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People's party paper. [volume] (Atlanta, Ga.) 1891-1898, December 16, 1892, Image 2

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FARM
FIELD
AND GARDEN
LEAN MEAT VERSUS FAT.
Th© ICxcess of Fat in the Pork, Beef and
Mutton of This Country.
Attention is directed by Professor At
water in The Experimental Station Rec
ord to a deficiency of protein in our ag
ricultural products, which tends to in
crease the already too great proportion
of fat and carbohydrates in the food we
eat. Corn, our great staple, is poor in
protein at the best. The larger part of
our pork is made from corn. Pork made
from corn exclusively has relatively lit
tle lean. The corn fed pork in the mar
ked is mostly fat. On this subject it is
said that the pork producer in this coun
try has come to be essentially a manu
facturer of fat. Like other manufactur
ers he must compete in the markets of
the world, home and foreign. He meets
serious competition in the fat of other
meats, in cottonseed oil and in petro
leum. The home market is relatively
overstocked with fat pork.
There are, then, two things for the
pork producers to do—make leaner pork
* and get better access to foreign markets.
Leaner pork can be obtained by the use
of nitrogenous foods—skimmilk, bran,
shorts, cottonseed meal, if it can be ad
vantageously utilized; beans, peas,clover,
alfalfa and other leguminous plants. It
is, however, impracticable for many pork
producers to change their system of feed
ing at once. The bulk of the pork of the
country is and for some time must be
manufactured from corn, but where ni
trogenous foods are available they should
be used, and where they are not an at
tempt should be made to introduce them.
Skimmilk is rich in protein, and on
this account it is excellent, Professor
Atwater states, not simply for making
the lean pork that a rational diet calls
for, in place of the excessively fat prod
uct with which the market is flooded.
There is the same trouble with our other
meats. Our beef and mutton are fatter
than need be, and the excess of fat is
greater than we realize. It is true there
is a large demand for fat beef. This is
because such beef is tender, juicy and
attractive in flavor, and it is not the fat
but the lean part of the meat that is
mostly wanted. The European feeder
makes tender, juicy beef of excellent
flavor, without excess of fat. When the
cattle he is fattening have become fat to
the point where the quantity of fat in
the meat is reasonable and the flavor ac
ceptable they are slaughtered. His feed
ing stuffs are also richer in protein than
the grasses and grain of the central and
eastern states.
Raising Squabs.
A correspondent of the Philadelphia
Farm Journal relates the following ex
perience in raising squabs:
I first rented for a small sum an old
house fifteen by twenty feet, with ceil
ings eight feet high, and fitted it up
with plenty of boxes, hanging them to
the ceiling so that rats could not get at
the young ones. The windows were
taken out and wire netting substituted
in summer. Platforms were placed out
of the windows so the birds could get
out into the sun and rain. Then I
bought common pigeons, the largest I
could find, and penned each pair sep
arately to mate. When mated I put
them in, and they went immediately to
work. There were twenty pairs.
For feed I use small grained corn and
screenings. I give them also green
grass, grass seed and plenty of salt, lime
and sand. The birds have a bathbox
2 by 3 feet by 4 inches deep and a
patent fountain from which to drink.
The nesting boxes are cleaned out once
a month and lime put in to keep out lice.
I get an average of eight pairs of
squabs a year, and these have realized
for me forty-five cents a pair. The cost
of keeping a pair of breeding birds de
pends on the kind. Small birds do not
eat as much as large ones. My birds
cost me two dollars per pair for the
year in confinement. There are too
many losses when at large. Hawks kill
them, and people trap or shoot them.
When confined these losses are avoided.
The Improvement of Soils.
The amount of water in a soil and its
rate of circulation being among the most
important factors in determining the
growth of cultivated plants, it follows
that the art of cultivating and manuring
must be based on the possible control of
the water supply in the soil. In a report
of soil investigations by Mr. Whitney, of
the Maryland station, it is stated that
the continued use of lime, kainit and
phosphoric acid makes the soil more
loamy, looser in texture and less reten
tive of moisture. Many of our agricul
tural lands need improvement in the
other direction. They need to be made
closer in texture and more retentive of
moisture. In the investigations under
consideration it was found that ammo
nia, the caustic alkalies, carbonate of
soda and probably many other substances
tend to bring about the desired improve
ment.
The judicious use of lime, kainit or
acid phosphate, along with organic mat
ter added to the soil, is said to give a
value to the application which it would
not otherwise have had, and in this con
nection a value to stable manure is
given out of all proportion to the amount
of plant food it contains. Lime also,
either alone or when acting with organic
matter, is mentioned as having a distinct
value for all classes of lands.
The Clover Leaf Weevil.
This insect has been spreading south
ward since 1882, but has not extended
its work to the west as rapidly as might
have been expected. Nothing in way of
remedies appears to have been discov
ered of late years. Where the stubble
can be burned during the winter the
numbers of the insect can be greatly re
duced, but plowing under during May,
although this necessitates tsome loss,
is recommended by the entomologists
who have investigated the matter as
the most efficacious remedy.
Now for Fakes.
Now watch and see if the Democrats
will not be too cowardly to carry out the
free trade demands of their platform.
The upshot of the business will be the
selection of a “commission” to devise a
plan. Whenever the politicians are too
ignorant or too cowardly to decide a
measure they refer it to a commission.
The commission meets with a big flour
ish and makes a report. That ends the
matter, and the people pay the bills, and
big ones at that.—National Advance. .
PEOPLE’S PARTY PAPER, ATLANTA, GEORGIA, FRIDAY. DECEMBER 18, 1892.
EARLY BROILERS.
Successful Incubator Work by Practical
Poultry Men.
Although the market for early broilers
will not begin before the opening of the
new year, P. H. Jacobs, of Hammonton,
N. J., very truly says in Farm and Fire
side that the chicks must be hatched out
in time to grow. It requires three weeks
to hatch the chicks and about ten weeks
more for them to reach a marketable
size, the whole period, from the begin
ning of the hatch to the period of selling,
being about three months.
To reach the market in January the
chicks should come out of the shells not
later than the first week in November.
As the prices gradually increase aftei
January, reaching the highest limit in
May, there is a wide field open for early
broilers. The first lot that reaches the
market sells best when they weigh but
little over a pound each, but as the prices
go up the weights also increase until
sizes of l’q pounds weight are desired.
The difficulty in securing early chicks
is the fact that a hen will not sit until
she is so inclined, and even if she hatches
a brood in the winter season it is diffi
cult for her to raise them. Hence Mr.
Jacobs encourages artificial incubation.
He says: “In April and May prices some
times reach as high as sixty cents a
pound for broilers in large cities. The
cost of the food to produce one pound of
chick does not exceed six cents. It must
not be overlooked, however, that the
cost of eggs for incubation, the labor,
the buildings and other expenses are
sometimes great, and losses by death
may be very heavy. All are not suc
cessful, but many difficulties can be
overcome after a year's experience. It
is best to begin with a small incubator
and learn, and not venture too far the
first season. If anything is to be done,
however, this is the time to begin, not
only for profit, but also to experiment.”
It is told of one of Ohio’s most success
ful broiler men in The Poultry World
that he never started the machines until
December for two reasons—first, it was
difficult to procure eggs in any quantity
much before that time, and, second, that
the market w r as filled with frozen stock
and game until March, so that there is
no great demand for broilers until about
April 1, when the frozen stock and game
are cleared up and a good demand for
broilers comes on. He owes his success
in a great measure to the fact that he
only utilizes the best portion of the year
—winter and spring. He works at the
poultry business during the winter and
spring months, when his other business
is slow, and by June, when the prices
commence to fall, he is all sold out and
works at his trade until another year.
It is not economy to put money into
cheap machines. Whichever you try,
make up your mind at once that there is
work to be done, and probably when
you count your chickens from the first
hatch you will think, as others have
thought, that “the best regulated ma
chine needs regulating.” A person can
not be told how to ran successfully an
incubator; he must learn it by experi
ence.
Grain Smut and the Jansen Remedy.
As estimated in a bulletin of the Mich
igan station, the annual loss to the grain
crop of that state by smut is upward of
$1,000,000. This includes the lo&s from
the stinking smut of wheat and the
loose smut of oats, and in fact all the
smut fungi that attacks the cbreals.
According to the bulletin, this heavy
loss could be largely reduced, if not en
tirely prevented, if the farmers would
adopt the Jansen or hot water method.
The work is simple and inexpensive.
The wheat seed before planting should
be kept in hot water heated to 134 degs.
Fahrenheit for ten minutes. The water
must be kept to this temperature during
the soaking. Oats require a higher
temperature to kill the smut spores.
The seed should be dipped in water heat
ed to 139 or 140 degs. Fahrenheit and
should be soaked for ten minutes.
The Farmer’s Icehouse.
Once more we say that high cost is not
necessary in an icehouse. The essen
tials are ground from which the water
will run away, sides stiff and tight
enough to securely hold the fine pack
ing with which it must be surrounded,
a roof good enough to turn rain and free
ventilation over the top of the material
with which the ice is covered. Any shed
which will furnish these requisites and
eighteen inches of chaff, sawdust, fine
charcoal, cut corn fodder or straw
packed hard and tight under, on all
sides and above the ice, with both gable
ends wide open, will keep ice better than
a $250 stone building, says one who has
tried it in the Philadelphia Farm Jour
nal. A pile of ice Bby 10 feet and 6
feet high will hold enough for any
ordinary farm family with a dairy at
tachment.
News and Notes.
A bogus coffee plant is on the market
under the name of Cole’s Domestic Cof
fee Berry. From the Ohio experiment
station, where this matter has been in
vestigated, comes the report that the
plant is simply a common variety of
Soja hispida, or Japan pea, so well
known to many of the stations, and the
seed of which is abundant and compara
tively cheap. Another attempted fraud
is the so called “black pepsin” for in
creasing the yield of butter.
Twenty-five tons of well dressed flax
will be placed on exhibition at the
World’s fair by flax growers of New
Zealand.
It is proposed to introduce the kanga
roo of Australia into North America as
a substitute for the extinct or all but
extinct bison. Parts of the country,
especially in the west, unsuited for cul
tivation or other stock, might, it is
thought, be used in breeding kangaroos,
which afford not only good sport, but
“flesh, fur and footwear.”
Bee escapes are in high favor in Eng
land.
There should be a hospital on each
farm for sick poultry, and they should
be separated from the others as soon as
any signs of disease are noticed.
Inconsistency.
The idea of a man getting down on
his knees and praying that this “earth”
be “as the kingdom of heaven,” and then
voting for a party that is responsible for
7,000 millionaires on one hand and 10,-
000,000 paupers on the other, is prepos
terous. If he does it through ignorance,
his ignorance is a crime; if through
prejudice, his prejudice is sin. The man
who shuts his eyes to the present desper
ate condition of things because he does
not feel the pressure of the times is not
worthy of Hie name of Christian.—Ran
dolph Toiler, Wedowee, Ala, v -
'iOOtSvE
BEE CELLARS.
What One Man Thinks About Ventilation
for Bees.
A few years ago “subearth” ventila
tion of bee cellars was almost universally
recommended. Nearly every one who
built a bee cellar also buried 200 or 300
feet of draintile; the outer end open to
the air and the inner end entering the
cellar. To remove the air from the cel
lar a pipe, connecting with a stovepipe in
the room above, extended down through
the floor to within a few inches of the
cellar bottom. The draft in the stove
pipe “pulled up” the air from the cellar,
and more flowed in through the sub
earth pipe to take its place. On passing
through the subearth pipe the air was
warmed. If there was no stovepipe with
which to connect the outlet pipe it was
extended upward until it reached the
open air. The air in the cellar, being
warmer than the outside air, flowed out
of the upper ventilator.
In order to keep the temperature even
there was much opening and closing of
the ventilating tubes. In cold weather
it was often necessary to leave the open
ings closed several days, or even weeks.
At such times it was noticed tkat the
bees suffered no inconvenience. Not
only this, but it was often noticed that
when the ventilators were opened the
inrush of fresh, cool air aroused the bees
and made them uneasy. Finally the
ventilators were opened less and less —
still no bad results—and at last they
were left closed nearly all the time.
The amount of air needed by bees
varies greatly, according to circum
stances. When they are excited and
full of honey, as is the case with a work
ing swarm, the amount of air needed is
very great. If they can be kept quiet a
very little air will suffice. In winter
bees are in a semidormant state, closely
bordering upon hibernation, as that
word is popularly understood, and the
amount of air necessary for their main
tenance is very slight. I believe it "was
Mr. D. S. Adiar, who, a number of years
ago, removed a box of surplus honey
from a hive, and leaving the bees in
possession pasted several layers of paper
over the entrance to the box. As all the
cracks and crevices were stopped with
propolis the box was practically air
tight. The bees were kept confined sev
eral days, yet did not apparently suffer
for want of air.
Mr. Hedden tells of some man who,
wishing to “take up” some of his colo
nies in the fall, plastered up the entrance
with blue clay, expecting to kill the
bees by suffocation. Upon opening the
hive a few days later the bees flew right
merrily, to the discomfiture of their
owner. I have several times wintered
bees successfully in “clumps” where the
bees were buried two feet deep under
frozen earth. Professor Cook even went
so far as to hermetically seal up two
colonies by throwing water over the
hives and allowing it to freeze, thus
forming a coating of ice over tbp hives.
The bees survived this treatment.
Special ventilation, simply for the
sake of securing fresher or purer air,
seems to be almost unnecessary. The
few beekeepers who} plead for special
ventilation wholly upon
the ground
readily controHttie
bee repositories are built sufficiently
it does not seem as though
ventilation would be very much needed
for controlling temperature. When bees
settle down into that quiescent state es
sential for successful wintering their
need of air is very slight indeed. When
their winter is ended, and spring
arouses them to activity and brood rear
ing, more air is needed. It is then, if
ever, that special ventilation is a bene
fit, but as all that is needed can be so
easily secured by the occasional open
ing of doors or windows at night, if it
ever becomes really necessary, it scarce
ly seems worth while to go to the ex
pense of laying subearth pipes. I should
not do it or advise it. —Exchange.
An Ayrshire Sire.
The Ayrshire is acknowledged to be
queen of the cheese cows. Good speci
mens of the breed produce as high as
forty quarts of milk a day sometimes.
In some parts of Scotland they are the
main dependence as milk cows for city
customers. In the hilly regions of New
England they thrive well and are also
highly prized as dairy cattle. The but
ter from Ayrshire milk needs artificial
coloring to sell well in market. Con-
AYRSHIRE BULL.
cerning the butter making qualities of
this breed there is some dispute. En
thusiastic breeders declare the butter is
first class, abundant and brings a high
price in market. As to this we do not
decide.
In districts where oxen are used the
steers of this family make excellent
working animals. The picture shows a
male at the head of one of the best Ayr
shire herds in the country. The typical
Ayrshire color is “dark red, rich brown
or mahogany, running almost into a
black, sometimes broken, blotched and
spotted with white.”
The following remedy has been given
for horses that are lame from dry hoofs:
Remove the shoes and turn the horse to
pasture. W ash the legs and hoofs with
soap and water. When they are dry
anoint both legs and hoofs with a mix
ture of equal parts of tallow and tar,
rubbimr it in well.
THE GOOD ROAD HORSE.
Some Points for Farmers About His Breed
ing and Education.
A good road horse should have size,
beauty, a pleasant, cheerful disposition,
good free action, both in walking and
trotting; should be pure gaited, so as to
require neither boots nor toe weights;
should be free from blemish, and last,
but by no means least, should be well
broken and educated. All the former
requirements can be bred—in fact must
be bred; but the education, without
which all else is naught, can be added
by the practical farmer in a more thor
opgrh manner and at much less expense
py ifto wcaamv.
Jlllxj glCatrSU ■cniacnvu TU
breeding trotters is in the development
of the speed. No matter how generous
nature may have been in the speed in
heritance, the art of man must be used
to bring out this inheritance, and good
trainers are an expensive luxury, while
a poor trainer is still more expensive at
any price. Not every small trader, even
if he has the time and desire to devote
himself to training, can hope to become
proficient in the art; but every man of
ordinary intelligence, and having a lik
ing for handling horses, can become
proficient in educating young horses
and bringing them properly to the point
where a buyer can secure a good road
horse, or the expert trainer can take up
the education and bring out the reserve
speed. A horse properly bred and prop
erly educated up to this point is always
salable at a good price.
The first point is to start right, for
without this all subsequent efforts will
be in vain. It is an accepted law among
breeders that like produces like, or the
likeness of some ancestor, and the
chances are much greater that the qual
ities of the parents will be reproduced
than those of more remote progenitors.
It follows then that if we start to pro
duce a certain type of horse we cannot
expect to often produce that type by
uniting parents of an entirely different
type.
It has been a too common error that
any old wornout mare would answer
for a dam, providing she was bred to
some noted horse. Experience has dem
onstrated that the dam exerts fully as
much influence upon the offspring as
the sire; in fact in my own case I have
come to believe that I have more young
sters that show the characteristics of the
dam more strongly than those of the sire.
A good brood mare should have size,
for the offspring is influenced largely by
the dam in this respect, and she should
have a cheerful and pleasant disposition,
with plenty of snap. If she has speed,
so much the better, but it will be like
inviting failure to expect to breed a
prompt, pleasant driving horse from a
stupid, awkward, stumbling dam.
Experience has shown that the trotting
action or gait is influenced more strong
ly by the sire, and a breeder should be
careful, therefore, to breed to a horse of
pure trotting action —one that trots with
out the appliances of weights and other
artificial means of balancing. No man
desires to drive a toe weight trotter on
the road, or one that requires booting
beyond possibly a quarter boot.
By all means seek to breed high finish.
A handsome horse will always command
a much better price and a much readier
sale than one of plain conformation.
Beauty detracts nothing from speed, and
the breeder who seeks to breed hand
some road or driving horses will find as
large a percentage of f ast trotters among
the produce as he who breeds for speed
alone. In one case those that lack speed
will sell for enough to represent a profit,
while in the other class those that lack
speed are among the most useless of ani
mals.—Cultivator and. Country Gentle
man.
Marking Lambs.
The practice with breeders who are
now keeping records of every individual
animal—ranis and ewes—in their breed
ing flocks is varied. For those who have
no letter the following method will be
found practicable, and it is thought with
less liability to errors than by most other
methods:
At flambing time by a very little more
than usual attention, and with no more
than should be given the flock at this time
without this end in view, it can be seen
when a ewe has dropped a lamb. This
lamb should be marked as hereafter
mentioned and a note made of the num
ber it is made to bear, the date of its
birth, and the record number of its dam
and sire.
The marking is done by notches in the
ears. These notches may be made -while
the lamb is quite young and will last a
long time, or until the animal is record
ed and old enough to bear an ear label.
The notches on the ears count as fol
lows: One notch on the outer rim of the
right ear is 1; one on outer rim of left
ear is 3; one on inner rim of right ear is
10, and one on inner rim of left ear is 30.
Combinations of these notches may be
made to number as high as 100. —Cor.
Breeder’s Gazette.
Live Stock Points.
Roup in poultry is contagious.
The largest per cent, of hogs is lost
from death in the south. During the
past year Georgia farmers lost nearly 10
per cent, of their swine through fatal
disease—Alabama, Arkansas and .Mis
sissippi nearly as many. Hogs in hot
climates seem more liable to disease than
in colder ones. They need to have more
attention paid to cleanliness.
Chaplin, the Tory British minister,
who hated American beef raisers, is
now one of the outs, and his successor
is Mr. Herbert Gardner. To Mr. Gard
ner have come earnest applications al
ready for the removal of the spiteful re
strictions imposed on the admission of
foreign cattle by Chaplin. There is
good reason to believe the burdensome
restrictions will bo removed. The shoe
pinches our British cousins in a peculiar
way. The truth is that English and
Scotch capitalists have invested im
mensely in American ranches on our
side of the line. When, therefore, cattle
from the United States are barred out
of Great Britain, it cuts into the pockets
of British subjects themselves.
Light Is Breaking.
The Republican party has elected its
last president. The Demoratic party
will never elect another candidate.
The people are aroused.
The Populist cause is in the saddle
and will be the next great party. The
cause of the masses must have a defend
er if we hope to perpetuate the republic.
The Democratic leaders are chained to
plutocracy, and there is nothing to hope
for from, that party.
The same is true of the Republican
party.
The rank and file of both old parties
are honest and well meaning, and sym
pathize with the people.
Ignorance, prejudice and party favor
itism have kept them in darkness.
The light is breaking. Another four
years of education and. the common
people will begin to understand that
they are the power and that they are the
people in shape to direct government,
and not the few who
money power.—Denver Road.
Rev. T. De Witt Talmage says: “The
great shadowing curse of America to
day is the monopolist. He puts his hand
on every bushel of wheat, every sack of
flour and every ton of coal, and not a
man, woman or child in America but
Eeels the. tQfiCh of moneyed despotism.”
<
VISIT TO A CREAMERY.
A Butter Factory Which Is Profitable to
Owners and Patrons.
Long experience in newspaper work
gives one self confidence. Outsiders
might call it cheek. But whatever it is
it enabled me a few weeks ago, during
my summer outing, to march boldly up
to the door of the Forest City creamery
at Portland, Me., and ask the managers
to give me an interview in the interests
of our dairy readers. They not only
gave me the interview, but also a glass of
delicious cream, the one as acceptable
as the other. I may say the first thing
that struck my eye as I entered the door
of the creamery was a large sign bear
ing the words “No Smoking.”
The principal products of the soil im
mediately around Portland are hay and
potatoes apparently, with some ensilage
corn, yet the Forest City creamery uses
up the milk of no less than 2,500 cows,
and the farmhouses and grounds look as
though their owners were prosperous.
The cows are fed largely on hay and
ensilage in the cold weather. The grain
they consume is mostly bought and ship
ped from farther south in the corn coun
try. Still the great sweet corn canning
industry of Maine yields a quantity
of first class fodder, none of which is
wasted.
“How does the milk you get pan out in
butter fat?” I asked the manager.
“It is all the way from 3% to 5 per
cent.,” he answered. “It will average
steadily 4 per cent.”
He finds that they have been able to
grade up the richness of the milkin that
part of Maine decidedly in the years
they have run the creamery. The grad
ing up has been done by the admixture
of Jersey blood into the farm dairy, a
very visible admixture indeed it has
proved in this case. The constant en
deavor has also been to educate the pa
trons to be more cleanly and careful in
the treatment of the milk. It comes in
every day by the carload in great tin
cans, each can having a slip attached
with the sender’s name. The creamery
supplies the cans, finding that way most
satisfactory.
Each farmer’s milk is tried by the
Babcock test. If any man’s product
does not come up to the standard fixed
by the creamery he is dropped from the
list of patrons. Thus there is an abso
lute necessity that the milk shall con
tain its right percentage of butter fat.
The milk car runs close up alongside the
creamery building. The cans are brought
inside upon a truck; thence they are
lifted bodily up to the vat which con
veys the milk to the cream separator.
The milk is warmed to about 85 degs.
for the separator. The managers also
purchase skimmed cream from their
patrons ’where such arrangement is
made. But they find this, to the truth
of W’hich I also testify: The separated
cream is smoother and of more even and
fine quality than the gathered cream. I
believe the time ■will come when all
farmers having as many as half a dozen
cows will use a separator to get the
cream from the milk. The person who
could invent a hand separator to fit such
a dairy -would Iwive a fortune aud be a
benefactor to thb farmer. Such a sepa
rator we must and will have.
The Portland creamery turns out at
present about 1,000 pounds of butter
daily. Considerable cream is sold, too,
to ice cream makers and hotels. They
have three grades of cream, according
to richness. For instance the indi
vidual who drinks a glass of cream does
not want it to be as heavy as if he put
it into his coffee. Also the boarding
house keeper is profoundly interested in
having the cream she furnishes not so
rich that it -will injure the digestion. I
asked what was done with the milk that
was left after the cream was taken from
it. I was told that much of it was sold.
Perhaps it may be telling tales out of
school, but the fact is that much of this
skimmed milk everywhere is bought by
milk dealers to mix with the honest
milk they get from the farmer, and thus
make the honest milk pan out a good
deal longer and thinner than it other
wise would. In fact, here in New
York, I myself have thus been imposed
on by a rascally dealer, but I knew the
difference and stopped the milk. He
does not know to this day why 1
stopped it.
The Portland creamery proprietors
fatten several pigs on the milk they do
not sell. But I -wish creamerymen gen
erally would take into consideration
seriously the matter of fattening people
a little more on the buttermilk that they
have left. I believe that a money mak
ing trade might be built up by every
creameryman and butter dairyman sim
ply in this matter of buttermilk. It is a
royal drink for hot weather, and health
ful in both hot and cold weather.
The creamerymen at Portland run
their machinery with an engine of 15-
horse power. They say that their plan:
altogether has cost them about $6,000. A
considerable amount of this capital,
however, is invested in the hundreds of
heavy tin cans which they furnish for
the farmers to put milk in. They are
about to enlarge their building. A new
kind of butter worker has also attracted
their attention, which they believe will
be superior to the present one in use in
most creameries. Briefly explained, it
Is one that will move over the butter up
and down and around vertically instead
of in the present horizontal manner.
The buttermilk and water will thus
have a chance to fall out by gravity par
tially.
There is not much demand for the
sweet cream butter up there. The
cream is ripened or soured slightly till
it is “just on the turn,” and the mana
gers find that butter from it in that con
dition is most satisfactory to their pa
trons. They stamp the name of the gro
ceryman on some of the handsome
squares of butter they sell.
Eliza Archard Conner.
Shortsighted Labor.
While the Democrats affected sympa
thy for the Homestead workmen, and
thereby secured the vote of organized
labor, the Democratic machine looks
upon organized labor with less respect
than ever, and should a strike occur will
be just as ready to call out the "troops to
impress the fact. Let organized labor
ponder over what the results would have
been had they joined in with the farm
ers and controlled the center from legis
lature to electoral college.—Noncon
formist. •
IN A NUTSHELL.
The Silver Question Made Plain to Hon.
est Inquirers.
In England the parliament has passed
an act which decrees that every ounce of
gold offered for sale to the Bank of Eng
land shall bear a price of £3 17s. 9d. or
about $18.66. By our own monetary
laws we, the people of the United States,
have decreed that 25.8 grains of gold
(nine-tenths fine) shall constitute one dol
lar or a legal unit of value.
Thus, both in England and in the
United States, gold has given to it, and
imparted by law, a legal, ficticious and
arbitrary value, into which the commer
cial value has been merged, so that there
is no such thing as a true commercial
value of gold existing at this day. The
gold standard, or unit of value, is then
altogether and entirely a “fiat” unit, or
dollar. It has been repeatedly stated by
those in a position to know that the
quantity of gold thus contained in a fiat
gold dollar costs to produce, or mine,
just about thirty-nine cents, even though
such cost is measured by this fiat meas
ure, or unit of comparison.
Under our former bimetallic policy,
when silver was accorded the privilege
of unrestricted coinage, the law declared
that 412.5 grains of silver (nine-tenth*
fine) should be the unit or value, or tho
United States dollar. This quantity of
silver costs to produce or mine just
about seventy cents, such cost being
measured by the fiat gold unit of value,
but under the present policy, by which
silver is practically demonetized, there
is no fiat or money value attaching to
silver, and there being no demand for it
as money, on account of it being denied
the privilege or right of free coinage.
Silver is actually selling for less than
tho cost of production, so far as thd
United States is concerned. But silver
can be produced in some countries more
cheaply than in the United States, and
of course the least cost of production
regulates the price, so long as the de
mand for monetary use is not equal to
the production.
It will be readily apprehended that
there is neither sense nor justice in the
parrotlike cry that silver is “worth”
only so and so when this “wr>rth” of
value is measured by an artificially en
hanced unit of value—the fiat gold dol
lar. Measured by any and all other com
modities, silver bullion will be found to
be as “valuable” or worth as much as it
was in 1873. —George C. Ward.
Isn’t It Funny?
The people own and operate the postal
system.
The people own and operate the judi
ciary system.
The people own and operate the police
system.
The people own and operate the fire
system. *
The people own and operate the army
and navy.
The people own and operate the streets,
highways and bridges.
The people own and operate the tax
systems.
The people own and operate the school
systems.
The people own and operate the prison
systems.
The people own and operate the insane
systems.
The people own and operate the elec*
tion systems.
But the fool who suggests that the
railroad, telegraph, coal and oil systems
should be added is too crazy to be allowed
to run at large. Funny, ain’t it?—Coni- ~
ing Crisis. 1
J
Lessons Learned.
Several million voters in this country
have learned an important lesson in the
campaign just closed, and that is, the
Populists can win. There is no longef
any question in the matter. The bld
excuse of “Oh, I would vote with you,
but what’s the use; you can’t do any
thing,” is played out. Nobody takes
afiy stock in it any more. Every one
knows better.
Partisan ties are broken. The real era
of independence has come, and on every
hand men are heard expressing them
selves as being with the new movement
from now on. They have fully learned
that the only way to reform is to begin
by reforming their voting. If the elec
tion could take place again next week
Weaver would be declared elected be*
yond a doubt.
The lesson has been a dear one, but it
is well learned. It will not be forgotten*
Now let it be plainly and persistently
stated that only by united action will
come success, and the victory of 1896 i*
already won.—lowa Tribune.
■ _i
The Handwriting.
Cleveland has delivered three speeches
since his election —one before the cham
ber of commerce in Wall street at theif
annual banquet; one before Henry Vila
lard, the railway magnate, at a private
reception; the third at a dinner of tho
swell Manhattan club. The speeches
were well enough worded, nor was the
subject matter censurable, but the places
and times and auditors were not particu*
larly assuring to that large class whd
hoped to see a day when a little atten
tion would be paid to the great masses
and the millionaires given a back seat
for awhile. A dinner at Delmonico’s
proved fatal to Blaine, and it was at a
feast among his courtiers that Belshaz*
zar heard his deathknell. Mr. Cleveland
might profit by these historic examples.
—Nonconformist.
Who Is Responsible?
Republican editors are now busy ex
plaining how it happened. They say it
was the McKinley tariff. Well, who has
been glorifying the McKinley tariff alt
these days? They say the narty has suf*
sered also by the outcry against
To sum up the whole subject in a few
words, the policy of the Republican!
party upon all public questions is wrongj
and the people have rendered their ver?
diet to this effect. I
In confessing the causes of their de-i
feat they simply confess that they were;
endeavoring to perpetuate a policy that
is opposed to the interests of the people?
In other words, they confess that
were wrong and their opponents were
right.—Topeka Advocate.
Education Is the Thing-.
That there is a bitter with every sweet
is quire as true as that there is nothing
gained without effort; therefore, if re«
form principles are ever enacted into
laws, we must work to that end; we
must continue to undergo privations and
make sacrifices till we win. We must
educate a majority out of the old into
the new party. Present our platform of
principles and courteously ask for a can
did investigation.

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