of those speeches when I declare that "I have
no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the
institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I be
lieve I have no lawful right to do so. I have no inciina
tion to do so."
Those who nominated and elected me did so with a
full knowledge that I had made this and many similar
declarations, and had never recanted them: and more
than this they placed in the platform for my acceptance,
and as a law to themselves and to me , the clear and em
phatic resolution which I now read :
•'Resolved, That the maintenance inviolate of the rights
of the States, and especially the right of each State to
•order and control its own domestic institutions, accord
ing to its own judgment exclusively, is essential to that
balance of power on which the perfection and endurance
of our political fabric depends, and we denounce the law
less invasion, by armed force, of the soil of any State or
Territory, no matter .under what pretext, as among the
gravtest of crimes."
I now reiterate these sentiments, and in doing so, I only
press upon the public attention the most conclusive evi
dence of which the case is susceptible, that the prop
erty, peace and security of no section are to be in anywise
endangered by the new incoming Administration.
I add, too. that all the protection which, consistently
with the Constitution and the laws, can be given will be
cheerfully given to all the States, when lawfully de
manded for whatever cause—as cheerfully to one section
as to a—iher.
There is much controversy about the delivering of fu
gitives from service or labor. The clause I now read is
as plainly written in the Constitution as any other of the
provisions.
"No person held to service or labor In one State, under
we laws thereof, escaping Into another, shall in oonse-
qoenceof any law or regulation therein.be discharged
trom such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on
claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be
due."
is scarcely questioned that this provision was intend
n r se who ma(le f or the reclaiming of what we
call fugitive slaves: and the intention of the lawgiver is
the law.
All members of Congress swear their support to tlie
B '?°' e Constitution—to this provision as much as to any
other. To the proposition, then, that slaves whose cases
come Within the terms of this clause "shall be ileiivere.i
up, their oaths are unanimous. Now, if they would
make the effort in good temper, could they not with near
ly equal unanimity, frame and pass a law by means of
wh ch to keep good that unanimous oath?
There is some difference of opinion whether this clause
snould he enforced by national or by State authority, hut
Surely that difference is not a very material one. If the
slave is to be surrendered, it can bo of but little conse
quence to him or to others, by which authority it is done:
ai ? hou,d anv one . in an y case. be content that his oath
snail go unkept on a merely unsubstantial controversy as
to/icio it shall be kept'' Again, in any law upon this sub
ject,. ought not all the safeguards of liberty known iu
civilized and humane jurisprudence to be introduced, so
nat a free man he not in any case surrendered as a slave?
Ann might it not be well at the same time to provide by
jaw for the enforcement of that clause in the Constitu
tion which guarantees that the citizens of each State shall
be entitled to ail privileges and immunities of citizens in
the several States?
I take the official oath to-day with no mental reserva
tions, and with no purpose to construe the Constitution or
laws by any hypocritical rules. And while Ido not
choose now to specify particular acts of Congress as
proper to be enforced,T do suggest that it will be much
safer for nil, both in official and private stations, to con
form to and abide by all those acts which stand unre
pealed than to violate any of them, trusting to find im
punity in having them held to be uncoustitutional.
It is seventy-two years since the first inauguration of
a 1 resident under our National Constitution. During
that period, fifteen different and greatly distinguished
citizens have,in succession, administered the Executive
branch of the Government. T'hcy have conducted it
through many perils, and generally met with great suc
cess. Yet with ail the scope for precedent, I now enter
upon the same task, for the brief constitutional terra of
four years, under great and peculiar difficulty. A dis
ruption of the federal Union, heretofore on'ly menaced,
is now formidably attempted.
I hold that in the contemplation of the universal law
and the Constitution the Union of these State 3 is perpet
ual. Perpetuity is implied if not expressed in the funda
mental law of all national governments. It is safe to
assert -that no government proper ever had a provision
in its organization for its own termination.
Continue to execute all the express provisions of our
own national Constitution and the Union will endure for
ever, it being impossible to destroy it, except by some ac
tion not provided for in the instrument itself.
Again, if the I. nited States he not a Government proper
but an association of States in the nature of the contract
merely, can it, as a contract, he peacefully unmade by
less than all the parties who made it? One party to a
contract may violate or break it, so to speak, but does it
not require all to lawfully rescind it?
Descending from these general principles, we find
the proposition that in legal contemplation the Union
is perpetual, confirmed by the history of the Union
itself.
The Union is much older than the Constitution. It was
formed in fact by the articles of association in 1774. It
was matured and continued by the Declaration of Inde
pendence in 1776. It was further matured and the faith
of all the then thirteen States expressly plighted and en
gaged that it should be perpetual by the articles of con
federation in 1778.
Anil finally, in LB7, one of the declared objects for or
daining and establishing the Constitution, was to form a
more perfect Union; but if destruction of the Union
by one or by a part only of the States, be lawfully possi
ble, the Union is less perfect than before the Constitution,
having lost the vital element of perpetuity.
It follows from these views, that no State, upon its
own mere motion, can lawfully get out of the Union—
that resolves and ordinances to that effect are legally
void, and that acts of violence within any State o'r
States against the authority of the United States are in
surrectionary or revolutionary, according to circum
stances.
I therefore consider, that in view of the Constitution
and the laws, the Union is unbroken, and to the extent
of my ability shall take care, as the Constitution itself
expressly enjoins upon me. that the laws of the Union be
faithfully executed in all the States. Deeming this to he
only a simple duty on my part, I shall perform it so far
as practicable, unless my rightful masters, the American
people, slia.ll withhold the requisite means, or in some
authoritative manner direct the contrary.
I trust that this will not be regarded as a menace, but
only as the declared purpose of the Union that it will
constitutionally defend and maintain itself. In doing
this there needs to be no bloodshed or violence, and there
shall he none unless it he forced upon the national au
thority.
The power confided to me will be used to hold, occupy
and possess property and places belong to the Govern
ment, and to collect the duties and imposts, but beyond
what may be necessary for these objects there will be no
invasion, no using of force against or among the people
anywhere.
Where hostility to the United States in any interior lo
cality shall be so great and so universal as to prevent
competent resident citizens from holding the federal
offices, there will be no attempt to force obnoxious stran
gers among the people for that object.
While the strict legal right may exist in the Govern
ment to enforce the exercise of these offices, the attempt
to do so would be so irritating, and so nearly impractica
ble with all. that I deem it better to forego for the present
the uses of those offices. The mails, unless repelled, will
continue to be furnished in all parts of the Union.
So far as possible the people everywhere shall have
that sense of perfect security which is most favorable to
calm thought and reflection
The course here indicated will be followed unless current
events and experience shall show a modification or change
to be proper, and in every case and exigency my best
discretion will be exercised according to circumstances
actua iy existing, and with a view and a hope of a peace
ful solution of national troubles and the restoration of
fraternal sympathies and affections.
That there are persons in one section or another who
seek to destroy the Union at all events, and are glad of
any pretext to do it, I will neither affirm or deny; but if
there be such, I need address no word to them. To those,
however, who really love the Union may I not speak ?
Before entering upon so grave a matter as the destruc
tion of our national fabric, with all its benefits, its memo
ries and its hopes, would it not be wise to ascertain pre
cisely why we do it ?
Will yon hazard so desperate a step whilst there is
possibility that any portion of the ills ycu fly from
have no rea i existence ? Will you, while the certain
ills you n y , 0 are g |. ea t e r than all the real ones you 11 y
trW™~ v "" ,l,k commission of so fearful a mis-
All profess to he content with the Union, if all Consti
tutional rights can be maintained. Is it true then that
any right plainly written in the Constitution has been
denied. I think not.
Happily the human mind is so constituted that no par
ty can reach to the audacity of doing this. Think, if
you can, of a single instance in which a plainly written
provision of the Constitution has ever been denied.
If by the mere force of numbers, a majority should de
prive a minority of anyclearly-written constitutional right
it might, in amoral point of view, justiry revolution, cer
tainly would ifjsuch a right were a vital one. But such is
not our case. All the vital rights of minorities and of in
dividuals are so plainly assured to them by affirmations
and negotiation, guaranties and prohibitions on the Con
stitution that controversies never can arise concerning
them. But no organic law can ever be framed with a
provision specially applicable to every question which
may occur in practical administration.
No foresight can anticipate, nor any document of rea
sonable length contain express provisions for all possible
questions. Shall fugitives from labor be surrendered by
national or State authority? The Constitution does not
expressly say. May Congress prohibit slavery in the
Territories? The Constitution does not expressly say.
Must Congress protect slavery in the Territories ?
From questions of this clas3 spring all our Constitu
tional controversies, and we divide upon them into ma
jorities and minorities. If the minority will not ac
quiese, the majority must or the Government must
cease. ,
There is no other alternative for continuing the Gov
ernment but acquiseence on one side or the other. If a
minority in such case will secede rather that acquiesce,
they make a precedent which in turn will divide and
ruin them.
For a minority of their own will secede from them
whenever a majority reiuses to be controlled by such a
minority. For instance, why may uot any portion of a
new confederacy a year or two hence arbitrarily secede
again, precisely as portions of the present Union now
claim to secede from it. All who cherish disunion senti
ments arc now being educated to the exact temper of do
ing this. Is there such a perfect identity of interests
among the States :to compose a new Union, as to pro
duce harmony only, and jjrevent renewed secession ?
Plainly the central idea of secession is the essence of
anarchy.
A majority held in restraint by constitutional checks
and limitations, and always changing easily w itli delib
erate changes of popular opinions and sentiments, is the
only true sovereign of a free people; whoever rejects it
does of necessity fly to anarchy or to despotism. Unan
imity is impossible.
The rule of the minority as a permanent arrangement,
is wholly inadmissable, so that rejecting the minority
principle anarchy or despotism in some form is all that i's
left.
I do not forget the position assumed by some that Con
stitutional questions are to be decided by tbe Supreme
Court. Nor do I deny that such decisions must be bind
ing in any case upon the parties to a suit as to the object
of that suit, while they are also entitled to very high res
pect and consideration in all parallel cases by all other
departments of the government, and while it is obviously
possible that such decision may be erroneous in any
given case, still the evil effect following it, being limi
ted to that particular case, with the chance that it may
be overruled and never become a precedent, for other ca
ses can better be borne than could the evils of a different
practice.
At the same time the candid citizen must confess that
if the policy of the government upon vital questions af
fecting the whole people is to be irrevocably fixed by the
decisions of the Supreme Court, the instant that they are
made, in ordinary litigation between parties in personal
actions,the people will have ceased to be their own rulers,
having to-that extent practically resigned their govern
ment into the hands of that eminent tribunal.
Nor is there, in this view, any assault upon the Court
or the Judges. It is a duty from which they may not
shrink, to decide cases properly brought before them .and
it is no fault of theirs if others seek to turn their decis
ions to political purposes.
One section of our country believes that slavery is
right, and ought to be extended, while the otlter believes
that it is wrong and ought not to be extended. This is
the only substantial dispute.
The fugitive slave clause of the Constitution and the
law for tbe suppression of the foreign slave trade are
each as well enforced perhaps as any law can ever be in
a community where the moral sense of the people im
perfectly support the law itself.
The great body of the people abide by the dry legal ob
ligation in both cases and a few break over in each.—
Ttiis, I think, cannot be perfectly cured, and it would be
worse in both cases after tbe separation of the sections
than before. Tile foreign slave trade, now imperfectly
suppressed, would be ultimately revived without restric
tion in one section, while fugitive slaves, now only par
tially surrendered, would not be surrendered at all by
the others.
Physically speaking, we cannot separate—we cannot
remove our respective sectjons from each other, nor build
any impassable wall between them. A husband and
wife may be divorced and go out of tiie presence and be
jondthe reach of each other, but the different parts of
our country cannot do this. They cannot but remain
face to face, and intercourse, either amicable or hostile,
must continue between them.
Is it possible then to make that intercourse more satis
factory, after separation than be'ore'? Can aliens make
treaties easier than friends can make laws ? Can treaties
be more faithfully enforced between aliens than laws can
among friends ?
Suppose you go to war, you cannot fight always, and
when, after much loss on both sides and no gain on either,
you cease fighting, the identical old questions as to the
terms of intercourse are again upon you. This country
with its institutions belongs to the people, who inhabit it.
Whenever they shall grow weary of the existing Govern
ment they can exercise their Constitutional right of
amending it. or their revolutionary right to dismember
or overthrow it.
I cannot be ignorant of the fact that many worthy and
patriotic citizens are desirous of having the National
Constitution amended. While I make no recommenda
tion of amendments, I fully recognize the rightful au
thority of the people over the whole subject, to be ex-r
cised in either of the modes prescribed in the instrument
itself, and I should, under existing circumstances, favor,
rather than oppose—a lair opportunity being afforded the
people to act upon them.
1 will venture to add, that to me the Convention mode
seems preferable, in that it allows amendments to origi
nate with the people themselves, instead of only per
mitting them to take or reject propositions originated by
others not especially chosen for the purpose, and which
might not be precisely such as they would wish to either
accept or refuse.
I understand that a proposed amendment to the Con
stitution, which amendment, however, I have not seen,
has passed Congress, to the effect that the Federal Gov
ernment shall never interfere with the domestic insti
tutions of the States, including that of persons held to
service.
To avoid misconstructions of what I have said, I depart
from my purpose not to speak of particular amendments
so far as to say that holding such a provision to now be
implied constitutional law, I have no objection to its be
ing made express and irrevocable.
The Chief Magistrate derives all his authority from
the people, and they have conferred none upon him to
fix terms for the separation of the States. The people
themselves can do this also if they choose, but the Ex
ecutive, as such, has nothing to do with it. ilis duty is
to administer the present government as it came to his
hands and to transmit it unimpaired by him to his suc
cessor.
Why should there not be a patient confidence in the ul
timate justice of the people. Is there any better or
equal hope in the world ?
In our present difficulties is either party without faith
of being in the right. If the Almighty Ruler of Nations
with his eternal truth and justice be on your side of the
North or on yours of the South—that truth and that JUS
tice will surely prevail by the judgment of this great tri
bunal—the American people.
By the frame of the Government under which we live,
this same people have wisely given their public servants
but little power to do mischief, and have, with equal wis
dom. provided for the return of that little to their own
hands at very short intervals. While the people retain
their virtue and vigilance, no Administration, by any
extreme wickedness or folly, can very seriously injure
the Government in the short space of four years.
My countrymen, one and all think calmly and well upon
this whole subject Nothing valuable can be lost by taking
time. If there be an object to hurry any of 3*ou in hot
haste to a st*p which you would never take deliberately,
that object will be frustrated by taking time, but no
good object can be frustrated by it. Such of you as are
now dissatisfied still have the old Constitution unim
paired; and, on the sensitive point, the laws of your own
framing under it; while the new Administration will have
no immediate power, if it would, to change either. If it
were admitted that you who are dissatisfied held the right
in the dispute, there still is no single good reason for
precipitate action. Intelligence, patriotism, Christianity
and a firm reliance on Him who has never yet forsaken
this favored land, are still competent to adjust, in the best
w y, all our present difficulties.
In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and
not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The
Government will not as-ail you.
You can have no contlict without being yourselves the
aggressors. You have no oath registered in Heaven to
destroy the Government, while I shall have the most sol
emn one to preserve, protect and defend it. lam loth
to close. We are not enemies, but friends. We must not
be enemies. Though passion may have strained , it must
not break our bonds of affection; the mystic cords of af
fection stretching from every battle-field and patriot
grave to every living heart and hearth stone all over this
broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when
again touched, as surely they will be. by the better an
gels of their nature.
ADMINISTRATION OF THE OATH.
During the delivery of the inaugural, which
was commenced about half-past one o'clock, Mr.
Lincoln was much cheered, and particularly at any
allusion to the Union.
President Buchanan and Chief Justice Taney
listened with the utmost attention to every word,
and at its conclusion, the latter administered the
usual oath, in making which, Mr. Lincoln was vo
ciferously cheered.
The Chief Justice seemed very much agitated,
and his hands shook very perceptibly with emo
tion. The inauguration of to-day makes the eighth
ceremony of the kind at which Justice Taney has
officiated, having administered the oath successively
to Presidents Van Buren, Tyler, Polk, Taylor,
rillmore, Pierce, Buchanan and Lincoln.
The ceremony was exceedingly impressive.
At the conclusion of the inauguration ceremonies,
the President was escorted to the Senate Chamber
and thence to hi 3 carriage, and the military, form
ing as in procession of the morning, accompanied
V.VTf w '" 1 'he Committee of Arrangements, to the
White House.
WASHINGTON CITY, March 4, 1861
Messrs. Editors —The ceremonies of the inaugu
ration are over and Abraham Lincoln is President
of the United States. The city during Sunday
was one scene of excitement. The avenue was
crowded with people from morning to a late hour
at night, while the hotels were thronged with poli
ticians and office seekers, busily engaged in dis
cussing the coming event, and conjecturing in re
gard to the Cabinet. The radical Republicans du
ring the entire day were in high glee. This was
occasioned by the favorable change matters had
taken in regard to Mr. Chase's chances for the
Treasury Department.
Not an incident of any interest occurred durin"-
the day, and the mass of people retired at night in
the same blissful ignorance as to the composition
of the Cabinet which they enjoyed in the morn
ing when they rose. There was nothing but ru
mor and surmise, and a few minutes onl v were need
ed to prove the falseness of the one and the incorrect
ness of the other.
This morning at an early hour the city was all
astir. The beating of drums, the strains of fife
and bugle were beard in every quarter. Sunday had
been very warm, and it was feared that to-day
would be equally so. This was not the case. The
sky wa3 cloudy and the air was coi 1 and agreeable.
There was some fear of rain, and had "a slight
shower fallen, just suflicient to have settled "the
dust, it would have been a blessing. All the
streets and avenues, excepting Pennsylvania av
enue, were covered with dust to the denth of from
one to two inches, and there was scarcely a mo
ment throughout the day that there were not
clouds of it in the air. During Sunday night the
city authorities ordered Pennsylvania avenue to be
watered, and the fire engines were put to work on
it. Had not this precaution been taken there
would have been no such thing as staving on the
avenue.
The number of strangers in the city is not near
so large as on previous inaugurations. Some esti
mate that not one-half the number were present
which att nded that of Mr. Buchanan. With the
exception of "Willard's, none of the hotels were
full. The visitors are of a different class than
those who formerly attended this ceremony. These
are principally from the Western States, Illinois
and Indiana being immensely represented, and one
would judge from the members from those two
States, that it is their intention to take possession
of the Departments, fill all the offices, and perform
all the functions of Government. What crowd
there was, however, presented itself on the avenue
at an early hour, and spent the morning in walking
to and fro, from Willard's to the Capitol, thence to
the City Hall, where they gazed at the military, and
then returned to the avenue. Many of them car
ried small black travelling bags which looked the
worse for travel. The number of ladies on the av
enue was not large, although there was quite an
exhibition of the fair sex at all the windows of the
'"o'-jr-d's and the Capitol. m„„ t
ot the ladies remained at homo, anticipating
trouble. There was a prevalent opinion, or rathe"?
fear, throughout the city, that Mr. Lincoln would
be shot, or perhaps assassinated in the Capitol.—
This impression prevented manv ladies from leaving
their homes, and in fact a number of families left
the city some days since, fearing a disturbance.
THE PROCESSION.
The procession commenced forming i n f ron t D f
the City Hall at nine o'clock, A. M. In the pub
lished programme the different States were invited
to participate in the ceremonies and present them
selves in delegations. This, however, was but poor
ly complied with. The largest State delegation
was that of New York, and it did not number over
one hundred. This was the only delegation which
wore a badge. Illinois and Indiana, and in fact all
the Western States, preferred being represented on
the pavements, although they would have had more
room for their carpet-sacks if they had assumed
position in line. Maryland had a small sprin
kle in the procession. It was principally
composed of the "rough" element of the
party, ex-police, Ac. The display of military was
meagre in the extreme. The obly visiting corps
were from Alexandria, and they were not full.
THE MARCH TO WII,LARD's.
The procession took up the;line'of march at half
past eleven o'clock from the City Hall, along Lou
isiana avenue to Pennsylvania avenue, and thence
to Fifteenth street, where it came to a halt, and
then returned and filed in front of Willard's. Here
a short delay took place. President Buchanan was
detained at the Senate signing bills until after
twelve o'clock, and did not arrive at Willard's
until half-past twelve. Soon alter, Mr. Buchanan,
the President elect, and his suite entered their
carriages and
THE MARCH TO TnE CAPITOL COMMENCED.
The carriage in which Mr. Lincoln rode was
flanked on either side by cavalry, six or ei"ht
deep. It was almost impossible lor the crowd on
the pavement to get a sight of the President, as
the cavalry hid the vehicle from view. Mr. Lin
coln did not look either to the right or the left,and
it was only occasionally that he raised his hat.—
There was no enthusiasm exhibited—no cheering
and with but very few exceptions the ladies "re
mained motionless at the windows, and looked upon
the pageant without manifesting the slightest feel
ing. For the most part Mr. Lincoln appeared to
be looking vacantly at the bottom of the carriage.
There was but little conversation between him and
Mr. Buchanan, and the latter looked as though he
would much rather not have participated in the
ceremonies.
THE CAPITOL.
From early morning crowds had wended their
way to the Capitol grounds, and at half past one
o'clock thousands were occupying all the available
positions which allorded a view of the procession
and the President. There were quite a number of
ladies among the crowd, who struggled manfully
to maintain their positions. Crinoline suffered
greatly, but there were no complaints, the fair sex
no doubt considering that much must be endured
on this great Republican day, which, under ordi
nary circumstances, would be very objectionable.
THE ARRIVAL OK THE PROCESSION.
At half-past one o'clock the head of the column
ascended Capitol Hill, and when within about fifty
yards of the temporary entrance, through which
the President passed to the Senate Chamber, it
halted. The crowd which followed the procession
from Willard's now pressed heavily and struggled
for admittance into the grounds. An able police
force had been stationed near the gateway, which,
together with the military, succeeded in pressing
back the masses. Several persons were slightly
injured by beiDg trampled upon by the horses of
the dragoons and cavalry. Every cry startled the
crowd, and the slightest misunderstanding between
those in authority and the crowd, attracted much
attention, under the apprehension that arrests of
assassins were being made.
THE PASSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT ALONG THE LTNE.
The military assumed position and were brought
to a "present arms," whenTbejPresidential carriage
passed up to the East wing of the Capitol. Both
sides of the street were thronged with people, and
the hills presented a perfect sea of faces. On the
carriage starting, cheers were proposed for the
President elect, which were given, but not enthu
siastically. As the carriage advanced, the crowd
became still, and the clatter of sabres and dull sound
of the feet of tbe horses were all tfcat was heard.
Mr. Lincoln did not appear to see anybody, and be
did not raise bis hat once to the crowd' He appeared
to be deeply absorbed in turning a gold-beaded
cane around in his hand. Once the carriage was
compelled to stop, on account of the dense crowd.
He looked anxiously forward for an instant, and
then resumed his unconcern. On reaching the door
of the entrance he stepped lightly from the carriage
and taking Mr. Buchanan's arm, hastened from the
crowd.
HIS APPEARANCE ON THE PORTICO.
But a few minutes elapsed after Mr. Lincoln's
entrance to the Senate Chamber, when he made
his appearance on the portico. The scene at this
point was really beautiful. The diplomatic corps
was fully represented and were occupying seats on
the platform. The ladies, in their richest attire,
thronged the immediate vicinity, and the members
the Senate and House were there in a bodv. Mr.
Lincoln was introduced by Senator Baker, and the
crowd welcomed hrs appearance with hearty cheers.
He stepped forward, and in a clear, loud and dis
tinct tone delivered his inaugural. He was several
times interrupted by applause. On closing his re
remarks he bowed respectfully and retired.
THE MARCH TO THE PRESIDENTIAL MANSION.
The military were again hurried into line, and
the President having resumed his seat in the car
riage, the inarch for the Presidential mansion com
menced. The same want of enthusiasm exhibited
on the march to the Capitol, characterized the re
turn. The procession dragged its length along
-slowly—weariedly. The cavalrv flanked the
President s carriage, and almost hid him from
"IV'i .? ? ' lndeed . "'ere the troops to the
vehicle, that positions at second
story windows, did not get a sight of him. In this
manner the procession reached the Presidential
mansion, and Mr. Lincoln was escorted into the
v.!*"-' t,le ce remonies of the day were over.
Nothing but a feeling of sadness remained.
WASHINGTON CITY, March 4, 1861.
Messrs. Editors :—The inaugural has been deliv
ered and the country has been disappointed—or, The Tremont House, Chicago, one of the very
at least, the conservative element, which h d hoped lar & est ®|;™ ctureß >*> tbe city, is being raised by
th.t Mr i , i u- l , . , screws. Ihere are five thousand of these under
that Mr. Lincoln would take high ground, in de- the house, and a gang of five hundred men em
fence of the constitutional rights of the people, ployed to superintend them.
have been sorely deceived. The inaugural addr. <
is nothing more nor less than a declaration of war,
and 13 60 considered by all those who have been strug
gling for the preservation of the confederacy. The
excitement in the city after the delivery of the in
augural was intense. Men—the most conservative
—who have hoped almost against hope—who have
toiled ceaselessly to stem the tide or seevs-ion
yielded to day, as the last ray of conciliation died
out, with the declaration of 'the principles which
are to guide the new administration. Mr. Lincoln
has evinced far less disposition to compromise than
was expected even by some of those who act with
the Republican party.
A settled leeling of disappointment and dread for
the future pervades all classes, except the radical
Republicans; they are gratified. The President
has reached their standard, and tbev confidently
predict that this is but the wedge which will lead
to more positive positions. These radicals laugh
at the idea of Virginia, Maryland or Kentucky se
ceding. Thev say that it is impossible to induce
them to secede, and indeed some of the States
Rights men doubt if either of the above named
States will take any decisive,action in the premises.
It is the general impression that the coercive
tone of the inaugural is due principally to the lack
imposition on the part of Virginia to take a de
cided stand for tier rights and those of the South-
Had that State have shown that she was determin
ed to submit to nothing but a full acknowledg
ment of her rights under the Constitution, the
1 resident would have delivered an entirely differ
ent address. Rut the Republicans believe that
\ lrgima will submit to anything, and have no
fears of her seceding.
The contest between Cameron and Chase, and
Davis and Blair for positions in the Cabinet, has
lost none of its bitterness. On the contrary, it in
creases hourly, and up to noon to-day is no nearer
settlement than it was on Friday last. On Sunday-
Chase and Davis were in the ascendency, but this
morning Cameron and Blair had replaced them.—
It will not be known until noon to-morrow which
of the contestants will receive the portfolios. It
may be that most of them will be tossed aside and
new men selected. This appears at present to be
the only way of satisfying both parties.
The Ohio delegation, with but one or two excep
tions, to day urged John Sherman instead of Chase.
Corwin is the bitterest foe Chase has. Senator
Andrew Johnson, John Cochrane, and other con
servative men, are now engaged in preparing an
address which they will submit to the people of the
country urging the formation of a great Union
party. The address will be temperate in its tone,
and commend itself to all conservative men.
Mr. Buchanan is the guest of Hon. Robt. Ould,
with whom he will remain until to-morrow, when
he will leave Washington in the 3.10 train, I'. M.,
tor your city, where be will remain the guest of
Zenos Barnum, Ksq., until Wednesday morning,
when he will depart for Wheatland.
PREVIOUS INAUGURATIONS.
On the Ist ot May, 1789, Washington was inau
gurated President of the United States, in the then
City Hall of New York, where the splendid custom
house now stands, then occupied by Congress as a
'Federal Hall." "Ili3 Excellency" was escorted
fiom his house by a troop of light dragoons, and
the legion under the command of the well known
Col. Morgan Lewis, attended by a committee of
the House and Senate, to Federal Hall, where he
was received by both Houses of Congress, assem
bled in the SenatelChamber. At 12 o'clock M., he
was conducted to the gallery in front of the Hall
accompanied by all the members, when the oath
prescribed by the Constitution was administered
to him by Chancellor Livingston, who then said,
'Long live General Washington, President of the
United States," which was received with great ap
plause by the citizens assembled. Washington then
addressed the two Houses of Congress, and after
wards attended divine service in St. Paul's Church,
after which his Excellency proceeded in form to
his own house. In the evening there were fire
works, the houses of the French and Spanish Min
isters were brilliantly illuminated, and many beau
titul transparencies exhibited to the public.
In 1793 Washington was re-eiected, and inaugu
rated at Philadelphia, on which occasion the fol
lowing ceremonies took place: On Monday,
March 4, a number of the members of the Senate,
the Speaker and members of the late House
of Representatives, together with the beads of de
partments, Judges of the Supreme Court, Ac.,
with foreign ministers, together with a great many
ladies and gentlemen of distinction, assembled in
the Senate chamber at 12 M. The President en
tered the hall. The President pro ton. then arose
ajid said: '*Sir, one of the Judges of the Supreme
Court is now present and ready to administer to
you the oath required by the Constitution to be
taken by the President of the United States." The
President then made a short address, when Judge
Cushing read the oath, which the President re
peated after him, sentence by sentence, a3 follows:
"I, George Washington, do solemnly swear that I
will faithfully execute the oflice of President of
the United States, and will, to the best of my
ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitu
tion of the United States." The President was
saluted by three cheers of the people, and then re
tired.
In 1797 John Adams, who was the elected Presi
dent, was inaugurated in Independence Hall, Phila
delphia, on the Bth of February. In 1801 Thomas
Jefferson was elected President of the United
States, and was inaugurate d at Washington, March
4th. In 1805 ho was re-elected, and was succeeded
in 1800 by James Madison, who was re-elected in
1813. James Monroe was elected In 1817, and re
elected in 1821. John Quincy Adams succeeded
him in 1825, and next came Andrew Jackson, who
tvas elected in 1829, and re-elected in 1833. Martin
Van liuren was inaugurated in 1837; William H.
Harrison in 1811; John Tyler in April, 1841, after
the death of Harrison; James K. Polk in 1845;
Zachary Taylor in 1810; \lillrd Fillmore ; B ju|v
-1850, after" the death of Gen. Taylor; rrankiin
1 terce in lsaa; James iiuchanan in 1857, and now
Abraham Lincoln in 1861.
MORTALITY STATISTICS.— From the report of the
Committee ofthe Senate of New York appointed to
investigate the Health Department of the city of
New York, we glean the following numerical con
trasts :
- lie mortality of different countries is :
In the United States 15 in I,COO
In England 23 "
In Denmark 23 44 44
In France 23.5 44 * 4
In Holland 24 44 44
In Sweden 24 44 44
In Prussia 2? 4% 44
In Austria 31 * 4 "
In Russia 30 44 44
The mortality in different cities is:
In London... 25 in 1,000
In Berlin 25 " '•
In Turin 26 " "
In Paris 2k '• "
Inßenoa 31 " "
In Lyons 33 " '•
In Hamburg 36 " "
In New York 3S " "
While from the report of the committee we de
rive the following equally significant ligures:
RATIOS OF MORTALITY TO POPULATION,
Population. Mortality. Katio.
Philadelphia 620,000 9,745 I in 63 6
Providence 62,000 982 1 in 52 9
Baltimore 253,000 5,039 1 in 50 2
Boston 180,000 3,73S 1 in 48 1
Brooklyn 250,000 6,206 1 in 40 2
New York 800,000 21,645 1 in 36 9
The ratio of deaths to the population in the cities
mentioned below, was, in the years—
New York. Baltimore. Philadelphia. Boston.
1835 1 in 40.86 42.75 .... 43
1840 " 39 74 50A2
1845 " 37.65 41.81
1850 " 33.52 36.19 46.10 37 84
1852 " .... 40 45 ....
1853 " .... 43.61
1854 " 22.5 .... 38 10
1855 " 27.33 .... 41.81 39 88
1856 " 28 67 .... 44.5
1857 " 27.15 .... .... 40.5
A YANKEE "TRAIN" IN EUROPE. —About three
weeks ago, at the usual quarterly meeting of the
Town Council of the town of Liverpool, in Eng
land, the following letter from Mr. Train, on the
subject of street-railways, was read by the town
clerk, to whom it was addressed :
"18 Sr. JAMES STREET, LONDON, 1
January 31, 18G1. j
"Dear Sir: —Since I applied, a year since, to
the Liverpool Council to lay down a street railway
in your town, I have demonstrated the system at
Birkenhead, which line is now being extended,
and lam now shipping from your port two cars
and two miles of rails, for a horse raihvav in Syd
ney, ordered by the Board of Trade for the Gov
ernment ot New South Wales. I have also made
progress in England, having obtained grants from
the councils of Manchester and Birmingham, and
seven parishes in London. On Monday week I
break ground on Uxbridge road line, from Marble
Arch to NottingHill, and shall open It in Mhrcb. I
mention these tacts with the request that you will
place this letter before the Council, with the hope
that they will consider the application which I
made in February, last year, as worthy, at least,
of either a negative or an affirmative response.
"A' ours, truly, FRANCIS TRAIN."
NOTICE OP AN "OLD CALIFOHNIAN." —It seems,
says tlio Uritiuh Colonist, of Victoria, V. 1., that
John Butts is in the habit of collecting as many In
dians as he can in a little cottage where he lives,
near the Congregational church. lie then leads off
with a prayer, followed by singing a hymn. John
then makes a short and feeling address; follows it
with another hymn, a collection is taken up, and
the congregation dismissed with a benediction.—
After the services dancing, singing and drinking
whiskey are the order of the evening—Bulls act
ing as barkeeper with as much grace as he a few
moments before officiated as clergyman. It is
quite an ingenious plan, and the inventor is, no
doubt, making a "good thing" by administering
spiritual comfort to his flock in two totally differ
ent ways.
PEDIGREE IN AMERICA. —Br. Curtis, in his last
State Registration report, speaks of a marked
neglect of the American people as follows:—"More
attention is giyen in this country to the pedigree
of animals than of human beings, and many per
sons can tell the exact genealogy of a fayorite
horse tor seyeral generations, who do not know the
maiden names of their own grandmothers, nor
would it be possible for them to ascertain the fact
from any legal records. It would probably be im
possible for a large portion of the middle-aged
men and women in the Uuited States to proye that
their own parents were erer married, and that
they have any legitimate right to the name they
bear."
TRADE AND COMMERCE OP CHARLESTON —We re
joice to see our streets again becoming alive with
trade and commerce. From the large number of
boxes which line the sideivalks in front of our
wholesale stores, it is evident that a large busi
ness has already opened. The spring trade is
opening with a fresh demand, and we learn that
supplies by heavy importations have arrived in
greater quantities than usual at such periods.—
Our wharves are also assuming a crowded ap
pearance. Cotton is coming in fast, and meets
with a good and fair demand. Vessels are also in
demand for loading cotton ready to be shipped.—
The draymen are busy, and are likely to reap a
rich harvest.— Courier, March 2.
Faou KEY WEST.— Key IVesf, Feb. 9,1861.— It
is understood here by army and naval men that
in the event the Brooklyn is prevented from
landing Captain Vogels' company of artillery at
Fort Pickens, she will return to this place. In
which ease Captain Vogels will march into Fort
Taylor, and assume command, he being the senior
captain. In anticipation oi such an event, the
engineer oflicer is rapidly preparing quarters in
the casemates of the Fort. The defences of Fort
Taylor are now completed. The guns are nearly
all in position and the work is placed on a war
footing. The force within the walls exceeds 100
meD.
PRICE TWO CENTS.
THE NATIONAL CRISIS.
THE VIHGI.VIA CO.YVEYTIO.V.
RICHMOND, March 4. —Mr. Cbambliss, of Green
ville, ( tiered a resolution in the .State Convention
to day, declaring that the Peace Conference pro
positions fail to give assurance of an equitable set
t'< mint of the slavery controversy, and that Virgi
nia should offer no more propositions, but with
draw from the Federal Compact, and adopt
measures to protect her rights in concert with the
other Southern States.
Mr. Chambliss made a secession speech in advo
cating his resolutions.
Mr. Carlisle replied in a strong Union speech.—
ie said he believed that the Peace Conference pro
positions would prove acceptable to the people.
,niH, reS 'i' r na , o V< r. lhen referred to the Com
mittee on federal Relations.
Mr. Mai lory, of lirunswick county, offered a re-
Keltrred' 11 border State convention.-
Mr. Brown, of Preston, offered a resolution cen
suring Senators Mason and llunter for opposing the
reference ot the Peace Conference report to the
consideration of the States of the Confederacy
The resolution was tabled on his motion. '
Mr. tVilley made a decided Union speech in op
position to the right of secession.
MISSOURI STATE CONVENTION.
Sr. Louis, March 4.—The State Convention re
assembled here this morning. The Committee of
Thirteen on Federal Relations, appointed by the
convention, have under discussion the propositions
submitted by the Georgia Commissioners.
Tl ~/ )t:S E TCIIES Ftt °M MAJOR ANDERSON.
Hie V\ ar Department has received important de
spatches from Major Anderson. The gallant ofii
cer in a letter to Secretary Holt, denies the rut ,
ot the report that Jefferson Davis had exchanged
visits vvitti him. He has to communication what
ever with the President of the Confederate States
Hei is satisfied that Fort Sumler will be attacked"
and lie can clearly discern with the naked eye the
arrangements for the assault, which he believes
will be at night, and will be of the most determined
character. Ihe fortification is only now entirely
completed, the reports to that effect before being
untrue. The utmost ingenuity of himself and
brother ofheers has, been employed to strengthen
every part and to provide means for resisting the
mi' o I w hich, in his opinion, is certain to come.—
I nil. Inquirer 8 Correspondent.
THE SOUTHERN PROGRAMME.
It is said here, on the authority of letters from
Montgomery, Ala., that a gentleman left that place
sev-eral days ago (or Washington, who is supposed
to have travelled here incog., and to be now in this
city, as a Commissioner from the Southern Con
federacy. This gentleman is instructed, immedi
ately alter the inauguration, to present his creden
ttals as Ambassador of the Southern Confederacy,
and ask its recognition by the United States.
President Lincoln is expected to reply that he has
no power in the premises, and cannot give the de
sired answer. To this the Ambassador is directed
to rejoin that he is instructed to insist upon a de
cisive answer without delav, and, failing to get it
to immediately retire.
It was understood at Montgomery that if the
recognition ot the Southern Confederacy is re
fused, immediately on the fact being ascertained,
torts Sumter and Pickens will bo attacked, and
an armed issue will be immediately precipitated 011
the new Administration.
I cannot learn that the Ambassador has any dis
cretion in the premises, but, possibly, his action is
to depend on the character of Mr. Lincoln's inau
gural.— IPasft. cor. N. K. Timen.
[From the JV. Y. Tribune.l
THE STRUGGLE OVER THE CABINET
Saturday night was an eventful one in Mr. Lin
coln's political experience. At his rooms were
gathered the contlicting powers, each determined
to carry the decision in favor of such policy as to
his own view seemed the only salvation for the
country. The Pennsylvania delegation pleaded long
and earnestly that Mr. t'amerou might be given the
Treasury Department; the Northwest, divided in
sentiment, urged on the one hand the taking, and
on the other the rejection of Sir. Chase; Gov. Hicks
and the Marylanders argued strenuously for Ilonry
\\ inter Davis; oid Sir. illair and others advocated
the claims of his son, Montgomery; while the im
mediate friends of Mr. Lincoln, viz: .Judge Davis
and Col. Lamon, vehemently insisted that Mr. Lin
coin should be left alone, and his appointments
should no longer be interfered with. Mr. Lincoln
was very much agitated, lie listened with sorrow
to the uproar around him, and at last, demanding
attention, said—
•'•Gentlemen, it is evident that some one must
take the responsibility of these appointments, and
I will do it. My Cabinet is completed. The posi
tions are not definitely assigned, and will not be
until I announce them privately to the gentlemen
whom I have selected as mv constitutional advi
sers."
Whereupon there was a drawing of breaths, and
in a very shot space of time a general hand-sink
ing and congratulations innumerable.
Mr. Lincoln seemed relieved alter he had thus
put a Stop to the Cabinet row, and slept better that
night than he has done for weeks.
The Maryland delegation went home in di3gust,
and professing that with Mr. Lincoln's determina
tion to keep Messrs. Chase and litair in, there was
no hope for the retention of their State in the
Union. To them Mr. Lincoln was singularly im
pressive, and said, with emphasis, "Gentlemen, the
affair is decided. The Cabinet is formed." Despite
this announcement, tile Pennsylvania mei were
around bright and early to-day. THiey were large
ly reinforced from tlarrisburg, r.-.u every etiT.it
possible has been made to induce Mr. Liucoiu to
recede from his stand-point, but without success.
While the personnel of the Cabinet is undoubted
ly fixed, unless Mr. Chase should decline, the re
spective positions of the several members is not
definitely settled. The generally accepted Cabi
net is as follows:
Secretary of State Win. H. Seward of New York
Secretary of Treasury... .Salmon I'. Chase, of Ohio.
Secretary of War Simon Cameron, of Penn.
Secretary of Navy Montgomery Blair, of Md.
Secretary of Interior...; Caleb B. Smith, of Indiana.
postmaster General Gideon Welles, of Conn.
Attorney General Edward Bates,of Missouri/
There is some talk, however, of transferring Mr.
Cameron to the Department of the Interior, Mr.
lilair to the War Department, and Mr. Smith to
the Navy Department, or Mr. Hates may take the
Department of the Interior, and Mr. Smith mar
be Attorney-General.
CATER —Mr. Chase positively will go into the
Cabinet. If there was auy disposition to substi
tute Mr. Sherman for him, it has been abandoned.
Many strange rumors are attoat as to the effect
of the appointmnnt of Mr. Chase to the Cabinet,
one of which is that Governor Hicks will immedi
ately convene the Legislature of Maryland, and
the other that Clemens and Harris, ot Virginia,
will declare lor secession. Certain it is, that very
great opposition is made to Mr. Chase's appoint
ment by leading Republicans.
YOUTHFUL BURGLARS AT COLLEGE. —For several
weeks, if not months, our citizens have been an
noyed by the depredations of burglars. Some six
weeks since the watchmaker shop of Mr. J. U.
Steel, on Hanover street, was broken open, at
night, and robbed of several articles in his busi
ness. About the same time the book and station
ery room of Professor Marshall, of Dickinson Col
lege, was forced, and robbed of books, paper, post
age stamps, Ac., to the value of about SIOO. Wil
liam Wetzel's carpenter shop was subsequently
robbed of numerous tools, and several students lost
articles from their rooms. No one could conjecture
who the robber was, as no trace ofthe stolen goods
could be discovered. At last, however, the mys
tery was explained, and the burglars were discov
ered. A student of the college was suspected, and,
during his absence on Saturday last, (he was on a
visit home,) his room was searched by an officer.
The carpet being removed, a loose board or
trap-door in the floor was discovered. This was
raised, and the stolen booty found—watches, jewel
ry, cigars, books, stationery, carpenter's tools, pis
tols, knives, See. The articles were all identified by
those who had lost them. In addition to the stolen
articles, a complete set of burglar's tools was
found secreted in the same place—night keys,
skeleton keys, nippers, chisels, &c. This student
has accomplices. One of these (a son of one of
our most respectable citizens) has confessed that
he assisted in the robberies. Others will be impli
cated, we presume. We suppress the names of
these gujlty young men for the present.— Carlisle
{Pa.) Volunteer.
Balmoral Skirts are now largely manufactured
in the United
order as for 10,000 has lately been given by a New
York dealer to Lawrence manufacturers. The
Commercial Bulletin says: "In regard to Pontoosuc
Mills, Pittstield, we hear they are producing at the
rate of 175 'Balmorals' daily, and have introduced
as a leadng color in them, the new and splendid red
known as 'Mosquetta,' and made from coal tar,
which has for months been used by the Washing
ton Mills. These American Balmorals are both in
fineness of texture and beauty and variety of col
ors, quite up to the yery best of the imported arti
cles."
FOREIGN OIL PRODUCTION. —The importation o f
foreign coal oil, under the new Tariff, wilt be al
most impossible. This fact is of interest to num
bers of Pennsylvanians who have recently invest
ed in the oil business. The provisions of the new
Tariff impose a duty "on Kerosene oils, and all
other coal oils of ten cents per gallon." Foreign
producers, under these circumstances, will have to
look elsewhere than to the United States for a
market.
By the postal law of the Southern Confederacy
the following persons only are entitled to the frank
ing privilege, and in ail cases strictly confined to
"official business
Postmaster General-
His Chief Clerk.
Auditor of the Treasury for the Post office De
partment,
Deputy Postmasters.
SUDDEN DEATH. —The Macon (Geo;gia) Journal
learns that Mr. Wm. Daniel, of Jones county, died
very suddenly on Thursday last, at the residence
of his mother, Mrs. Singleton, some eight miles
from Clinton, Ga. He was in bad health, and said
he would go out to the family burying-ground and
select a spot for his grave. He had scarcely left
the ground he had marked out ffr that purpose
before he fell and expired, almost on the very place
be had chosen for his sepulchre.
The court of inquiry in. the case ot Commodore
Armstrong has resulted in ordering a court-tmar
tial, which will assemble in this city on the 12th of
March, and be composed ofsuch distinguished navy
officers as Commodores Stewart, Shubrick, String
bam, Nicholson, Jarvis, Gregory, Paulding, Mer
win, Reed, &c. The Judge Advocate is Allen B.
Magruder.
RELICS OF EARLY TIMES. —An interesting discov
ery hasi just been made at Trikala, near Corinth.
It consists of an antique bronze vase, containing
9,170 coins, in excellent preservation. The most
modern of them date from the time of the Achaian
League, 280 years before the Christian era. The
vase has been presented to the Queen of Greece,
who takes great interest in ancient art.
Eminent iron ship-builders say that in some in
stances "a thousand decapitated rivets ma be
found in the bottom of an iron hull after one or
more voyages," and that a smart kick of the foot is
often sufficient to shake out the rivets so beheaded,
and open an inlet for the sea. Many persons sup
pose that iron ships will, after a time, cease to he
built.
Extensivepreparations are to be made in England
for a grand tri-centennial celebration in honor of
Shakspeare, to take place in 1864. The poet was
born April 23d, 1364.
Forty-three army officers have resigned since the
passage of the South Carolina ordinance of seces
sion, several of them without reference to that sub
ject.

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