Newspaper Page Text
VOL. VII —NO. 982.
SEE FOURTH PAGE, IIA LTIMORE. MONDAY, MAY 6, 1801. lutrrvl.-xv Between the President and the t oi.ii.iltlee of the Legislature. tuiiNuroN, May 4.—lt is ascertained that the ( uuiijittee of the Maryland Legislature, in their interview with the President this morn ing, admitted both the right and power of the government to bring troops through Baltimore or tin , Ugh the State, and to take anv measures for the public safety which, in the discretion of the President, mighi be demanded either by actual or reasonably apprehended exigencies. They express ed their be iel that no immediate eff ;rt at secession or resistance of the federal authoritv would be at tempted bv the Legislature or Sta : e authorities, and asked that in this view the State should, as ong as possible, be spared the evils of a military occupation, or a mere revengeful chastisement for miner transgressions. The President replied that 'eir suggestions and representations should be t uly Considered, but that he should now say no more than that the public interest, and not any spn it of revenge, would actuate his measures Ihe above is the despatch of the agent of the Associated Press. It is needless to say that the facts are wilfully distorted. The Hon. It. M. McLane was the spokesman in the interview with Mr. Lincoln, and we are assured that the dignity and honor of our State were fully sustained by nm. His official report to the Legislature will DO doubt shortly appear, when a true statement will be presented to the public. hi. Many s COUNTY. —A meeting of the citizens of St. Mary's county was held at Leonardtown on the 23d ult., for the purpose of considering the crisis. Resolutions were adopted expressing sym pathy with the Confederate States, and also in structing the commissioners of the county to raise a loan of §IO,OOO, to be expended in arming the county. The following named gentlemen were ap pointed to superintend the expenditure of the mo ney, and to act as a committee of public safety: C ''[- Theophilus Harrison, Col. John U. S ithor <"'i V,, ' ,)r - James Waring, R. 11. Render, u ,'" na " Billingslev, Col. IS G. Harris, F. J. Stonn, Jhotnas I.oker, Thomas O. Spencer, Dr. J W. Forrest and E. S. Abell. Tin: VIRGINIA CONVENTION.— The Virginia Con. vention adjourned on Wednesday night last until the 13th of June next, by which time the returns ol the vote ratifying the ordinance of secession will have been received. The Governor is author ized to call the Convention together at anytime during the recess, it he deems it necessary to do so. IHE LEGISLATURE.—The Senate on Saturday re committed the Board of Public Safety Bill to the Committee on Federal Relations, for the purpose of modification. In the House of Delegates the com mittee to which bad been referred the bill author izing the corporation of Baltimore to issue small cotes, reported unlavorably. THE REPORTED SECESSION OF TENNESSEE.— The Alexandria, (\ a.,) Sentinel of F'riday evening pub lishes (he following despatch : RICHMOND, May 2.—A private despatch says that lennessee has passed a secession ordinance b? a large majority. BALTIMORE TO BE OCCUPIED. ibe New \ork Herald of Saturday Favs : Intelligence from Washington last night was to the effect that the war will be vigorously opened in a few days bv demonstrations upon Alexandria and .Norfolk. A movement upon Havre de Grace was also ordered to take place yesterday from J errvville. Three or four companies of "Colonel Dare s command will cross the Susquehanna, with a batter v of artillery, and occupy Havre de Grace. Troops will then be sent forward ten miles, to Rush river. The last movement mav not be made till Sunday. On Mondav a strong force of carpenters and builders will be Pent forward to Bush river with timber and tools, and the bridge there will be rebuilt. The bridges over the Big and Little Gunpowder rivers will be rebuilt as soon as sufficient military force is sent forward to pro tect the workmen. '1 he three bridges will be com pleted bv Thursday next, and this road to Balti more will then be open. Troops will be sent tor ward from Philadelphia to reinforce those at Per ryville. The Tribune says:— An army of occupation will shortly move upon Baltimore in four columns—one from I'erryville, one from Harrisburg, a third from Annapolis, and a fourth from Washington. The city will be held by a sufficient garrison to keep down the rebels and protect the Unionists. This measure will de prive the South of the important resources of the largest and richest of our slaveholdihg cities, the only one. in fact, which can furnish any considera ble atm.unt of means for clothing, equipping, and provisioning an army. ( Correspondence of the. Daily Exchange ) TI!K COMMITTEE: OF SAFETY BILL PROGRESS OF BUSINESS BEFORE TIIE LEGISLATURE. rr-EDERICK, xuay 4. The recommitment to-day of the bill before the Senate, appointing a Board of Public Safety, Ac., by the vote of its friends, is regarded by many as equivalent to its defeat, certainly in its present shape, and unless radically tcodili d. The bill would probably have passed the Senate in its orig inal form whenever a vote could have been reached —its friends claiming to have eleven votes certain in favor of it, and three votes not entirely Commit ted to its passage. The vote to adjourn on Friday night was made and adopted by its friends for the purpose of consultation, after receiving informa tion that the bill could not possibly pass the House in its original form, and that it failed to meet the views of a majority of the Baltimore city delega tion. Pending its consideration, the ayes "and noes were called to create a delay, over seventy times on amendments and motions to adjourn. The leading object of the bill is said by its friends to have been to confide the great responsibilities connected with the expenditure of the proposed appropriation of two millions of dollars to arm the military, Ac., and the re-organization aDd command of the military forces of the State, to other hands than those of the Governor, exclusive ly. The Committee will probably report a new bill, associating with the Governor ot tile State a number ot gentlemen of distinguished ability and experience, whose political views or predilections are well known, to constitute a Military Commis sion, or Board, to exercise the powers and duties referred to. But the authority of said Board will, by the provisions of the new bill, be greatly lim ited and much more strictly defined than in the bill lately under consideration. The tone and temper of the House seems tending ! to increased conservatism. The disposition of j members appears to be growing more favorable to a preservation of the present status of Maryland i in the General Government, at least until the arri- | val of a more favorable opportunity to change! their relative positions should a majority of the j people elect to do so. The bill providing for the call of a Sovereign Con- | Volition in this State is still before the Committee on Federal Relations, the only undecided question in committee being that of fixing the time for the election of the members of said convention by the people. The members of the House appear adverse to the immediate election and assembling ot a con vention, and will probably postpone its call to as late a period as will be justified in public opinion by the circumstances and events daily occurring and accumulating, which seem powerful to influence the position of the State for some time to come, and perhaps its future destiny. The Legislature appears indisposed to surrender its p iweis by adjourning nine die, in the present uncertain state ot public affairs, and they will pro bably continue in active existence until their sue cessors are elected, unless superseded by a sovereign Convention. The Legislature has power to adjourn from time to time, and will probably exercise it—limiting the adjournments to short intervals. _ The Legislature has appointed separate Commis sioners to confer with the Federal authorities, the Governor of Virginia and the Governor of Dela ware, upon separate subj cts. There mav be more delay before a final report is made by them. The House has before it a bill to protect from prosecution the Mayor of Baltimore, "the Board of I'oiice and all others acting under their authority, during the late military disturbances. To give greater effect to the bill, it will provide that no legal costs whatever shall be charged by officers ot courts or others, iu any suits against them, to which the said act of amnesty may be pleaded in bar. Dr. D. Claude, of Annapolis, has not yet entered upon the office of State Comptroller, tendered him b\ the Governor—it being necessary for hiin to vi.-it Frederick to quality in the Governor's pres ence. A bill providing for two years' compensation to Mr. Jarrett as Comptroller, is about to be present ed to the House. '1 he Legislature has thus far passed several im portant acts, which have become laws. Among them are the act authorizing the banks of the Sitate to issue notes of one dollar and upwards to the ex tent ot ten per cent, of their capital paid in, until sixty days after March 11,1864. The act legalizing the suspension of specie payments by the banks of the State until Match 11th, 1862. The act repeal ing in effect the new law authorizing the taking out ot land warrants for the oyster beds of Chesa peake Bay and its tributary rivers, and the act re pealing the law establishing rule days for the re turn of judicial process in the Superior Court and Court ot Common FTeaß of Baltimore city. Among the important measures now before the L egvlature, not alluded to elsewhere, are the ex empting Irom execution SIOO of the property oJ a debtor, to take effect on the first ot June, which has just passed the House; the bill providing for a stay of execution on all judgments or decrees for the payuient of money until the close of the next regular session of the General Assembly, which bill is in the bands ot a Committee who propose to add a section requiring the debtor availing himself ot the act to give competent security to the cred itor. EQUAL IAXATION IN VIRGINIA. —The tax amend ment to the Constitution of Virginia adopted by the Convention a few days since, provides that tax ation shall he equal and uniform thoughout the Commonwealth, and all property shall be" taxed in proportion to its value, which shall be ascertained in such manner as may be prescribed by law; but I any property may be "exempted Irom taxation by the vote of a majority of the whole number of' members elected to each House of the General As sembly. The Alexandria (Va.) Gazette says : Whatever may be the feeling in other parts of Maryland, it is quite certain that the demonstra tions in the counties on the Potomac opposite Vir ginia, are all ot a Southern character; and the military enthusiasm is runuing high. ity of a member of the Cabinet, that a few days al ter the inauguration an agent was sent to Europe to purchase 500,000 stand ot arms, and they are now arriving by every steamer at New Yoik. The employees in the office of the Charleston Evening Aeics having obtained leave of absence from the army, the publication of the paper has been returned. The sum of (U. 289,000 haa been contributed by the North for war purpotet. THE DAILY EXCHANGE. LATEST NEWS. TELEGRAMS. LATEST FROM ANNAPOLIS. Arrival of Specie for the Government—Large Arrival of Troops Expected. ANNAPOLIS, May 4.—Half a million of dollars in specie has just arrived here under a convoy from 1 erryville, and has been sent to Washington in charge of 100 picked men, detailed by Col. Smith, the commandant here in the absence of General Butler in Washington. Major Anderson left here for Washington in the same train. A large number of troops are expected here soon, and trains are in readiness to convey them to Washington. The steamer Baltic is to sail hence to-day for Newpott with the families of the professors of the Naval Academy. A ileet of steamers will also sail hence for Wash ington under convoy. The receiving ship Alleghany, formerly station ed at Baltimore, was towed hither yesterday from I* ort Mcilenry, and will be. heavily armed asaguard ship for Annapolis harbor. Jhe Filth New \ ork Regiment relieved the Six ty-Ninth Regiment last evening. A cold rain storm has been prevailing here for the last 36 hours, rendering camp-life by no means pleasant. Message of the Governor of Missouri. Sr. Louis, May 3.—The Governor's message to the Legislature says the President in calling out the troops to subdue the seceded States, threatens civil war, and pronounces the act unconstitutional and as tending towards the establishment of a con solidated despotism. He does not recommend im mediate secession, but ample preparations against aggression by all assailants. He appeals to the Legislature to do nothing imprudently or precipi tately, but endeavor to unite all for the preserva tion ol the honor of the State, the security of prop erty, and the performance of the legal duties im posed by obligations to the country and the Gov ernment. Conference of Coventors. CLEVELAND, May 4.—Governors Curtin, of Penn sylvania; Dennison, of Ohio; Randall, of Wiscon sin; Blair, of Michigan; Morton, of Indiana; and Ex-Governor Kerney, of Illinois, were in confer ence here last night. Their proceedings have not transpired, lhey were serenaded, and addressed the people. Special Congressional Klection. LOUISVILLE, May 4. —Governor Magoffin has is sued his proclamation for the election of Congress men on the 30th of June. Unity of the Cabinet—General Harney on Secession. W ASHINGTON, May s.—lt is not considered for the public advantage that erroneous statements of the proceedings in the councils of the Adminstration should go abroad. The assertions that the Secre tary of State and Navy have differed from their colleagues and from the President, wavering when others were firm and energetic, are without foun dation. Equally untrue are the reports circulated in Other quarters that the Secretary of the Treasury differs in some manner from the President or other members of the Cabinet. The fact that such er roneous ideas obtain currency is regarded as the best evidence that the consultations ot the Cabinet are as they ought to be, confidentially kept. The above is predicated on information trom the high est authority. The reports of General Harney being disaffected to the Government are altogether groundless. He has addressed a letter to his friend Colonel O. Fal len, at St. Louis, declaring that he will never serve under any power than the one he has fol lowed lor 40 years. That he will continue in the service of the Government which has bestowed it* honors upon him, and so long as he has breath will be its faithful and loyal soldier. He denies the right of secession and' says it will lead to universal anarchy. That the secessionists design to establish a military dictatorship; have made war upon the Government and dishonored its flair. That se cession would be utter ruin to Missouri, and he implores his fellow citizens of that State not to be seduced by designing men to become the in struments of their mad ambition, and plunge the State in revolution. He declares that wiTether governed by feelings inspired by the flag lie has served under, or by his judgment of duty as a sol dier and citizen, or bv his interest as an owner of property and a resident of Missouri, he feel 3 bound to stand by the Union; and,remaining in its service, will devote his ettorts to the maintenance of the Federal Government and the perpetuation of its blessings to posterity. Wrecks of Steamship United States. Shins Spartan. Marion. Powerful. Solaria and Brig Mmnie Dawson—Loss of Life. MONTREAL, May 3.—There is nothing further con cerning the wreck of the steamshio United States Two steamers have left to render assistance The I a rg. n g° o v?r® n'cY Uill"r. as on . Bird Rocks, high sails loose, no person to be seen on board, and the ship apparently going to pieces. The brig Minnie Dawson is a total wreck, and one man was lost. Tie ship Spartan is ashore on Sandy Beach.— Crew saved. The stiip Marion is ashore, is bagged and thump ing hadlv on the rocks. Her crew have left her. The ship Powerful is among the rocks at Cook Point. She is at anchor, and her pumps have to be kept going. The ship Salacia is hard on the rocks twelve miles below Father Point and thumping badly. The roads in all directions are blocked up with snow, which has drifted badly. The bodies of three men have been recovered. MONTREAL, May 3, 1861.—The passengers by steamship United States have arrived at Quebec. Only one steerage passenger is missing. Another ship is ashore at Sandy Bay, thirty-six miles below Father Point. Union Meeting; at Wheeling—Western Vir ginia Opposed to Secession. WHEELING, May 4- —An immense Union meeting was held to-night. The speakers all urged ance to secession and favored a division of the State. Thirty-four delegates were appointed to a Convention of the Western counties, to be held on the 13th inst. A similar meeting was also held here yesterday, and the feeling predominated throughout the Wes't ern counties. Jersey Troops' Moving—Fire at Philadelphia. PHILADELPHIA, May 4. —The New Jersey troops, in fourteen steam propellers, passed the City Point at midnight, and were saluted on their way. The adamantine candle factory of Messrs. Thomas A Co., and the soap works of Messrs. Van Hagen A McKeon, in this city, were destroyed by fire last night. Two firemen were killed bv'tbe falling walls, and others are supposed to be buried in the ruins. Prom Washington—Arrival of Troops. WASHINGTON, May s.—Governor Buckingham's Connecticut Regiment, the 28th Regiment of Brook lyn, and one company of the 13th, reached here to night. Orders have been issued prohibiting the absence of troops from their quarters after half-past nine o'clock at night, unless on special duty. More strictness than heretofore will be enforced, with a view to quiet and the preservation of the public peace. From California. FORT KEARNEY, May 4.—Tne I'onv Express, with San Francisco advices of the 24tb, has arrived. A new census of the State would be taken. The set tlers' difficulties in Santa Clara county continues. Seventeen hundred armed citizens were assembled to resist the decrees of the Court. Indiana Arming. INDIANAPOLIS, May 4.—The Legislature lias au thorized the Governor to call six regiments into immediate service of the State. All are to be in camp by Tuesday. [ firm the Philadelphia Inquirer .l A CARD FROM HON. C. L. VALLANDIGHAM. DAYTON, Ohio, Wednesday, April 17. To the Editor of the Inquirer: 1 have a word for the Republican press and par tisans of Cincinnati apd other places abroad, who now daily falsify and misrepresent me and matters which concern me here in Dayton. My position in regard to the civil war which the Lincoln Administration has inaugurated, was long since taken, is well known, and will be adhered to, to the end. Let that be understood. 1 have added nothing to it, subtracted nothing from it, said noth ing about it publicly, since the war began. 1 know well that 1 am right, and that in alittle while ''the sober second thought of the people" will dissipate the present sudden and fleeting public madness, and will demand to know why thirty millions of people are butchering each other in "civil war, and will arrest it speerily. But, meantime, should mv own State be iuvaded, or threatened with invasion, as soon it may be, then, as a loyal native-born son of Ohio, acknowledging my first, allegiance to be to her, I will aid io defending her to the last extremi ty, asking no questions. Whoever shall refuse, then, or hesitate, will be a traitor and a dastard. — And this same rule 1 applv as well to the people ol Virginia, Kentucky, or Missouri, as to any of the free Slates North or West. As to myself, no threats have been made to me personally; none within niv hearing; no mob vio lence offered; no mob gathered anywhere; none j will be; nobody afraid ot any; and every statement | ° r ui" a i°j re B ar d to me circulated orally, or ! published in the Republican press, is basely idle ana talse. And now let me add, for the benefit of tne cowardly slanderers of Cincinnati or elsewhere, who libel me daily, that if they have any business | with me, 1 can be tound every day and at any time, ! either at home, on the northwest corner of First and Ludlow, or upon the streets of Dayton. C- L. VALLANMOHAM. I TERRIBLE EARTHQUAKE AT MKNDOZA.— One of the ' most terrible earthquakes ever experienced ir. South America had desolated Mendoza, a town in the Argentine Confederation, situated on the east ern slope of the Andes, and the first one met with after crossing the Cordilleras from Chili. On the 20th of March, about 8.45, a shock was ex periencrd running from north to south, and at the same time another from south to north, which lasted about five seconds, leaving in ruin every dwelling and public edifice in the place, not a single house being left standing, and destroying upwards of eight thousand of the population. The accounts of this dreadful affair are terrible; whole families have been swept into eternity in an instant, and the few who have escaped are left homeless, naked and starving. The catastrophe has thrown a gloom over the whole of Chili, as many of the leading families of Santiago who had gone to reside there on account of their politics, have perished. The commercial community of Val paraiso also are likely to suffer heavy losses, as a large trade was carried on between the two places. It was reported that San Juan, a town of consid erable importance, about 30 leagues from Mendoza, was also destroyed, and that the river, leaving its or.ginal bed, had completely inundated the place; out this, as well as the reported destruction of two oilier tnwnß, requires confirmation. thl rf Louisville Journal asserts that in Kentucky !£...„ * remaining in the Union and endeav i.KM p iy" T#pewe ' ugr " urtbw e?W " d FRANCE AYD THE CONFEDERACY. Interview of MinUtcr Faulkner with the French Minister. WASHINGTON, May 5 —An imperfect statement of Mr. interview with M. Thouvenel the r rench Minister for Foreign Affairs, corncernin£ the application of the Commissioner of the Mont gomery Confederation, having found its way into the press, the Department of State ha.i consented that the correspondence shall be publised. .LEGATION* OK THE UNITED STATES, ) n u rtr FAHIS, April, 15, 1861, J Hon. IV illiam 11. Seward, Secretary of State: SIR 1 called to-day upon M. Thouvenel at the Ministry ol foreign Affairs, and was promptly ad mitted to an interview. Agreeably to your re quest 1 handed to hioi a copy of the inaugural ad dress of Preeid nt Lincoln, and added that I was instructed by you to say to him that it embraced the views ot the United States upon the difficulties which now disturb the harmonv of the American Union, and also an exposition of the general policy which it was the purpose of the Government to pursue with a view to the preservation of the do mestic peace and the maintenance of the Fed eral Union. Ilere M. Ihouvenel asked if there was not some diversity of opinion in the Cabinet of the President as to the proper mode of meeting the difficulties which now disturb the relations of the States and the General Government? I replied upon that point I had no information.— Under our system the Cabinet was but an advisin.' body; us opinions were entitled to weight, but did not necessarily compel the action of the President, the executive power was, by the Constitution vested exclusively in the President. I said that I was further instructed to assure him that the Pres ident of the United States entertains a full confi dence in the speedy restoration of the harmony and unity of the Government bv a firm, yet just and liberal policv, co-operating with the deliberate and loyal action of the American people. M. Thouvenel expressed his pleasure at this as surance. I further said that the President regretted that the events going on in the United States might be productive ot some possible inconvenience to the people and subjects of France, but bo was deter mined that those inconveniences shall be made as light and transient as possible, and so far as it may rest with him, that all strangers who mav suffer any injury from them shall be indemnified." 1 said to him that the President thought it not improbable that an appeal would be made before lung by the Confederated States to the foreign Powers, and amongst others to the Government of France, for the recognition of their independence; that no such appeals having yet been made, it was premature and out of place to discuss any of the points in volved in that delicate and important inquiry but the Governm-nt of the United States desired the fact to be known that wherever any such applica tion shall be made, it will meet with opposition from the Minister who shall then represent that Government at this Court. I said tn hi in that my mission at this Court would very soon terminate and I should have no official connection with the question which it was antici pated might arise up n the demand of the Confed erated States for recognition of their independence 1 hat ray place would soon be supplied by a dis tinguished citizen of the State of New Jersey a gentleman who possessed the confidence of 'the I resident, who fully sympathized in his public views, and who would doubtless come fully in struc ed as to the then wishes and views of the Government of the United States, and that the only request which I would now make, and with which ] would close all I had to say in the contro versy, was that no proposition recognizino* the per manent dismemberment, of the American Union shall be considered by the French Government until alter the arrival and reception of the new Minister accredited by the United States to this Court. M. Thouvenel in reply said that no application had as yet been marie to him by the Confederated States in any form for the recognition of their in dependence. "1 hat the French Government was not in the habit of acting hastily upon sueh ques tions, as might, be seen by Us tardiness in recog nizing the new Kingdom ot Italy. That he believed the maintenance of the Federal' Union in its integ rity was to be desired for the benefit of the people of the North and loouth, as well as for the interests of France; and that the Government of the United States might rest well assured that no hasty or precipitate action would betaken on that subject by the Emperor. But whilst he gave utterance to these views he was equally bound to say that the practice and usage of the present century had fully established the right of de facto governments to re cognition when a proper case was made out for the decision of foreign Bowers. Here the official in terview ended. 1 he conversation was then further protracted bv an inquiry from M. Thouvenel when the new tariff would go into operation, and whether it was to be regarded as the settled policy of the Government ? 1 told hun that the first of the present month had been prescribed as the period when the new duties would take efiect; that 1 had not yet examined its provisions with such cire as would justify me in pronouncing an opinion upon its merits; that it was condemned bv the commercial classes of the country, and that I had no doubt, Irom the discon tent manifested in several quarters, that the sub ject would engage the attention of Congress at its next meeting, and probably some important modi fications would be made in it. The finances of the Government were at this time temporarily embar rassed, and I had no doubt that the provisions of the new tariff were adopted with a view, although probably a mistaken one, of sustaining the credit of the treasury as much as of reviving the protec tive policy. He then asked mo my opinion as to the course of policy th at would be adopted, t" ployed to coerce them into submission to the Fed eral authority ? I told him that I could only give my individual opinion, and that I thought force would not be employed; that ours was a govern ment of public opinion, and although the Union un questionably possessed all the ordinary powers ne cessary for its preservation, as had been shown in several partial insurrections wiiich had occurred in our history, yet that the extreme powers of gov ernment could only be used in accordance with the public opinion, and that I was satisfied that the sentiment of the people was opposed to the em ployment of force against the seceding States. So sincere was the deference felt in that country for the great principles of self-government, and so great the resnect for the action of the penpie when adopt ed under the imposing forms of State organization and State sovereignty, that I did not think the em ployment of force would be tolerated for a moment, and I thought the only solution of our difficulties would be lound in such modification of our consti tutional compact as would unite the seceding States back into the Union, or a peaceable aequi escence in the assertion of their claims to a sepa rate sovereignty. M. Thouvenei expressed the opinion that the em ployment ot force would b unwise, and would tend to a further rupture of the Confederacy, by causing the remaining Southern States to make common cause with the States which had already taken action on the subject. 1 am, very respectfully your obedient servant, CIIAS. J. FAULKNER. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 1 WASHINGTON, May 4,1861. j" To William L. Dayton, Eeq., dee. Hlß—The despatches of your predecesseor, num bers 118, 119 arid 120, have been received. The letter acknowledging the receipt of our letter of recall and announcing his intended return, requires no special notice. Number 117 bears the date of sth April last. It contains only an ex pression of Mr. Faulkner's views of the policy which this Government ought to pursue in regard to the disturbed condition of affairs at home, but at the same time gives no information concerning the state of our affairs in France. The instructions heretofore transmitted to you will show you the President's views on the subject Mr. Faulkner has discussed, and these will be your guide, notwithstanding any different opinions your predecessor mav have expressed or left on record at Paris. No. 119 bears date of the fifteenth April last, and contains a report of an official conversa tion, and also' of an unofficial one, held between Mr. Fau.kner and M. Thouvenei. In the former conversation M. Thouvenei asked Mr. Faulkner whether there is not some diversity of opinion in the Cabinet of the President as to the proper mode of meeting the difficulty which now distuibs the relations of the States and the General Government. Mr. Faulkner in reply said that he had no information on the suhject. The matter is of no great moment, yet it is desirable that there be no misapprehensions of the true state of the Governmant in the present emergency. You mav therefore, recall the conversation to M. 'Thouve nel's memory, and then assure him explicitly that there is no difference of opinion whatever between the President ar.d his constitutional advisers, or among those ad risers themselves, concerning the pol icy that has been pursued, and which is now prosecu ed by the Administration in regard to the unhap py disturbances existing in the country. The path of Executive duty has thus far been too gloomily marked out bv sheer necessities to be mistaken, while the solemnity of the great emergency and the responsibilities it devolves, have extinguished j in the public councils every emotion but those of loyalty and patriotism. It is not in the hands of this Administration that this Government is to come to an end at all, much less for want of harmo j ny in devotion to the country, j M. Thouvenel's declaration that the United States may rest well assured that, no hasty or pre cipitate action will be taken on the subject of the apprehended application of the insurrectionists for a recognition ot the independence of the so-called Confederate States is entirely satisfactory, although ! it was attended by a reservation of views concern ing the general principles applicable to cases that | need not now be discussed. In the unofficial conversation, Mr. Faulkner says that he himself expressed the opinion that force would not beemploted to coerce the so called seceded States into submission to the Federal au thorities, and that the only solution to the difficul ties would be found in such modifications of the Constitutional compact as would invite the sece ding States back 'into the Union or a peaceable acquiescence in the assertion of their claims to a separate sovereignty. The time when these questions had any perti nency or plausibility has passed away. The United States waited patiently while their authority was defied iu turbulent assemblies and in seditious pre parations, willing to hope that the mediation ot tered on all sides would conciliate and induce the disaffected parties to return to a bttter mind. But the case is now altogether changed. The insur gents have institutfd revolution with open, fla grant, deadly war, to compel the United States to acquiesce in the dismemberment of the Union. The United States have accepted this civil war as an inevitable necessity. 'I he constitu tional remedies for all the complaints of the in surgents are still open to them, and will remain so. But on the other hand, the land and naval forces of the Union have been put into activity to restore the Federal authority and to save the Un ion from danger. You cannot be too decided or too explicit in making known to the French Gov ernment that there is not now, nor has there been, nor will there be. the least idea existing in this Government of suffering a dissolution of this Union to take place, in any way whatever. There will he here only one nation and one Government, and there will be the same Republic and the same Con stitutional Union that have already survivtd a , dozen national changes, and changes of the gov- I eminent in almost every other countrv These will stand hereafter, as they'sre now, ob- I jects of human wonder and human affection. You hare seen on the eve of your departure the elas | ticity of the national spirit, the vigor of the na tional Government, and the lavish devotion of the . natiohal treasure to this great cause. Tell M. 1 Thouvenel, then, with the highest consideration and good feeling, that the thought of a dissolution of this Union, peaceably or by lorce, has never en tered into the mind of any candid statesman here, and it is high time that it be dismissed by states men in Europe. I am, lir. respectfully, your obedient servant, WILLIAM H. SEWARD, BALTIMORE, MONDAY, MAY 6, 1861. GENERAL ASSEMBLY (IF MARYLAND. SPECIAL SESSIOX. BE.VATE. FREDERICK, May 4. Ibe joint resolution from the House, appointing Outerbridge Horsey a Com missioner to Richmond, was concurred in. The House resolution appropriating eighteen dol lars additional mileage to all ti.e members, except those from Frederick and Washington counties, was concurred in. The bill from the House, legalizing thesuspension of specie payments by the Banks ot the State, was passed. The bill Irom the House, repealing the law estab lishing rule days for the Superior Court and Court ol Common l'leas of Baltimore city, was passed. A joint resolution appointing John M. liobinson a Commissioner to the Governor of Delaware, to concert measures relative to the reported arming of the colored people of that State was passed. FRIDAY NIOHT. Toe hill appointing a Board of Fublic Safety was further debated. Mr. GOLDSBIROUOB, of Talbot, advocated his amendment providing that the Board shall be elected by the people on the day of the Congressional election (13th of June). He declar ed that no Senator voting against his proposition would hereafter receive the confidence of the peo ple. A great variety of amendments were also ollered, and repeated motions to adjourn made, upon all of which the ayes and noes were called, with the avowed purpose of resisting and delaying action upon the bill. Messrs. Lvnch, Goldsbo rough, of Dorchester, Kiinmetl aiid Vellott ad dressed the Senate repeatedly. Mr. Miles made a forcible speech in opposition "to the entire bill, and against the constitutionality of most of its provi sions. After which at 11 o'clock, the second section of the bill only having been reached, .Mr. YKM.OTT, on the part of the friends of the bill, moved an ad j urnment till Saturday at 10 o'clock, which was adopted. FREDERICK, May 4. —The bill appointing a Board of Fublic Safety was taken up. Mr. YELLOTT moved that the bill be recommitted to the Special Committee on Federal Relations which reportod it, for the purpose of modifvioo it provisions, which, by the vote ol the friends of the bill, and without opposition, was adopted. HOUSE OF DELEGATES. Mr. LONG, from the Committee of Ways and Means, reported that it was inexpedient to intro duce a bill for the re-assessmeut of the property of the State, which was adopted. Mr. PITTS reported a bill to relieve the Mavor and members of the Board of Police of the city of Baltimore, and all who acted under their orders in efforts to maintain peace and good order, aud pre vent further strife on and after the occurrences of the J9th of April, 1861, in said city, from prosecu tion for acts done bv the said Mayor and Board of 1 olice, or under their orders. It repeals all laws in force in this State at the time ot said acts referred to, so far as regards the said persons and their acts. The bill was referred to a committee ot one from Baltimore city, Harford and Baltimore counties, consisting of Messrs. Pitts, W tlson of Harford, and Denison. Mr. BRISCOE reported the bill to prohibit free ne groes from returning to the State after leaving it Laid over. A message was received from the Governor sta ting his letter to the Secretary of War, called lor by the House, was written in'Baltimore, of which no copy was taken. He has applied to the Secre tary of War for a copy, and received no response, lhe Governor states that the letter asked for con tained an inquiry il the four regiments for which a requisition was made upon him by the General Government wou Id be required to go beyond the limits of Maryland. Referred. Mr. SCOTT presented tne memorial of the Asso ciation ot Confectioners of Baltimore for authority to sell on Sunday. Referred to Baltimore city del egation. Mr. PITTS, from the Baltimore city delegation, reported unfavorably on the bill to authorize the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore to issue small notes, and the report was adopted. The House adjourned till Monday at 12 o'clock. Mr. WAI.MS presented the following report from the Board of Police Commissioners of Baltimore : * EEPOBT 0E THE POLICE COMMISSIONERS, TI D T! -'*' General Assembly of Maryland : The Board of Police of the city of Baltimore, created and appointed by your Honorable bodv bv the provisions of the 4th article of the Code of Public Local Laws. deem it their duty respectfully to report— That the said Board was duly organized and entered upon the discharge of their duties. Tor full information respecting allthese proceedings to theflrst January, 1861, they respectfully ask leave to submit to your Honorable body, as a part of this report, the accompanying copy of a report made by the Board in pursuance of the 821 st seetiou of the article of the Code above mentioned, to the Mayor and City Council in January last. It should have neen stated in said last mentioned report that ti.e Haul hart likewise performed the duties imposed upon them in reference to elections by sections I'JO, kc., of the same ar tide of the Code, the city now being divided into elec tion precincts, judges and clerks of elections appointed, and all the duties of the Board with regard to holding elections have been performed. An election was held in this city on the 10th day of October, IbOO. for a Mayor and for members of both Branches of the City Council of Baltimore, and another was held on the 6th day of November following, for elec tors of 1 resident and Vice-President of the United States The Board have great satisfaction in stating that on both those days the utmost quiet and good order were pre served throughout the city- that none of the prdls were n any manner obstructed, and that not a single com plaint was cither then or has subsequently been made that any person desiring to vote was at either election impeded or hindered in presenting himself before the judges, and voting with perfect freedom for whosoever he thought proper, if the judges found him to be a le-al voter. ° The Board continued from the date of their above re f° rt to exercise their regular functions until Friday, the 19th of April. On that day a large detachment of, it is Pennsylvania militia arrived in the forenoon, in the city via the Philadelphia. Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad. No member of the Board of Police had any in forma'ion that these troops were expected on thatday, until from half an hour of the time at which they were to arrive. The Marshal of Police was immediately notified, and called out at once a large portion of his force to preserve order durng their transit through the city. When the time arrived, there were manifestations of a disposition to interfere with their passage, and atter some had been transported by cars through the streets to the Washing ton depot, obstructions were placed un the track in the city, which stepped the progress of the remainder.— These alighted to march to the depot, and to prevent any difiiculty the Mayor placed himself at their head, and they thus proceeded on their route. Missiles were not withstanding thrown at the troops, and some of them were injured. Their assailants were fired upon, and in some instances with fatal effect. An intense irre pressible feeling appeared to be at once aroused, and repeated conflicts between parties of citizens and the Mas sachusetts troop-s took place, several being killed on both sides. The Marshal, who had been on active duty at the Camden street depot, and did not know that these troops were on their route or expected, hearing of this hastened to meet them with a fore- of the police, and under their escort they reached the Washingion depot, and after some delay, the train finally started for Washington. Attempts were made to hinder it. by placing obstructions on the track of the railroad, but by the interference of the police these were soon removed. The citv authorities were meanwhile informed that there had been another arrival of militarv, who were then at the Philadelphia depot. The Marshal of Police has tened to that point, and as it was impossible for them at that time to be taken through the streets without a gen eral and bloody conflict, he protected thera with a partv of his police until they were sent back by the Railroad Company in the cars to Havre de Grace. During the af ternoon and night a large number of stragglers from some of the above detachments of troops sought the aid and protection Of the police They were safely cared for at the several station houses, and were sent off in security by the earliest opportunity to Havre de Grace or Phila delphia, in the cars. The same night the Board held a meeting, when the opinion was unanimously expressed that it was utterly impossible, from the state of the public mind, that any more forces from other States could, by any probability, then pass through the city to Washington, without"a fierce and bloody conflict at every step of their progress, and that whatever might be the result, great loss of life and imminent danger to the sa ety of the city would necessarily come. The Board were equally unanimous in their judgment that, as good citizens, it was their duty to the city and to the State of Maiyland to adopt any measure whatever that might he necessary, at such a junc ture, to prevent the immediate arrival in the city of further bodies of troops from the Eastern or Northern States, though the object of the latter might be solely to pass through the city. It was suggested that the most fea sible, if not the most practicable, mode of thus stopping for a time theapproach of such troops,would be to obstruct the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore, and the Northern Central Railroads, by disabling seme of the bridges on both roads His Honor the Mayor stated to the Board that his Excellency the Governor, with whom he had a few minutes before been in consultation in the presence of several citizens, concurred in these views. They were likewise those of the Board, and instructions were given to carry them into effect. The injury done amounted to but a few thousand dollars on each, and subsequently it lias been stated further and greater damage was done to other structures on the roads bv parties in the country or others, but this was without the sanction or authority of the Board, and they have no accurate information on the subject. The absolute necessity of the measures thus determined upon by the Governor, Mayor and Police Board is fully illustrated by the fact, that early on Sunday morning re liable in ormation reached the city of the presence of a large body of Pennsylvania troops, amounting to about 2.4'i0 men, had reached Ashland, near Cockeysville, by the way of the Northern Central Railroad, and were stopped in their progress towards Baltimore by the par tial destruction of the Ashland Bridge. Every intelligent citizen at all acquainted with the state of feeling then ex isting must he satisfied that, it those troops had attempt ed to march through the city, an immense loss of life would have ensued in the conflict which would have ne cessarily taken place. The bitter feeling already engen dered would have been intensely increased by such a con flict. All attempts at conciliation would have been vain, and terrible destruction would have been the consequence, if, as is certain, other bodies of troops had insisted upon forcing their way through the city. The tone of the whole iVorthern press, and of the mass of the population was violent in the extreme Incursions upon our city were daily threatened—not only by troops in the service of the Federal Government, but by the vilest and most reckless desperadoes, acting independent ly, and as they threatened, in despite of the Government, backed by well known influential citizens and warm to the commission of all kinds of excesses. In short, every possi ble effort was made to alarm this community. In this con dition of things the Board felt it to be their solemn duty to continue the organization, which had already been commenced, for the purpose of assuring the people of Bal timore that no effort would be spared to protect all within its borders to the full extent of their ability. All the means employed were devoted to this end and with no view of producing a collision with the General ! Government, which the Board were particularly anxious ' to avoid, and an arrangement was happily effected by the Mayor with the General Government that no troops should be passed through the city. As an evidence of the determination of the Board to prevent such collision, a sufficient guard was sent in the neighborhood of Fort McHenry several nights to arrest all parties who might be engaged in a threatened attack upon it, and a steam tug was employed, very properly manned, to prevent any hostile demonstration upon the receiving ship Alle ghany, lying at anchor in the harbor. Property of va rious descriptions, belonging to the Government and in dividuals, WHS taken possession of by the police force with a view to its security. The best care lias been taken of it. Every effort has been made to discover the right ful owners, and a portion of it has already been forwarded to order. Arrangements have been made with the Gov ernment agents, satisfactory to them, for the portion be longing to it, and the balance is held subject to the order of its owners. A midst all the excitement and confusion which have since prevailed, the Board take great pleasure in stating that the good order and pe;:ce of the city have been pre served to an extraordinary degree. Indeed, to judge from the accounts given by the press of other cities of what has been the state of things in their own communi ties, Baltimore, during the whole of the past week and up to this date, will compare favorably as to the protec tion which person* and property have enjoyed, with any other large city in the United States. All of which is respectfully submitted. By order of the Board, CHARLES HOWARD, President. Office Board of Police Commissioners, May 3, 1861. On motion of Mr. WAI.MS 3,000 copies of the re port were ordered to be printed. Annapolis. —Our city eoatiaiei <|uiet, with very little excitement. Troupe, munitions of war and provisions arrive at and depart from the Naval School depot daily on their way to Washington, byway of the Annapolis'and Elkridge railroad, but their passage through the city creates no more ex citement, in fact Dot so much, as a parade of our own fine military company, the Governor's Guard. The soldiers from abroad are well behaved, and treat our citizens with every respect.— Annapolis Gazette. A great number of mercantile failures have oc curred in New York and Philadelphia, within the paat week. v ' MES-SABE OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE SOUTHERN CONFEDERACY To tlie Special Session of the Congress Con vened at Montgomery, April 39th, 1861. GENTLEMEN OF THE CONGRESS: It is my pleasing duty to announce to you that the Constitution framed for the establi.-hment of a premanen? government of the Confederate States has been rat"fied hy Conventions 10 each of those States to which it was the vernnt in Us fuM pro n Us - uwn sut tantial basis of the pepu sovereign SUte.T T government of free, equal and friend so f Co n s??t ut tonal* Hherty K harmonious aad perpetual existence. It was not, however, for the purpose of making this announcement that I have deemed it m, duty in cor. Yoke jou at an earlier day than that fixed bv yourselves or your meet.ng The declaration or war made a gains? the United StlltZ. ? Abraham Lincoln, the President of tiic tnited . Utes, in his proclamation issued on the llf teenth day of the present month, rendered it necessary, '"V J U(l Knierit. that you should convene at the earliest practtca tie moment, to devise the measures necessary lor the defence of the country. 'oi The occasion is indeed an extraordinary one. It justi fies me in a brief review of the relations heretofore exist ing letween us.and the States which now unite in warfare agamst us, and in a succinct statement of the events Which have resulted in this warfare; to the end that man? motives Ld a " d in " ,artial on its puring the war waged against Great Britain by her col onies on tin. continent, a common danger impelled them bVfoe I 'Xmi'nf""' ? n(1 K t0 t,ie formation 01 Confederation, ~t l,e c "' ,onies - styling themselves whh eilh . tb r e S 'V a y lnto ,l Brm leasue of friendship WI h each other for their common defence, the security of in ,?i I s '*. * lr mu!u:il and general welfare, bind ing themselves to assist each other against all force offered to, or attacks made upon tbem or any of them, on account ever " SoTer cignty, trade or any other pretence what- In order to guard against any misconstruction of their compact the s vera] States made explicit declaration, in a distim.t article, that ' each State retains its sovereign ty, freedom aod independence, and every power, jurisdic- Hon and right which is not by this Confederation ex h'cT" ,Jlted lo the United States in Congress assem l nder tliis contract of alliance the war of the revolu tion was successfully waged, and resulted in the treaty of peace With Great Britain in 1783, hy the t- rms of which the several States were, each tnj name,, recognized to be independent. The articles of confederation contained a clause where by all alterations were prohibited, unless confirmed by III? rln'. S r. Ure3 ?'"'*• afU ' r b "' ng a K r '-''-<l to by ?v!! !? ? a ? d in obedience to this provision under the resolution of Congress of the 21st February. 1787 the several States appointed delegates who attended a con vention for the sole and express purpose a! revising the t a h r i'?i e v S L C . Onf - d , eratioD and spotting to Congress and the several Legislatures, such alterations and provisions therein as shall when agreed to in Congress, and con- Jirmed by the States, render the Federal Constitution ade tfon of theUniol, 6 " 0 ' 68 ° f KOVer " ment and "'® preserva- U was, by the delegates chosen, hy the several States 11X ' e d r r, at,onjo r St quot<:l1 ' lhat lhe Constitution of the I nited States was framed in 1787, and submitted to the several Stales for ratification as shown by the 7th article, whteh is in these words: "1 lie ratification of the Conventions of nine States slia'l J >, - Sh,n . ent Cu " 3titui "'" BETH n,N t/ie States so ratifying the same" I have italicized certain w- ids in lhe quotations just Gr'an'd m k l>ur P° s ? of attracting attention to the singu lar and marked caution with which the States endeavor ed, in every possible form, to exclude the idea that the separate and independent sovereignty of each State was merged into one common government and nation; snd the earnest desire they evinced to impress on the Constitu tion in its true character—that of a compact BETWEEN in dependent Stales. Ihe Constitution of 1787 having, however, omitted the clause already recited from the articles of Confederation, which provided in explicit terms, that each State retained its sovereignty and independence, some alarm was felt in the States when invited toratiry the Constitution, lest this omissioni should be construed into an abandonment or their cherished principle, and they refused to be satis fled unti amendments were added to the Constitution, placing beyond any pretence of doubt, the reservation by IX , e9 , , then* sovereign rights and powers—not expressly delegated to the United States by the Constitu- Strange indeed must it appear to the impartial obser worded ci. .1! T De th a leSS Irue - that a "'ese carefully trrowMi in v" o unavailing to prevent the rise and growth in the Northern States of apolitical school .which has persistently claimed tliat the government thus me .'* W}ls not a compact between States,but was in effect a national government, set up. above and over the States An organization, created by the States to secure the blessings of -liberty and independence against foreign ag gression, has been gradually perverted into a m cliiiie for their control in their domestic affairs; the creature has been exalted above its creators: the principals have selves" SU lrate to tlle agent appointed by tlivm- The people of the Southern States, wliose almost ex elusive occupation was agriculture, early perceived a tendency m the Northern States to render the common government subservient to their own purposes, by im posing burthens on commerce as aprotiction to their man ufacturing and Shipping interests. I-oug and angrv con troversy grew out of these attempts, often successful to benefit one section of the country at the expense of the other; and the danger of the disruption arising from this cause was enhanced by the fact that the Northern popu lation was increasing by immigration and other causes in a greater ratio than the population of the South. By degress, as the Northern States gained preponderence in the National Congress, self-interest taught their peonle to yield ready assent to any plausible advocacy of their as a majority to govern the minority without control: thev learned to listen with impatience to the suggestion of any constitutional impediment to the eircrcise of their will; and so utterly have the principles of the Constitu tion been coriupted in the Northern mind, that in the in augural address delivered by President Lincoln in March last he assert. as an axiom which he plainly deems to be undeniable, --.. it the theory of the Constitution requires that in cil • -:• the ro-jority shall govern; and In ano not hesitate to ucrcn the relations between a Stale and the United states to those which exist between a county and the State in which it is situated and by which it was created. This is the lamentable and fundamental error on wltich rests the policy that has culminated in his de claration of war against these Confederate States. In addition to the long continued and deep-seated re sentment feit by the Southern States at the persistent abuse of the powers they had delegated to the Congress for the purpose of enriching the manufacturing and ship' ping classes of the North at the expense of the Soutii, there has existed for nearly half a century another sub ject of discord, involving interests of such transcendent magnitude, as at al: times to create tiie apprehension in the minds of many devoted lovers of the Union, that its permanence was impossible. \S hen the several States delegated certain powers to the United States Congress, a large portion of the labor mg population consisted rt African slaves impotted into the colonies by the mother country. In twelve out of thirteen States, negro slavery existed, and the right of property in slaves was protected bylaw. This property was rtcgnized in the Constitution, and provision was made against its loss by the escape of the si tve. The in crease in the number of slaves by further importation from Africa was also secured by a clause forbidding Con gress to prohibit the slave trade anterior to a certain date; and in no clause can there t e found any delegation of power to the Congress authorizing it in any manner to legislate to the prejudice, detriment or discouragement of the owners of that species of property, or excluding it from the protection of the Government. The climate and soil of the Northern States soon proved tin propitious to the continuance of slave labor, whilst the converse was the case at the South. Under the unrestrict ed free intercourse between the two sections, the Northern States consulted their own interest by selling their slaves to the South, and prohibiting slavery within their limits. The South were willing purchasers of a property suitable to their wants, and paid the price of the acquisition with out harboring a suspicion that their quiet possession was to be disturbed by those who were inhibited, not only by want of constitutional authority, hut by good faith as vendors, from disquieting a title emanating from them selves. As soon, however, as the Northern States that prohib ited African slavery within their limits had reached a number sufficient to give their representation a control ling voice in the Congress, a persistent and organized system of hostile measures against the rights of the own ers of slaves in the Southern States was inaugurated, and gradually expended. A continuous series of meas'ures was devised and prosecuted for the purpose of rendering insecure the tenure of property in slaves; fanatical organ izations, supplied with money by voluntary subscrip tions, were assiduously engaged in exciting amongst the slaves a spirit of discontent and revolt; means were fur nished for their e.-cape from their owners, and agents secretly employed to entice them to abscond; the consti tutional provision for their rendition to their owners was first evaded, then openly denounced as a violation of con scientious obligations and religious duty; men were taught that it was a merit to elude, disobey, and violently op pose the execution of the laws enacted to secure the performance of the promise contained in the constitu tional compact; owners of slaves were raobbe.J and even murdered in open day, solely for applying to a magistrate for the arrest of a fugitive slave; the dogmas of these vol untary organizations soon obtained control of the legisla tures of many of the Northern States, and laws were passed providing for the punishment by ruinous fines and long continued imprisonment in jails and penitentiaries, of citizens of the Southern States, who should dare to ask aid of the officers of the law for the recovery of their property. Emboldened by success, the theatre of agita tion and aggression against the clearly expressed consti tutional rights of the Southern Slates was transferred to the Congress-; Senators and Representatives were sent to the common councils of the nation, whose chief title to this distinction consisted in the display of a spirit of uitra fanaticism, and whose bus iness was, not "to promote the gen eral welfare or enure domestic tranquillity," but to awaken the bitterest hatred against the citizen's of sis ter States by violent denunciation or their institutions: the transaction of public affairs Was impeded by repeated efforts to usurp powers not delegated by the Constitution, for the purpose of impairing the security of property in slaves, and reducing those States which held slaves to a condition of inferiority. Finally, a great party was or ganized for the purpose of obtaining the administration of the government, with the avowed object of using its power for the total exclusion of the slave states from all partici pation in the benefits of the public domain, acquired by all the States in common, whether by conquest or pur chase; of surrounding them entirely by States in which slavery should be prohibited; of thus rendering the prop erty in slaves so insecure as to be comparatively worth less, and thereby annihilating in effect property worth thousands of millions of dollars. This parly, thus organ ized, succeeded in the month of November last in the election of its candidate for the Presidency of the United States. In the meantime, under the mild and genial climate of the Southern States, and the increasing care and atten tion for the well-being and comfort of the laboring class, dictated alike by interest and humanity, the African slaves had augmented in number from about 600,000. at the date of the adoption of the Constitutional compact, to upwards of 4.000,000. In moral and social condition, they had been elevated from brutal sa'vages into docile, intelligent and civilized agricultural laborers, and sup plied not only with bodily comforts but with careful re ligious instruction L nder the supervision of a superior race, their labor had been so directed as not only to allow a gradual ami marked amelioration of their own condi tion, but to convert hundreds of thousands of square miles of the wilderness into cultivated lands, covered with a prosperous people; towns and cities had sprung into existence, and had rapidly increased in wealth and population under the social system of the South; the white population of the Southern slaveholding States had augmented from about 1,250,000 at the date of the adoption of the Constitution, to more than 8,500.000 in 1860; and the productions of the South in cotton, rice, sugar, and tobacco, fur the full development and continu ance of which th Iftbor of African slaves was, and is, indispensable, had swollen to an amount which formed nearly three-fourths of the exports of the whole United States, and had become absolutely necessary to the wants of cfvi ized man. With interests of such overwhelming magnitude im perilled. the people of the Southern States were driven ' by the conduct of the North to the adoption of some I course of action to uvert the danger with which they I were openly menaced. With this view, the Legislatures of the several States invited the people to select delegates to Conventions to be held for the purpose of determining for themselves what measures were best adapted to meet so alarming a crisis in their history. Here it majf be proper to observe that from a period as early as 1798, there had existed in all of the States of the L nion a party, almost uninterruptedly in the major ity, based upon the creed that each State was in the last resort, the sole judge as well of its wrongs as of the mode and measure of redress. Indeed, it is obvious, that un der the law of nations, this principle is an axiom as ap plied to the relations ofindependent sovereign State 9, such as those which had united themselves under the consti tutional compact. The Democractic party of the United States, repeated in its successful canvass in 1856 the dec laration made in numerous previous political contests, that it would "faithfully abide by and uphold the princi pleajaid down In the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions of 1798, and in the report of Mr. Madison to the Virginia Legislature in 1799; and that it adopts those principles as constituting one of the main foundations of its political creed." The principles thus emphatically announced embrace that to which I have already adverted, the right of each State to judge of, and redress the wrongs of which it complains These principles were maintained by over whelming majorities of the people of all the States of the Union at different elections, especially in the elections of Mr. Jefferson in 1805, Mr. Madison in 1809, and Mr. Pierce in 1852. In the exeiciae of a right io ancient, so well established, and so necessary for self preservation, the people of the j Confederate St tes, in their conventions, determined that I t^™? gSWhich th <* offered, and the evils with | which they were menaced, required that they should re i voke the delegation of powers to the Federal Govern ment which they had ratified in their several conven n'li" • consequently passed ordinances resuming ail their rights as sovereign and independent States, and dl.wsoived their connection with the other States of the L nion. Having done this, they proceeded to form a new com pact amongst themselves, by new articles of Confedera ion, which have been also ratified by the conventions of the several Mates with an approach to unanimity far ex ceeding that of the conventions which adopted the Con ttitution of 1787. They have organized their new gov ernment in all its depai tments; the functions of the Exec utiye, Legislative, and Judicial Magistrates are perform ed in accordance with the will of the people as displayed not merely in a cheerful acquiescence, but in the enthu siastic support of the government thus established bv themselves; and but for the interference of the govern thel-Ght nf United States in this legitimate exercise of the right of a people to self-government, peace, happiness ancl prosperity would now smile on < ur land. J bat peace is ardently desired by this government and people, has been manifested in every possible form Scarce had you assembled in February last, when, prior even to the inauguration of the Chief Magistrate you !l;.1 ected, you passed a resolution expressive of your desire lor the appointment of Commissioners to be sent to the government of the United States "for the purpose f y relHtloßS between that govern , C ,°" feri " rttte States of America, and for the settlement ot all questions of disagreement between the ind good faith 1 " 8 U "° n " rinCl "'" " f """".justice, equity It was my pleasure, as well as my duty, to co operate with }ou in this work of peace. Indeed, in my address to you on taking the oath of office, and before receiving irom you the communication of this resolution. I had J£L ' "sity, not a choice, we have resorted to . - ? separation, and henceforth our energies must be directed to the conductof our own affairs and the a in Pe t Irrle" le < j ol,f ' jd '' n "'y which we have formed. If able to / P 0f mutu,!l il,ercst wiU I'ufmit us peace ably to pursue our separate political career, my most ear nest desire will Lave been fulfilled " It w ls in furtherance of these accordant views of the Congress and the Executive, tl.at I made choice of three u' l . OJ is tin guts lied citizens, who repaired to Washington. Aided by their cordial co operation and w.?h " f ,r"' e Secretary , of ,? ta ' e . effort eon, .atfole with self-respect and the dignity of the Confederacy, was exhausted before 1 allowed myself to yield to the convic Hon that the, Government of the United States was de??r mmed to attempt the conquest or this people, and that r? .'a" hopes of peace were unattainable ■J.!! X a^ Va L of . our commissioners in Washington on the 6th March they postponed, at the suggestion of a friendly Intermediary, doing more than giving informal notice of their arrival. This was done with a view to afford time to the President who had just been inaugu rated, for the discharge of oilier pressing official duties in the organization of his administration, before en"a ing his•attention in the object of their mission. It was diX",! >, 1 f the lnonth that 'hey officially ad dressed the Secretary of State, informing him of the purpose of their arrival. and stating in the language of of the UnUed qpft, "V° '" ake to t! '" L'nverniuent ortne United .-States overtures for the opening of negoti ations assuring the government of the United States that the President, Congress and people of the Confede rate States, earnestly desire a peaceful solution of these great questions; that it is neither their interest nor their wish ttii make any demand which is not founded on strict rates' 1 " D ° r a " y act to in - iure their late confede- To this communication no format reply was received until the Bth of April. During the interval, the Commit stone,si had consented to waive all questions of foim. " the flrm resolve to avoid war if possible, thev went so far, even as to hold, during ti.at long period, unofficial intercourse, through an intermediary, whose hi el, ~osi tion and character inspired the hope of success and through whom constant assurances were received from the Government or the United States, of peaceful inteiT. tions; of the determination to evacuate Fort Sumter and further, tliat no measure, changing the r / > prejudicially to the Cor,fed, rated States, especially at Fon I tokens, was in contemplation, hut that in the event ~ anj change of intention on the subject, notice would he given to the Coram is-h.ners. The c,ootid paths of dinli ra acy can scarcely furnish an examples,, wanting in cour tesy, in candor, and directness, as was the course n? to.. United States Government towards our Commissioners in Washington. For proof of this, I refer to ~ dfiriimpnu Ptn.i-u.i i • ' 0 ine annexed u cuments marked , taken in connection with further tacts which I now proceed to relate : Early in April the attention of the whole country as well as that of our Commissioners, was attracted to , vi'ra ordinary preparations for an extensivemilitary and naval" expedition ,n New V ork and other .Northern port" T pi eparattons, commenced in secresy, for an ex,.edition whose destination was concealed, only became known when nearly completed, and on thesth,6th and 7th April transports and vessels of war, with troops, munitions ami "ui t hw y ard 8 s UP "i i r' K ', n , Cd ' r ° m • Vuri, '- Arts , o .K r?' ™ c(l so extraordinary a demonstra tion, the Commissioners requested the delivery of an answer to their official communication of the 12th March recelv -' 1 on the Bth A l ,ril . !l reply dated on the 15th of the previous month, from which it appears tliat. .luring the whole interval, whilst the Commissioners were receiving assurances calculated to inspire hone of the success of their mission, the Secretary of State and the President of the United States had already deter mined to hold no intercourse with them whatever- to re fuse even to listen to any proposals thev had to mot,, and had profited by the delay created by the!? own "sun ances, in order to prepare secretly the means for effective ho>tile operations. That these as usances avere given, has been virtually confessed by the Government of the United ,Sta's bv its sending a messenger to Charleston, togive notice of its purpose, to use force, If opposed in its intention of sun plying Fort bumter. No more striking proof of the ab sence of good faith in the conduct of the Government of the United States towards this Confederacy can be re quired than is contained in the circumstances which sr companied this notice. According to the usual course of siwne K d for";,, JTrv Co ™P nsiD b r expedition de signed for the relief of fort Sumter might be expected to reach Charleston harbor on the oth of April; yet with our Commissioners actually in .Washington, detained under assurances that notice should be given of anv military movement, the notice was not addressed to them but a messenger was sent to Charleston to give the notice to the Governor ot South Carolina, and the notice was n given at a late hour on the Bth April, the eve of the very day on which the fleet might be expected to ar That this manoiuvre failed in its purpose was not the fault of those who contrived it. A heavy tempest de layed the arrival of the expedition, and gave time to tlio commander of our forces at Charleston to ask and receive of this Government Even then, under the Government of the United States, TVaTsTneerely anxious to avoid the effusion of blood, and directed a proposal to be made to the commander of Fort Sumter who had avowed himself to be nearly out of provisions' that we would abstain from directing our fire on Fort Sumter if he would promise not to open fire on our forces unless first attacked. This proposal was refused and the conclusion was reached that the design of the Unit-d States was to place the besieging force at Charleston be tween the simultaneous fire uf the fleet and the fort There remained, therefore, no alternative but to direct that the fort should at once be reduced. This order was executed by General Beauregard, with the skill and sue cess which were naturally to be expected from the well known character of that gallant officer; and althou-hthe bombardment lasted but thirty-three hours, our flag did not wave over its battered walls until after the appear ance of the hostile fleet off Charleston. Fortunately not a life was lost on our side, and we were gratilitd in bein spared the necessity of a useless effusion of blood by tlie prudent caution of the officers who commanded the fleet in abstaining from the evidently futile effort to euter tlie harbor for the relief of Major Anderson. I reler to the report of the Secretary of War and the papers which ac company it for further details of this brilliant affair. In this connection I cannot refrain from a well de served tribute to the noble State, the eminent soldierly qualities of whose people were so conspicuously dis played in the port of Charleston. For months they had been irritated by the spectacle of a fortress held within their principal liarb .r, as a standing menace against their peace and independence. Built in part with their own money, its custody confided with tiieir own consent to an agent who held no power over them other than such as they had themselves delegated for tiieir own benefit, intended to be used by that agent for their own protection against foreign attack, they saw it held with persistent tenacity as a means of offence against tluni by the very government which they had established for their protection. They had beleagured it for months—felt entire confi dence in their power- to capture it-yet yielded to the re quirements or discipline, curbed their impatience, sub mitted without complaint to the unaccustomed hardships labors and privations of a protracted siege; and when at length their patience was rewarded l>y the signal for at tack. and success had crowned their steady and gallant conduct—even in the very moment or triumph—they evinced a chivalrous regard for the feelings of the brave but unfortunate officer who had been compelled to lower his flag. All manifestations of exultation were checked in his presence. Their commanding general, with their cordial approval and the consent of his government re frained from imposing any terms that could wound'the sensibilities of the commander of the fort. He WHS permitted to retire with the honors of war—to salute his flag, to depart freely with all his command, and was escorted to the vessel in which he embarked, 'with the highest marks of respect from those against whom his guns bad been so recently directed. Not only does every event connected with the siege reflect the highest honor on South Carolina, but the forbearance of her people and of this government, from making any harsh use ot a vic tory obtained under circumstances of such peculiar prov ocation, attest to the fullest extent the absence of any pur pose beyond securing their own tranquillity, and the sin cere desire to avoid the calamities of war. Scarcely had the President of the United States received intelligence of the failure of the scheme which he had de vised for the reinforcement of Fort Sumter, when he is sued the declarat-.on of war against this Confederacy which has prompted me to convoke you. In this extra ordinary production, that high functionary affects total ignorance of the existence of an Independent Govern ment, which, possessing the entire and enthusiastic de votion of its people, is exercising its functions without question over seven sovereign States—over more than five millions of people—ami over a territory whose area exceeds half a million of square miles. He terms sov ereign States "combinations too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings, or by the powers vested in the marshals by law." He calls for an army of seventy-five thousand men to act as a posse comitatus in aid of the process of the courts of justice in States where no courts exist whose mandates and decrees are not cheerfully obeyed ami res pected by a willing people, he avows that "th v first ser vice to be assigned to the forces called out," will be, not to execute the process of courts, but to capture foris and strongholds situated within the admitted limits of this Confederacy, and garrisoned by its troops; and declares that "this effort 1 ' is intended "to maintain the perpetuity of popular government." He concludes by commanding "the persons composing the combinations aforesaid," io wit: the five millions of inhabitants of these States, "to retire peaceably to their respective abodes within twenty days." Apparently contradictory as are the terms of this sin gular document, one point was unmistakably evident. The President of the United States called for an army of seventy-five thousand men, whose first service was to capture our forts. It was a plain declaration of war which I was not at liberty to disregard, because of my knowledge that under the Constitution of the United States the President was usurping a power granttd ex clusively to the Congress. He is the sole organ of com munication between that country and foreign powers The law of nations did not permit me to question the au thority of the Executive of a foreign nation to declare war against this Confederacy. Although I might have refrained from taking active measures for our defence, if the States of the Union had all imitated the action of Virginia. North Carolina, Arkansas, Kentucky, Tennes see and Missouri, by denouncing the call for troops as an unconstitutional usurpation of power to which they re fused to respond, I was not at liberty to disregard the fact that many of the States seemed quite content to submit to the exercise of the power assumed by the President of the United States, and were actively engaged in levying troops to be used for the purpose indicated in the procla mation. Deprived of the aid of Congress at the moment, I was under the necessity of confining my action to a call on the States for volunteers for the common defence, in ac cordance with the authority you had confided to me be fore your adjournment. I deemed it proper further to issue a proclamation in vi'ing application from persons dis posed to aid our defence in private armed vessels on the high seas, to the end that preparations might be made for the immediate issue of letters of marque and reprisal, which you alone, under the Constitution, have power to grant. I entertain no doubt you will concur with me in ( the opinion that in the absence of a fleet of public ves sels, it will be eminently expedient to supply their place by private armed vessels, so happily styled by the pub licists of the United States ''the militia of the sea;" and so often and justly relied on by them as an efficient and admirable instrument of defensive warfare. 1 earnestly recommend the immediate passage of a law authorizing me to accept the numerous proposals already received. I cannot close this review of the acts of the government of the United States without referring to a proclamation issued l>y their President under date of the 19th inst., in which, after deciaring that an insurrection has broken out in this Confederacy against the government of the United States, he announces a blockade of all the ports of these States, and threatens to punish as pirates all persons who shall molest any vessel of the United States under letters of marque istued by this Government. Notwith- | standing the authenticity of this proclamation, you will ! concur with me that it is hard to believe it could have emanated from a President of the United States. Its announccement of a mere paper blockade is so man ifestly a violation of the law of nations, that it would seem incredible that it could have been issued by author ity; b it conceding this to be the case, so far as the Exec utive is concerned, it will be difficult to satisfy the peo ple of these States that their late confederates will sanc tion its declarations, will determine to ignore the usages of civilized nations, and will inaugurate a war of exter mination on both sides, by treating as pirates, open ene mies acting under the authority of commissions issued by an organized government. If such proclamation was issued, it could only have been published under the sud den influence of passion, and we may rest assured man- J kind will be spared the horrors >,r ti.. j invite. s or the conflict it seems to For the details of the administraiir„r .< partments, I refer to the reports oi the l de ' accompany this message. which The State llepartment has furnished the nm ... structions for three commissioners who have been sent'?o England, France, Russia and Belgium, since von? . ' journment, to ask our recognition as a member of the family of nations, and to make with each or those powers treaties ot amity ana commerce. Further steps will be taken to enter into like negotiations with the other Euro pean powers in pursuance of your resolutions passed at the last session. Sufficient time has not yet elapsed since tiie departure of these commissioners for the receipt of any intelligence from them As I deem it desirable that commissioners or other diplomatic agents should also be sent at an early period to the independent American powers south of our Confederacy, with ail of whom it is our interest and earnest wish to maintain the most cordial and friendly relations, I suggest the expediency of mak ing the necessary appropriations for that purpose. of ti Jsri r ° ffici , aMy " otiHed by llle I ,ublic authorities TV in.. \ i" ? ifginia that she had withdrawn from the ti' ns wo maintl "n the closest political rela lis-h 7 ■ ''s Was > ,ossible at this -ime to estab vM. r, 1 ",'", 1 "' 1 the H " n -Alexander H.Stephens. GG7"erament7t°R- n ?' ier . ate States ' to this ri . r ? ntat Richmond, aam happy to inform vou gin a' e hv ; wh C X l , U, 'r, 1 a °" r T'" Uon with tl,e State of Vi - Hi 11,.' I , , at '"'bored Commonwealth, so long and to the 1,l .n ' gu '- S .,' atnotlg her sister States, and so dear rate States r°' ousamt3 of her children in the Confede doubt* that ere you sliaH XIX sion, the whole of the slaveholding Smtes I? \ he late by unitTnl ceapond to the call of honor and affectum, and interest, fnd lurlunes witb btt's promote our common intercuts and secure our common safety. Vi ,VnnT rea , SUry l)e n arlm 'nt. regulations have been de nirlrti! i "i'™ 1 "" 1 for carrying out the policy in o the Mi sfsX, fr ! "° n BU, ' j ' ct of the navigation ot the Mississippi river, as well as for the collection of rev vessels" and merX V rue trahßil b secured for er itf State,- and A 7 ,SC '"T"'" 5 throu K b Hie Col,fed avoided as far 1.7 de . ay and '"convenience have been i,.7 IS , C '"'ffanizing the revenue ser - arious railways entering our territory As fast as experience shall indicate th" possibility of im provement ,n these regulations, no effort wi L ", r„d re o C bsr,cX r nX rO,U "" UUa ™' embarrassments an! d "oVo?"' ""fhorizin g a loan, proposals were is amit iV,H e. sab?Cr,,,lif ". , l for flve '"ions of dolla", more thon eight mniToiishy Vur ow™citiMus*Md'not if oftlie imr.* a e,"Th" l"'" 1 ' ' '""v P"1 ra! ' id development vmleou Vr I X resident of the United States to in wage waravainst !1 e -°"i a" 8 ' blockad,: °"r pons, and -..K ' r aga,nst us induced me to direct that the en'ire necessary to r-Iu" ia ' c '""d. It will now become necessary to rai-e me. ris to a much larger amount to de m.ffi.BiVh l' e ": cscf maintaining our independence and this sul.iec sn l?,' • ,nv ! l< ; >" ur -p'-cial attention to ment wrththe I'uvX." XT CU " di, .', on f the Govern ply of tin* Ti p-isurv w'Tk 0 ways an(l mea 3 for the sup me commuuica.X W '" he I ' r "" nad J"" in a sepl To the llepartment of Justice you have confided nni mcted'wu'h I?'e r''"" a T supervision of all matters con "d s and wl.h , US . UCe ' a,!O tll " se """"ret ception of those of Mississippi and Texas' 7' toruejs ancllire''no'-v V"""' "1 M , arshala and XmXu" functions. prepared for the exercise of their reTr v a ou°f 1S H aV<! 'T" made n " tlie vacancies. I refer you to ther port of the Attorney General, and con cur 111 hrs recouimenda'ion for immediate legislation es pecial yon the subject of patent rights. KaHy provUi , n houhl he made to secure to the subjects of foreign "a venii !r enjoyment o. their property in valuable in Si perso e Xno7ar^lnem"; ormi4y bt ' as "*' ! " d itmrortanl ll lirfP Ce !' usiuess is ""'d' l more extensive and important than has been anticipated. The anniic itions for patents, although confined under the law exclusively o n,',TP IdT r Confederacy, already average seventy catiollof i' mITT the necessity for the prompt organi zaiion oi a bureau )f patents. The Secretary of War, in his report and accompanvin documents, conveys full information concerning the' for" ces, regular, vo.unteer and provisional, raised and called for under the several acts of Congress, their organization and distill, Ution. Also, an account of the expenditures a.ready made, and the further estimates for the fiscal year ending on the lStlr February, IS6J. rendered neces sary r,y recent events. I refer to his report also for a full l'ed° ry 1 ,• 'fbb'b'vnoes in Charleston Harbor, prior to and including the bombardment and reduction of Fort Sumter, and ot the measures subsequently taken for common defence, on receiving intelligence' of dlcla^ UffiffidSUtes a . Sa,DSt " 3 n,ad -' by ttß I '™ idB ' " f rn!!['fw„ i,re ""T the o fic,d at Charleston, Pensacola, In •"a Bi,n ' ■ Jac l kson - St. Philip and Pulaski, nineteen Vi 'l® ' •"" 1 s'-ateeu thousand are now en route tor t irfcima It is proposed to organize and hold in readiness for instant action, m view of the pres-nt exigenciesofthe country, an army of one hundred thousand men If fur 0 r fnrve should he needed the wisdom and patriotism of 1 , appealed to for authority to vol ~, . . " ,ldlUon: " numbers of car noble-spirited volunteers, who are constantly tendering service Tar in excess oi our wants. The operations of the Navy Department have been ne cessarily restricted by the fact that sufficient time has not yet elapsed for the purchase or construction of more than a limited number of vessels adapted to the public sou vice. Iwo vessels purchased, have been named the " M:u -' Kt r'",; ,nd arc n - w ; Orleans with all possible despatch. Contracts have also been made at that city with two different es simil wm! iVo' t '" ; c , ?st ""-' of 0l dn! ">c. cannon shot and t ei-,o i,! - V encourage the manufactuie of nffints w Ho l " t d,? l.' , ; nsabl; "'"'defence, at as many points w uhio our territory as possible. 1 call your attention to the recommendation of the Se cretary lor the establishment of a magazine and labora torv for preparati n of ordnance stores, and the necessa ry appropriation for that purpose. Hitherto Mich stores have usually been prepared at the navy yards, and no jct >rla ' 1 was ma ut y° ur lirst session for this ob lhe Secretary also calls attention to the fact that no provision lias been made for the payment of invalid pen sec" ss l ion l J r f S'ff" persona nr- set saion i itn..-e Slates, have been deprived or their claim against the Government of the United States. I recommend the appropriation of the sum necessary to pay these pensioners, as well as those of the army, whose claims can scarcely exceed twenty thousand dollars per annum. K The Postmaster-General has already succeeded in or gatnzmg his department to such an extent as to be in readiness to assume the direction of our postal aff.tirs, on the occurrence of the contingency contemplated by the tr Ti , lhG !' or even sooner if desired by Con g , 11,e y anous books and circulars have been prepared and measures taken to secure supplies of blanks, postage stamps, stamped envelopes, mail bags, locks,keys, etc He presents a detailed classification and arrangement of his clerical force, and asks for an increase. An Auditor f r the rivasiiry for this department is necessary, and a plan is submitted for the organization of his bureau. The great number and magnitude of the accounts of this de partment, require an incrca e of the clerical force in the accounting bianch in the Treasuiy. The revenues of this department are collected and disbursed in modes peculiar to itself, and require a special bureau to secure a proper accountability in the administration of its fianances. leal! yourattention to the additional legislation re quired for this Department, to the recommendation for changes in the law fixing ihe ra es of postage on newspa pers. and sealed packages of certain kinds, and specially to the recommendation of the Secretary, in which I coii cur, that >ou provide at once for the assumptiou by him of the control of our entire postal service. In the military organisations of the States, provision is made for brigadier and major generals, but in the arinv of the Confederate States, the highest grade is that of brigadier general. Hence it will no doubt sometimes occur that where troops of the Confederacy do duly with theuiiiitia. the general selected for the command and possessed of the views and purposes of this government, will be superseded by an otlicer of the militia not having the same advai ages To avoid this contingency in the least objectionable manner. I recommend that additional rank be given to the generator the Confederate army and concurring in the policy of having but one grade or gen erals in the army of the Confederacy, I recommend that the law of its organization be amended, so that the grade be that of general. To secure a thorough military education, it is deemed essential that officers should enter upon the study of their profession at an early period ot life, and have elementary instruction in a military school. Until such school shall he established, it is recommended that cadets be appoint ed and attached to companies until they shall have at tained the age and have acquired the knowledge to lit them for the duties of lieutenants. I also call your attention to an omission in the law or ganizing the army, in relation to military chaplains, and recommend that provision be made for their appointment. In cone usion, I congratulate you on the tact, that in every portion of our country there has been exhibited the most patriotic devotion to our common cause. Trans - portatinn companies have freely tendered the use of th eir lines for troop* ami supplies. The presidents of the rail roads of the Confederacy, in company with others who control lines of communication with States that wtr hope soon to greet as sisters, assembled in Convention in this city, and not only reduced largely the rates heretofore demanded for mail servieand conveyance of troops and munitions, but voluntarily proffered to receive their com pensation at these reduced rates in the bonds of the Con federal, for the purpose of leaving all the resources of the government at its disposal for the common defence. Requisitions for troops have been met with such alac rity, that the numbers tendering their services have, in every instance, greatly exceeded the demand. Men of the highest official arid social position are serving as volun teers in the ranks. The gravity of age and the zeal of youth, rival e.tch other in the desire to be foremost for the public defence; and though at no other point than th one heretofore noticed, have they been stimulated by the excitement incident to actual engagement, and the hope of distinction f r individual achievement, they have borne what, for new troops, is thn most severe ordeal—pa tient toil and constant vigil, and all the exposure and discomfort of active service, with a resolution and forti tude such as to command approbation and justify the highest expectation of their conduct when active valor shall he r quired in place of steady endurance A people thus united and resolved cannot shrink from any sacrifice which they may be called on to make, nor can there be a reasonable doubt ot their final success, however long and severe may be the test of their deter mination to maintain their birth right of freedom and equality, as a trust which it is their first duty to trans mit, undiminished to their posteritv. A bounteous Providence cheers us with the promise of abundant crops The fields of grain which will, within a few weeks, be ready for the sickle, give assurance of the amplest supply of food for man; whilst the corn, cot ton, and other staple productions of our soil, afford abundant proof that up to this period, the season has been propitious. We f el that our cause is just and holy: we protest so lemnly in the face of mankind that we desire peace at any sacrifice, save that of honor and independence; we seek no conquest, no aggrandizement, no concession of any kind from the States with which we were lately confede rated: all we ask is to be let alone; that those who never h-ld power over us shall not now attempt our subjuga tion by arms. This we will, this we must resist to the direst extremity. The moment that this pretension is abandoned, the sword will drop from our grasp, and we shall be ready to enter into treaties of amity and com merce that cannot hut be mutually beneficial. So long as this pretension is maintain-d, with a firm reliance on that Divine Power which covers with its protection the just cause, we will continue to struggle for our inherent right to freedom, independence and self-government. JEFFERSON DAVIS. MONTGOMERY. April 29,1861. A TRAGIC AFFAIR AT LYNCHBURG. —The Lynch burg Republican gives the subjoined details of the killing ot Mr. Pembroke S. Bowyer, in tbat city, on Tuesday last, by Win. L. Page: For some time past, as we learn, Mr. Page had reason to believe that an improper intimacy existed between Bowyer and his (Pane's) wife, and a few days since .Mr. Page finding Bowyer at his house, ordered him to leave, at the same time telling him that if be ever found him there again, his life would be the penalty. Bowyer then promised that his acquaintance-hip with Mrs. P. should at once cease, but it seems, however, that he did not keep his pro mise, and had since opened a clandestine correspon dence with her, which Mr. Page yesterday came in possession of; and soon alter, meeting Bowyer on Ninth street, between Main and Chu ch, Mr. Page drew a pistol and fired upon him, the ball from which took effect on the right side of his neck, and cutting the jugular veiu, caused his death in a a- >rt alter. Mr. Page, seeing the tragic effect ot his shot, at once walked from the scene, and delivered himself up, when, on being carried before the Mayor, he was sent to jail to await an examination nn Monday next. _lt is stated that General Scott will soon change his headquarters from Washington to Philadel phia. Edward L. Ye.tee. an A.d to Gen. Beauregard, was married at Georgetown, 11. C., on Monday last. The Charleston Mercury claims to have 10,000 subscribers. Mr. Wm. Appleton, member of Congress from Massachusetts, has arrived safely at Cincinnati. More S o u tiTcaroTina and Georgia troops have arrived in Richmond. PRICE TWO CENTS OKFICEUS OF THE ARMY WHO HAVE KE SIGXED SINCE THE BEGINNING OF THE CRISIS. There are tnany more whose resignations are on file in the War Department ar.d have not yet been made public; a'so, many whose intention it is to "sign in a fe-" days, or as soon as the border slia " ,)a ve withdrawn from the Union. V i- o '-' S " Coo P er > Adj. Gen., Va. A' a J- Ueo. Deas, Asst. Adj. Gen ,is O 4 r Vt : V'. R - J " nes Asst. Adj. Gen., ok. 5* M.i,,' i°1 n Withers, Asst., Adj. Gen. Miss, eral V a ° '' ee ' , ' u(i P e Advocate Gen- G ("nX^S°J neral J " E " J " hn3toD ' Q-M --8. C " to' r apt " ii. uene E MfHane, .Vst O M Md 10. ( apt. Win. 1.. Cabell, Asst. Q M v*" mi; J ,; r Va Chard U ' LeP ' C '"~y Depart -12. Dr. David C. De LeoD, Med. Dept. S C 13. Dr. Edward W.Johns, Med. Dept., Md 14. Dr. Charles Brewer, .Med. Dept. Md. 15. Dr. Andrew J. Ford. Med. Dept.', G*. Id. Dr. Charles 11. Smith, Med. Dept., Va 1. Major Cuckfield Maeklin, Pav Dept., Tenn IS. Major George C. Flutter, Fay Dept. Va. Iff. Major Robert H. Chilton, Fay Dept., Va. 20. Major Thomas G. Rhetf, Fay Dept., S. C. 21. Captain F G. T. Beauregard, Engineers, La. 22. Captain William 11. C. Whiting, Engineers, Alius. ' -3. Captain George W. C. Lee, Engineers, Va. jr' r'Ti, . mu ? I 1 ,' Buck it t, Engineers, Ala. 2d. Col. Benjamin linger, Ordnance, S. C. 97 V ap - " s ' ah Corpus, Ordnance, Fa 2S rVV ? V"' , K - S B " k ' Hrdnance, Ga. 20 ■ n m' N ' ilitar - V Storekeeper, Va. Va bomas T - hauntleroy, Ist dragoons, Lucius 13. Northrop, l st dragoons, 31. Capt. R. S. Ewell, lst dragoons, Va N.T 1 ' >Villiam J ' endet ' , lst dra K oon ®> 33 'A I |'i eUt ' A ' fred Chapman, Ist dragoons, :;V V"'' E h? r ' es M "y> - nd dragoons, D. C. Klcbard • Anderson, 2nd dragoons, 3(I. George B. Anderson, 2 nf ] dragoons, 3<. Lieut John Fegrum, 2d Dragoons, Va. .8. Lict. John B \ illipique, 2d Dragoons, fi. C. .... Lieut. John Mullins, 2d Dragoons, Miss. 40. Lieut. George Jackson, 2d I)-goons Va 41. Lieut. Thomas J. Be r ,y, 2d IWa<>-oo'ns Ga 4- Lieut. Solomon Williams, 2d Dragoons', 43. Col. A\ m. ,1. IDrdee, Ist Cavalry, Ga. 44. Capt. V\ m. I). DeSanssure, Ist Cavalry, S C 4. Capt. George 11. Steuart, Ist Cavalry, Md! 4fi. Lieut. Alfred Irersor., Lt Cavalry, Ga 47. liieut. Philip Stockton, Ist Cavalry, S. C. X 'c" 1 * Kicllard 11 " Biddick, Ist Cavalry, 49. Lieut. Andrew Jackson, Ist Cavalry, Tcnn. •>O. Lieut Lunsford L. Loin .x, Ist Cavairy, Va. r>" M' •• • h - Lep ' " d Cavalry, Va. Carl Van Donn, 2d Cavalry, Miss, ti I™', 11 ' Braofute, 2d Cavalry, Tcnn. 54. Capt. Charles W. Field, 2d Cavalry, Kv. 50. Capt. .Nathan G. Evans, 2d Cavalry. S. C. sh. Lieut. VA alter 11. Jenifer, 2d Cavalry, Md. •>7. Lieut. John T. Shurt, 2 I Cavalry It C oS. liieut. Joseph F. Minter, 2d Cavalry, Veins. oJ. Lieut. Charles W. Philer, 2d Cavairv, Miss. GO. Lieut. James P. Major, 2 1 Cavalry, Miss, hi. Lieut. Fitzhugh Lee, 2d Cavairv, Va. M( Ut * ilan " i " g Ki "n>el, 2d Cavalry, GJ. Lieut. Geo. 11. Cunningham, 2d Cavairv Ga. •" Col. John H. Winder, Ist Art'v., Md. h i. Col. John I!. Magruder, Ist Art'v., Va. 6fi. Lieut. Abner Smead, Ist Art'y.,'Ga G7. Lieut Frederick L. Childs, Ist Art'y. X. C CS. Lieut. Samuel M. Cooper, Ist Art'y. ' Va.. 69. Capt. Arnold Elzev, 2d Art'v., Md. PI Maj. Sam'l. S. Anderson, 2d Art'y. Va. j'- Lieut. Anderson Merchant, 2d Art'v.', Ga*. 72. Lieut. J. P. Jones, 2d Art'y., NT. c.' 73* Lieut. St. Clair Denning, 2d Art'v., Ga. <4. Lieut. James Howard, 3d Art'y.,'.Md. 75. Maj. I. C. Pemberton, 4ih Art'v , Va 76. Capt. Win. G. Gill, 4th Art'y., Ga. 1 7. Lieut. Chas. D. Anderson, 4th Art'v Texas. JM i ß ' L'eut. Jas. 11. Hallinquest, 4th Art'v. S. C. <9. Capt. Wm. M. Gardner, 2d Infantry', Ga! 80. Capt. W m. 15. Johns. 2d Inlautrv, Md. S C* Kichard V ' Bowman, 2d Infantry, 82. Col. Daniel Ruggies, sth Infantry, Va. oJ. Col. George W. Lay, Clh Infantry, Va. 84. Capt. Henry Little, 7th Infantry, Md. Ba. Capt. Lafayette McLaws, 7th Infantry, Ga. 86. Capt. John M. Join s, 7th Infantry, Va. 87. Maj. Theophilus 11. Holmes, Bth'infantry, A. C. 88. Capt. Joseph Selden, Sth Infantry, Va. 80. Capt. Charles S. Winder, 9th Infantry. Md. Capt. John M. Frazr, 9th Infantry, Tenu. Jl. Lieut. K. W. Carr, 9th Infantry, Va. J2. Capt. Barnard E. Bee, llJth Iniantry, S. C. 93. Col. Win. 11. T. Walker. 10th Infantry, Ga. J4. Capt. Harry Hetli, 10th Infantry, Ga. 95. Capt. Altred Gumming, l()th Infantry, Ga. 96 Capt. Crawford Fletcher, 9th lutamry. Tenn. 9|. Lieut. Walter 11. Stevens, Engineers, La. 98. Maj. Lloyd Beali, Pay Department, Md. 99. Lieut. Horace Randal, Ist Dragoons, Texas. 10(1. (.apt. Wm ; I). Smith, 2d Dragoons, Ga. lUI. Cant., tv. Jt—Snv,it>. .'l'Ld'tJayalrvVS C J" 1 Lieut. A. P. Hill, Ist Artillery, Va. * 104. Lieut. William liutler, 2d Artillery S. C 105. Lieut. Stephen D. Lee, 4ih Artillery, S. O. 100. Lieut. Geo. S. James, 4th Artillery", S. C 107. Lieut. Alexander B. Montgomery", 4th Ar tillery, Ga. 108. Lieut. Henry B. Kelly, 4th Artilley. La. 109. Capt. John Dunovant, 4th Artillery S. C. 110. Col. W. H. Emory, Ist Cavalry, Md ' 111. Major R. S. Garnett, 9th Infantry, Va. OUTRAGEOUS IREATMENT.—A gentleman on his way to Washington city yesterday tnornin-was stopped by an armed guard at (lie bridge, and in terrogated as to his business in the city." Y v hsri ha told them he was in searcli of his runawav negro" he was warned to leave immediately. Such a vio lation of the rights of our citizens is base. Other citizens have been insulted. Mr. rbornas .Miller, of Charles county, wasquiet ly eating a ineal at a restaurant in Washington a tew days ago, when he was rudely accosted by three government menials, who asked him where he came from; and when he civilly informed them that he was from Maryland, they abused ami drew a revolver on him. lie defended himself success fully with a bowie knife, cutting one of the soldiers severely. The examining justice dismissed Mr Miller on the ground of sell-defence.— Marlboro' Crazetfc, May 1. ARRIVAL OF SOUTHERN TROOPS AT RICFIMOKD.— On Wednesday last there reached Richmond from the South two companies of riflemen, numbering ISO men, the vanguard ol the '1 bird Regiment of Georgia volunteers, expected to arrive also in a few days; and three companies of South Caroli nians, an aggregate of 30(1 men, the remainder of the second South Carolina Regiment already quar tered in Richmond. A despatch to the Examiner states that one hundred and eighty-nine troops, consisting ol the Confederate State Guards, Capt. h.. J. Walker, eighty-eight men, from Augusta, i 'o'j- • 1?' "ennyrnan's company, from Haver hill district, S. C., numbering one hundred and one men, were to have left Wilmington on Friday after noon lor Richmond. The following telegram from Philadelphia is published in all the New \ ork papers of Satur day : All tiavel to the South is stopped to day. No communication with Raltiinore or Washington is permitted by the military authorities. General Patterson refuses to give travellers his pass, and holds the roads exclusively for the transport of troops and munitions of war. THATCHER'S COMET. —This fine object is now plain ly visible to the naked eye. Star-gazers will find it in the quadrangle of the "Dipper" in the Great Hear—a hazy star, nearest the brightest of the lour. It already shows a tail three degrees long in the telescope. It moves rapidly from the northeast, and in a few days will be conspicuous as a flaming sword from the north, advancing into the south western skies. SOUTHERN I.ANDS. —A letter from Richmond savs: "The I nited States Treaurv realized over SIOO,- 000,000 from the sale of lands given by Virginia and Georgia. This is more than all we paid to France, Spain and Mexico for territories. At the beginning the Union bad r,n territories but those given by the South." It is also said that Judge Robinson goes to Washington, on business connect ed with Virginia's share of the territories and public property. SOUTHERN DIRECT TRADE —A Manchester house, in replying to some orders from a dry goods house of this city, remarks : "We are pleased to find your proposed Tarill" so liberal. If YOU kep clear of protective duties the trade between this coun try and the .Southern States will soon become large and very profitable for both sides."— Charleston Courier. Gov. Letcher, of Virginia, received on Wednes day last 5,500 muskets from Gov. Ellis, of North Carolina. They are a portion of the arms seized by the North Carolina authorities at the Fayette ville Arsenal, which proved one of the rarest prizes vet captured in the South. Nearly all of the arms seized at FayetteviDe were of the best description. The Lynchburg Virginian of Wednesday, says: The Tennessee train brought last night about five or six hundred troops from Alabama. They were quartered in the depot for the night, and will, we presume, go to their encampment at the Fair Ground this morning. Other troops will arrive to day, and every day for some time to come. The Boston Pont understands that a committee of about a hundred persons has been organized to wait upon those who decline to express their senti ments in the present state of the country. A num ber of politicians who have not vet* committed themselves are on their list, and will be visited. The election for members ot Congress for Virginia to the House of Representatives of the Congress of the United States, required by law to be held on the fourth Thursday in May next, is suspended by ordinance until otherwise ordained bv the Conven tion. The steamship Ureal Eastern, which is expected at New York on the 10th inst., will be open for exhibition to the public for seven days, during her stay here. The exhibition will probably com mence on the 14th ins!., and close on the 21st. The New Jersey small farmers and Pennsylvania market gardeners, are complaining that they are without help, the hands having gone oft -to the war." Tbey cannot sow, and will not be able lo reap. Rev. Neville ,S. (Jreenawav, pastor of the Metho dist Protestant Church at Alexandria, Va., and member of the Maryland Conference of that de nomination, died at that city on Thursday. Senator Mason and Messrs. Uncock, Jenkins and Seddon were nominated, in the Virginia Conven tion, for the Southern Congress, but were not elected. Wendell Phillips has changed his opinions and is now out in favor of "war to the kuife" on the South and her institutions. The Augusta (Geo.) Constitutionalist of the 25th gives the uames of twenty additional companies ot Ueorgia volunteers which have received marching orders for Richmond, Va. The Petersburg Exprc^This received Bne straw berries from Mr. Green's garden in Dinwtddie. In that region asparagus is abundant. Governor Letcher has announced his intention to establish a large encampment of State troops at I Petersburg.