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[The Common Fly Is More Dan-| gerous Than Any 42 Centimeter Gun—Swat It Early and You Exterminate Millions With Each Swat—It Takes the Lives of Unguarded Infants, So De serves the Death Punishment §o Give rHeIt.hasbeen E fly been indicted and convicted of playing a most alarming part in the spread of typhoid fever and other all- joaents. has denounced as ''the deadliest animal alive," and at bis door has been laid an alarming ftmount of sickness. Indeed, so well recognized is the part played by this Insect in the spread of disease that the Nvar on typhoid fever and infantile diarrhea is in large part a combat fegainst the fly. These diseases and others like them can never be wiped lout or even reduced until we have con trolled the insects that spread them. The specifications of the indictment ^gainst the fly are numerous. His fcuilt is beyond question. In the first place, where no precautions are taken the fly is everywhere to be found. He Bwarms in the stable and pesters the cattle in the pasture. He buzzes about the outhouses and flies in the parlor Window. He is to be found in the itvoods, by the streams, in the dairy, *m the table. Of an inquisitive nature fend a ravenous appetite, he is a rov ing pirate who knows no port Nor Is this all. The fly's feet are )fvered with small pads, so small, in fact, as to be invisible to the naked |eye. These pads he uses to affix him fcelf to the surface of any unstable ob-. Beet, to walk on the ceiling or to promenade on the wall. Moreover, these pads are covered with a sticky substance that adheres to whatever they touch. When the fly moves he carries with him a small part of any Soft surface on which he has been standing. This he deposits on the next surface he touches. If, for instance, be has been feasting in the stable and flies to the dining room he will carry On his feet the refuse which attached Itself to his feet and will deposit this On the butter on the table. In large measure the ease with which the fly breeds makes him the menace he is. During a single seaso the fe male fly will lay many thousand eggs. She prefers manure and where possi ble will lay her eggs in horse manure, but she will lay them in any decaying animal or vegetable matter. These eggs are generally in clumps of more than a hundred, and in a few days each egg develops into a larva which In turn soon becomes a maggot. From the maggot the growing fly is trans formed into a pupa, which rapidly becomes the winged pest. Generally about ten days elapse between the laying of the egg and the hatching of the full grown fly, but this may be re duced by warm weather or lengthened by a cool spell* The average fly is probably short Bred, but it breeds so easily- and so rapidly that he multiplies at a most Make War on the Deadly Fly June 1 One fly lays 10 60 flies lay 20 3,600 flies lay 30 216,000 flies lay July 10 12,960,000 flies lay TABLE-SHOWING HOW RAPIDLY FLIES MULTIPLY. alarming rate. Twelve generations of flies are propagated in a single sum mer in a climate like that of Virginia. As each fly lays 120 eggs in a batch, the conceivable progeney of a single fly is a number almost immeasurably great. It has been reasonably esti mated that each pair of flies surviving the winter are the ancestors of 8,000, 000 living flies during the summer. The fly nuisance depends upon the constant breeding of the pest. If this be prevented the fly as. a carrier of dis ease can be removed. The chief cam paign against the fly is, therefore, a warfare to prevent its breeding. The man who removes the breeding places of flies early in the season protects himself against an army of future in vaders the man who prevents flies from breeding later in the year at least Insures himself against an increase in the number of the pest. In doing this one must remember the fundamental facts about the breeding place of flies they breed in any de caying vegetable or animal matter, and they breed best in manure. They will not breed in water, but they breed freely in garbage, rotting waste from the kitchen, in decaying hay, even in moist paper waste. Not until these breeding places are removed can one hope to keep the files from multiplying. In the city it should not be particu larly difficult to prevent the increase of the fly. Personal comfort during hot weather demands a reasonable de gree of cleanliness, which with a small In wartime the many threads lead ing from the long battle line at length reach a common point, which is the headquarters of the general staff. The activity of each officer attached to the general staff is therefore of the great est importance for the success of ev ery military enterprise. During the action every officer of the staff is at the immediate disposal of the commanding general and assists him in the carrying out of orders. Among the duties of the staff officer during action belong the gathering and compilation of reports which are con stantly pouring in to headquarters and which give intimation of the progress of the battle. The staff officer must observe the needs of the troops In ac tion. He must keep a close watch on their supply of ammunition. He must see that their commanders properly ex ecute the orders of the .commanding general. Be inust look afterthe wound- 20 777,600,000 flies lay 93,312,000,000 30 46,656,000,000 flies lay 5,598,720.000,000 Aug. 9 2,799,360,000,000 flies lay 335,923,200,000,000 19 167,961,600,000,000 flies lay 20,155,392,000,000,000 29 10,077,696,000,000,000 flies lay 1,209,323,520,000,000,000 Sept. 8 604,661,760,000,000,000 flies lay 72,559.411,200,000,000,000 18 36,279,705,600,000,000,000 flies lay.- 4*353,564,672,000,000,000,000 28 4,353,564,672,000,000,000,000 flies. How General Staff of an Army Keeps In Touch With Firing Line Eggs. 120 7,200 432,000 25,920,000 1,655,200,000 expenditure of time and energy will suffice to rid the city of flies. A few things must constantly be watched and the following rules should be strictly observed: -First.—All stable waste should be re moved at least twice a week. No ma nure or damp, decaying straw should be left. The stable should be absolutely clean. If it is impracticable to remove the waste it should be freely sprinkled with lime and kept in a large closed box or buried. It is far better, how ever, to remove the waste altogether. Kerosene should be poured in all drains that cannot be cleaned. Second.—All garbage should be kept In closed cans which should be re moved from the premises three times a week. This accomplishes a double pur pose. Not only will a tightly closed garbage can remove a favorite haunt of flies but it will lessen their food supply. A fly can be killed by starva tion as surely as by fly paper. The garbage can used should be of metal, water tight and with a closely fitting top. The top should always be kept on the can. A leaking can is an unmiti gated nuisance. Third.—The yard should be swept regularly, and no waste should be al lowed to accumulate. Files will breed in the potato peelings, the waste paper and the usual litter of a yard. These must be removed before the eggs laid in them by the flies can hatch. In ad dition the ash barrel should carefully be watched. ed, see that they are properly treated and sent to lazarets. He must see to it that prisoners are properly cared for and that the commissariat is adequate ly provided for and the provisioning of the troops. Sometimes the commanding general intrusts a staff officer with the observa tion of the action of the opposing forces which may be beyond the view of headquarters, or he may be sent to the firing line with important orders to commanders there, which, however, the staff officer has authority to alter if in his judgment this is necessary. During defense movements it Is of particular Importance to observe close ly the movements of the opposing forces In order to make preparation for counted moves, such as advances, re treats, the sending of re-enforcements and other movements of troops. The execution of these .movements falls .within theprovince of tin staff officer. The Lesson Explained. Verses 38 40.—An unusual equipment. Saul was destined to spend all his days in armed encampments and on the battlefield. He was accompanied by the valiant spirits of Israel who had gathered around him from all parts of the land. The homes which had made such precious contributions to the cause of patriotism followed the course of the war with no little interest. From one home three stalwart sons had gone forth, and Jesse, the aged fa ther, received the verbal bulletins from the scene of warfare. While David was talking with his brothers Goliath, the Philistine champion, was heard flinging another challenge at the Israel ites across the valley, urging them to come out into the open. His bold and defiant speech startled the followers of Saul and filled them with fear. The king was so perplexed that he offered the hand of his daughter and other honors to the man who would slay this awful Philistine giant. David was moved at this juncture to offer his services to Saul. Physically he com pared unfavorably with the opponent of Israel, and Saul was loath to entrust his destiny into what seemed to him to be such incapable hands. But David modestly submitted his credentials. He had once destroyed a lion which was carrying away one of his lambs, and again he had rescued a sheep from a hungry bear. He recited these two facts and then added, "Jehovah, that delivered me out of the paw of the lion and out of the paw of the bear, he will deliver me out of the hand of this Philistine" (verse 37). Saul was not familiar with this kind of speech, but his confidence was roused, and with hesitation, yet hoping for the best, he accepted the service of David. "Arm ed him with a coat of mail." David was well built for his age, thanks to his life in the open air. He tried on the armor of the king and it fitted him well enough. "Assayed to go." But when he tried to go out of the king's tent he found that he was handicap ped. "I cannot go with these." He was not accustomed to wear such mili tary apparel, and, as it would interfere with his movements, he determined to take it off and rely upon his own test ed weapons of attack. "Staff in his hand." This was the stick which he used when tending the sheep. "Five smooth stones and his sling." He was an expert in the use of these things, and he was satisfied that with the help of Jehovah his God he would destroy the proud Philistine. Verses 41-44.—An insolent boast. There was a great contrast in ap pearance between the well knit athlet GIVE ONLY BEST FOOD TO EWES BEFORE LAMBING. After the Event Good Succulent Feed Is Needed Before Turning Them Into Pasture. Ewes before lambing should receive a good, wholesome feed, which will keep them in a laxative condition, says the Iowa Homestead. Well cured clover 1s excellent or alfalfa hay with a small grain ration and if possible a few root's or a little silage, although silage sometimes causes trouble when fed by an inexperienced person. The grain ration most widely recom mended is one composed of peas, oats or bran or a mixture of these and fed at the rate of about half a pound a day up until lambing time approaches, when the amount of grain may be in creased provided the ewes have plenty of exercise. After lambing the ewes should be liberally fed on any good succulent feed before they are turned on pasture, including plenty of grain and good hay. Scotch shepherds prefer roots, but most men in this country feed silage. About two pounds of clover hay and from one to two pounds of grain will be required for the best progress of the ewe and the lamb. The grain should consist of oats and bran, with a little oilmeal added. The oil meal is particularly necessary if you do not have silage. As soon as the grass has made a sufficient growth the grain may be reduced and shortly elim inated. A New Method of Growing Corn. A report recently received by the de partment of agriculture described a method of planting corn that has been successfully tried out in western dry land conditions in western Kansas. By this method the corn is planted in rows twice the usual distance apart while the plants are twice as thick in the rows. The stand is therefore the same, but as this method seems to preserve the moisture midway between the rows the supply is ofter sufficient to main tain the corn in a flourishing condition during temporary periods of drought, while occasionally it may complete the development of the crop., It was found that by this method the yields were around thirty bushels, per acre, while adjoining fields in which, the rows were three and dne-half feet apart the yields were only ten to twelve bushels per acre-} The Sunday School Lesson SENIOR BEREAN For the Farmer Who Thinks ic David and the corpulent Goliath. Judged by mere external standards, the mighty man who was accompanied by his armor bearer was better fitted than the youth who was "ruddy and of a fair countenance." Well might Goliath feel insulted and become angry when he saw such an insignificant an tagonist pitted against him. "Staves." All he saw was the shepherd's staff, which was good enough to use on a dog, but absurd in a duel. He did not see the sling and stones, which were in the "scrip," or bag, and which were to be David's deadly weapons. "I will give thy flesh to the fowls of the air." What a fierce threat! It would have struck terror into the heart of any one. But David knew enough to distinguish between loud but empty talk and the speech which leads to consistent deeds. Verses 45-47.—A clear affirmation. David did not reply to this threat in the same vulgar style of the Phillistine bully. He said less, but it had greater weight. "In the name of the Lord of hosts." He was not relying upon weapons of steel, but upon the more effective weapons of spiritual power. His dependence was upon the God of his people, who had demonstrated his greatness on former occasions and who was well capable of showing forth his majesty through those whot absolutely relied on him. "Whom thou hast de fied." It was not a contest with Israel, but with Israel's God, whose honor had been violated by this godless blas phemer. "Deliver thee into mine hand." He will be so shut up that there will be no way of escape. A similar fate will overtake "the host of the Philistines," who will fall an easy prey when they see their champion destroy ed. "That there is a God in Israel." The purpose of this signal victory will advertise the greatness of Jehovah. "The battle is the Lord's." All refer ence to human agency was set aside for the time being while he enforced the truth of the superiority of the spir itual over all material and brute forces. Verses 48-51.—A complete victory. While Goliath Was getting ready to drive his arrow David quickly fixed a stone in his sling and directed it with such fatal accuracy that it "smote the Philistine in his forehead." He was stunned and fell to the ground. With excellent presence of mind David then ran up to his prostrate form and drew the giant's sword "out of the sheath" and boldly "cut off his head." He used the Philistine's own weapon against him and so destroyed the ene my of Israel. "They fled." When the Philistines saw that their champion had fallien there was great confusion among them. I AMONG THE CHICKENS. I Keep in mind the fact that the in herited quality of heavy laying must come from pedigreed breeding and par ticularly through the cock bird that is the son, grandson, etc., of a line of heavy layers. Provide the flock with a dust bath and apply the following homemade powder To one part of crude carbolic acid and three parts of gasoline add enough plaster of paris to take up the liquid and mix thoroughly. Spread out and let dry. If it is too lumpy run through a sieve. Store away in tight cans. Work well into the feathers, especially in fluff and under the wings. Repeat in ten days and make a thor ough job of it. To tell old hens from young ones note that the young ones are most apt to have brighter eyes, redder combs and smoother legs. They never have spurs, while old ones do, and the old hens move about more slowly. Hens adapt their methods of brood ing to conditions such as temperature, size of the chickens, wet weather, etc., and the operator of brooder must meet these conditions. Any of our American breeds make good setting hens, but there is no breed that excels all others in the num ber of its broodies. As a rule, the heaviest winter layers are the earliest broody. Leghorns hatched in March and April should be laying in August, September, October and November. Wide Area of Sudan Grass. Sudan grass has been tried out on a great variety of soils and has been found to be adapted to almost all of them. It is not expected to grow north of the line for growing other hardy sorghums, it has done well at Boze man, Mont., at a^ altitude of 4,800 feet, and in the latitude of Montreal, Canada, yielding nearly four and a half tons of hay per acre with two irri gations. Experiments With Wheat. According to a report of rotation ex periments conducted by the Australian government, wheat grown continuously on th^ same land for six years pro duced an average yield of 1G.6 bushels per acre, wheat alternated annually with bare fallow averaged 24£ bushels, and wheat alternated annually, with a fodder crop averaged 20.4 bushels. Overheard In Sporting Circles By SQUARE DEAL Smiling Bill James Sticks to Stallings. "Smiling Bill" James has reconsid ered his Intention of "hopping" to the outlaws. James' desire for a larger stipend than that which his Boston contract called for actuated his longing to leave O. B., and he probably would have been grabbed up by one of the Federal league clubs had not Owner Photo by American Press Association. Bill James, Braves' Crack Pitcher, In Action. Gaffney of the Braves warned the Feds off. Unfortunately for James' financial ambitions, his contract is one of those "iron bound" affairs that we are hear ing so much talk about in baseball cir cles these days. The loss of James would seriously injure the chances of the Braves this season. Greed of Players. The prevailing greed of the players was well Illustrated recently by the attitude of Pipp and High of Detroit and Bill James of the Boston Braves. Pipp and High refused to be transfer red to New York unless Donovan would agree to increase their salaries. They held out the argument that De troit was a sure pennant contender and that a transfer from the club might lose them a share of the world's series next fall. Picking a pennant at this time for a club that figured no more prominently a year ago than Detroit seems rather farfetched. The fact that Hugh Jen nings is willing to let the young men go would indicate that he is none too sure of their ability to effect such a happy end. To the interested bystander it would appear that some one in Detroit is not playing exactly fair. Colonel Rup pert and Captain Huston purchased the New Yorbs with the distinct un derstanding that Pipp and High were to be sold to them by Detroit. It rests with Frank Navin to make good, even if it costs him money to do so. OToole Back With the Minors. Marty O'Toole, formerly with the Pittsburgh Nationals, has signed a con tract to play with the Columbus Amer ican association team the coming sea son. He will be considered part pay for Hinchman and Gerber, sold to the Pittsburgh club last fall. Pittsburgh paid $22,000 for O'Toole a few years ago. Cobb Is Loyal. Ty Cobb is one of the many ball players who sees no good for the play ers or the game In the Federal league since the outlaws have dragged the game into court Ty makes a strong statement in sizing up the' present situation when he says: "I think baseball players are be» ginning to realize that subterfuge has no part in the successful promotion of the national pastime. The game has been injured greatly therefrom the past season. And though it is still honest and always will remain so, the vacillating attitude of the many mer cenary players has doubtless raised vague suspicions in the public mind in some quarters. No one blames a player for selling his services to the very best advantage. But a contract, written or verbal, is a sacred thing. Evasion through technicality Is no sound excuse for dishonor. Let the least corruption creep into the manipu lation of the game and the careful work of years will be destroyed. The baseball player has as much at stake in the present fight as any. one. The outcome" means-no-less than hto te-i