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"REPUBLICAN AT ALL TIMES, AND UNDER ALL CIRCUMSTANCES." VOLUME 2. NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA, THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 22, 1872. NUMBER 19. :i. :riTtrsidiys ald Sundays. : l (C.\UoxNDELET STRETrr, .- OI:LEANS.LA. lINCIIBACK, OuRI.~.as, \NTIFNE, CAnDo, .y KELSO, RAPIDES. 1.',. BROWN(,---Editor. .r 1'Et'aý or StevetrmTrox: i'ý' rT. . ....... ..... 3 00 .1 . ... . ...... 1 50 ,"i l 'i "......................... I'RI4SPECTUS ':i" TIlIF ..... .,,,;iývr to e'stalish another . . j,nurual in New Orleans, : of the LoUtsIaxLA , ;. . , necessity which has ..: .:.1 sometimes painfully la the transition state . : their struggling efforts S... 'position in the Body i.: conheive to be their r,.,iarhel that much infor g'lil;'. encouragement, .. ,il r',." ,rf ha.v4 been lost, in i ,i'. i t,,. lack of a medium, ..i.,"h t.-" deficienciesmight :. We sha.ll strive to make S.I 1tsl i a dideratium in these PIOLICY. ..,,tto indicates, the Lotl !4.l be " Republican at adl [, .Drll circumstances" We te the security and enjoy !: ,,lcivil ilerty, the abso t .. l men before the law, i l.. .." listribution of hon ", a:, ll who merit :, ;:l cying animosities, of m : n ory of they bitter Stug harmony and union S,ý and be)tween all in i11: Il lvocate the removal '1 dli·alilitis , foster kind !1, :rnce, where malignity .1-.t reignmed, and seek for I'1 ticve where wrong and - reuailed. Thus united in •1 .. 1 oljicts, we shall conserve ':.r, , elevate our noble ..: \ia:dle position among -:ts., Iy the development ...1 resources, and secure .t\ of the mighty changes S';:nlr condition of the 'i th (',untry. t!:. t there can be no true tile supremacy of law, - rict and undiscrimi r-,ation of justice. 1.AX.\TION. -i'-p rt the doctrine of an i-i, , of taxation among ..i. :,thflii collection of the " . iv.. ny in the expendi Ir 1.yI with the exigcn SrIte ,r Country and the " wry legitimate obliga EIl(CATION. t ';ain the carrying out of : - ...f th act establishing '-: 4l1,l system, and urge :. ;.t lduty tl-e education of '" it lly crnnected with :i ht. nunnt, and the secu ''llttv of a Republican FINAL. S: :r ,n. manly, independent, " ::- cndluct, we shall strive "our pal'er, from an ephem "t'4nrarv existence, and ul"'n a basis, that if we -..adflld, " we shall at all tIhERT EYRICH, blier and Stationer L) C(AL STREET, "1 Orle., Loniswnn 3 D 301 O A W x 0 WC. ISpeth of Iesable Josiah T. Walls, F FLORIDA, IN THLE tA'IS OF RhPIMEENTATIVEZ, SFebruary 3, 1872.) Mr. Speaker, my remarks will be principally directed as in answer to the remarks made by the gentle man from Georgia, [Mr. McIntyre] who it appears was in opposition to the bill establishing a national edu atinal 4'd as proposed by the Committee on Education and Labor. The gentleman from Georgia, in his effort in opposition to this bill, said that it was objectionable be cause it interfered with State rights. I quote him : "The details of the original bill are objectionable and ought to be objectionable to every man who feels any interest in the State gov ernment." He then proceeded to tell us why the bill is objectionable. I again quote him : "Why do I say so ? Simply from the fact that by the Constitution of the United States the powers of legislation have been distributed. How distributed ? All those which the people of the country desired the Congress of the United States to exercise have been ascertained and defined by the terms of the Constitution, while all those powers which the people desired should be prohibited to the States have also been defined and set forth in the same instrument, By the Constitu tion, all those powers which have not been delegated to the Congress of the United States, now prohibited to the States, are reserved to the States themselves. Now, sir, since the organization of the General Government, under wdich we are legislating to-day, it has always been understood that the power of regulating the common schools be longed exclusively to the States; and- I am unwilling that Congress should take from the States any of their reserved rights. The provi sions of the pending bill seek to vest the entire control of this fund in the General Government with out regard to the will of the res pective State," If we did not understand those who keep up this great clamor for State Rights, we might be con strained to believe as the gentle man from Georgia, that no one had any interest in their respective State governments but those who duly warn us against the infringements upon the rights of the States. But we understand them. We know what the cry about State rights means, and more especially when we hear it produced as an argun ment against the establishment of a fund for the education of the peo ple. Judging from the past, I must confess that I am somewhat suspi cious of such rights, knowing, as I do, that the Democratic party in Georgia, as well as in all of the other Southern States, have been opposed to the education of the negro and poor white children. And I ian, without doing that party any wrong, safely and truthfully state that the Democratic party to day in Georgia, as well as in Flori da, are opposed to the education of all classes. We know that the De mocratic party used to argue that to educate the negro was to set him 2 free, and that to deprive him of all I the advantages necessary to enable him to acquire an education was to i perpetuate his enslavement. Their argument against educating the' poor whites was that the negro I more directly associated with the poor whites than with that class I who controlled the destinies of elav ery. Why, sir, so fearful were they i that the negro would become edu cated, either through his own ef- I forts or by the aid of some poor white person, they enacted laws pro- I hibiting him from being edaucated I even by his own master; and if a poor white person was caught teach ing a negro, he was whipped, or in some States sold or compelled to leave the State; and if by chance a negro did learn to read, and it was found out, he was whipped every time he was caught with a book, and as many times between as his master pleased. We must remem ber that this State of affairs existed only about a~x years ago, and this being the case, is it unreasonable for us to suppose that the Deme cratic party of Georgia is opposed to the negro being included in the bill that proposes to establish an educational fund, and his being edu cated out of the public money? I think not. The gentleman from Georgia also tells us that he is in favor of seeing the schoolscf the country promoted, and we believe he is, but he wishes to promote them under the old sys tem, which has so far been a failure : in the South, and every fair-minded I and unprejudiced man will admit it. Mr. McIntyre-I shoald like to make a correction there. It would seem that he seeks to produce the I impression upon the House that I am opposed to education, which, ofI course, I am not. Mr. Walls-The gentleman will 1 be answered in the course of my remarks. I must ask him not to interrupt me now, as I did not in terrupt him when he addressed the House. The gentleman informs us also I that the Georgia Legislature has ] within the last twenty days appro- 4 priated $300,000 for the purposes of education, and that the educa tional system is not confined to the whites alone. He says that- "Within the last twenty days the Legislature of Georgia has appro priated $300,000 for the purpose of education; and that educational sys tem is not confined to the whites I alone." He then informs us that the "col ored people of his State are entitled hnder the law to the same rights that the whites will enjoy." Mark 4 his words--entitled to the same rights that the whites will enjoy. I This, Mr. Speaker, is very true; but 1 will the colored people have an op- , portunity, or be permitted to enjoy the same rights the whites enjoy ? This is the question. The echo of the past answers no! not while the , Ku-Klux Democracy are permitted , to burn the school-houses and , churches belonging to the colored 1 people of Georgia; not while they E shut the doors of the school-houses 1 against the colored children, will the colored people of Georgia enjoy E the same edacational advantages 1 that the whites enjoy. We find that in July, 1783, the i Georgia Legislature appropriated one thousand acres of land to each county for the support of free 2 schools. In 1784 the General As sembly appropriated forty thousand 1 acres of land for the endowment of 2 a college or university. In 1792 an actwas passed by the Legislature appropriating one thousand acres of i land for the endowment of each of the county academies; $250,000 were appropriated in 1817 for the support of poor schools. Now, sir, I we see that the Georgia Legislature prior to 1868 appropriated thousands of acres of land for the support of colleges, county academies, and free schools, but did Georgia have a free school system in operation prior to 1870 ? Again, we see that the Georgia 4 Legislature appropriated $250,000 4 for the support of what they called "poor schools." If this appropria- I tion was applied to the establish-' ment of schools did the poor white i and colored ehildren get an equal i benefit of it ? We are informed by 4 Colonel J. B. Lewis that Georgia I had indeed a very "poor school" system priorto 1870, and no free I schools in operstion at all ; Savan- I nash and Columbus were the only I places where they had any schools worthy of the name. I now quote' from the report of the Commisionr er of Education, who ays : "The latest eommuniaatin to this oae, from a leadiM edaeatr in Georgia, gives an encouraging ac count of the prospect that an ex cellent school law will soon go into i operation in that State, which has I just passed the Legislature. At present Savannah and Columbus j are the only cities in the State that I have school systems worthy of the I name." The gentleman from Georgia also i calls our attention to what he thinks i of the patriotism existing in Geor- c gia. He says: "I feel safe in epressing my be lief that there is intelligence and i patriotism enough in the State of c Georgia to-day to manage its pro- t portion of this fund properly if it is turned over to the State." I suppose he refers to that patri- 1 otism existing among the colored E people, or that which the whites I have inculcated since May, 1865. 1 Now, Mr. Speaker, if we judge ofa the patriotism existing among the t Democratic party in Georgia to-day I from the course that party has pur- C sued in that State relative to free schools and the education of the t negro, our conclusion will be that t Georgia is not opposed to free a schools, and the education of the I negro and poor white children, as C hertofore. 1 It is useless to talk about patri- I otism existing in those States in I connection with free schools under 2 Democratic system, and in connec- I tion with those who now and always 1 have believed that it was wrong to ' educate the negro, and that such ' offenses should be punishable by a death or the lash. Away with the t patriotism that advocates and pre- I fers ignorance to intelligence! t Let us look into the patriotism c of Florida's sister State, Georgia. My State has been very retrogres- I sive in connection with free schools. t but she is still ahead of Georgia in ' this respect. I am indeed sorry It cannot say as much for the patriot ism of the Democratic party of my i State as the gentleman has about c Georgia, when I know that in 1845 t the General Government donated ( to Florida, while under Democratic f rule, 908,503 acres of the public ' domain of that State for common- i school purposes. And what did I they do with it? Why, sir, they t enacted a common-school law which t did not mean anything, which was a enacted only to obtain the posses- I sion of the lands donated. In this same law they created a common school fund, and under the opera tion of this bogus law they obtained C fraudulent possession of the lands, sold them, and applied the proceeds I to everything else except that for I which they were donated. Is this e the kind of patriotism to which the e gentleman, alluded in his remarks? I I am in favor, Mr. Speaker, of c not only this bill, but of a national 1 system of education, because I ' believe that the national Govern- 1 ment is the guardian of the liberties C of all its subjects. And having I within a few years incorporated I into the body politic a class of un educated people, the majority of whom, I am sorry to say, are col- c ot'ed, the question for solution and i the problems to be solved, then, t are: can these people protect their a liberties without educaetion; and can they be educated under the present condition of society in the States where they were when freed?, Can thi be done without the aid, I assistance, and mupervision of the General Government ? No, sir, it cannot. Were it not that the pre- 1 judice of slavery is so prevalent among the former slaveholder I against the edaucation of the negro, i it would be superfcial to say that the negro couldl not protect his I educational int~erests, or could not be educated without the establish ment of a national system of educa tion. This prejudice is attributable to the fact that they were compelled to keep the negro in ignorance in I order to hold him in alavery ; and with the advantages of edaucation and enlightenment they were en abled to keep their slaves sces flly in bondage; for we know that the advantage. of eduatime ' -rJ We are told that the Persians I were kept for ages in slavery from I the power of intelleet alone. Educa- I tion constitutes the apprenticeship of those who areafterward to take a I place in the order of our civilized and progremive nation. Education I tends to increase the digniity and a self-respect of a people, tends to in- I crease their fitness for society and j important stations of trust, tends to I elevate and consequently carries c with it a great moral responsibility. z This is why the Democratic party I in the South so bitterly oppose the a education of all classes. They know 4 that no educated people can be c enslaved. They know that no edu- i cated people can be robbed of their t labor. They well know that no a educated people can be kept in a t helpless and degraded condition, r but will arise with a united voice a and assert their manhood. Hence, c to educeate the negro in the South y would be to lift him to a state of t civilization and enlightenment that f would enable him not only to nain- a tain and defend his liberties, but to better acquit himself as an honor- i able and upright citizen, and prove j himself more worthy of the rights i conferred upon him. This, then, y being the result of educating the a negro. I cannot believe that the t Democracy of Georgia or any other I State manifests this patriotism or I has taken this sudden departure. E They know the negro is loyal, and t while their present educational in- g stitutions are fosterers of disloyalty ( and nurseries of enmity and hatred r toward the Government and loyal c blacks and whites, I cannot hopes to ever see the Democratic party a endowed with sufficient patriotism r and justice to lend their energies f and support in favor of the educa- c tion and elevation of my people.t While the Democratic party adhere t to the ideas and principles that they I have now it would be against their I interests to educate the negro; not c only against their interests, but en- s tirely inconsistent with their faith. Can we then suppose that these t firm adherents to slavery and State e rights are willing to educate the t negro and loyal whites, who are op- n posed to their principles, and there- t by enable them to wield the con- s trolling power of the South? No, 9 sir, I should think not. They are c more consistent and patriotic to ward the principles of the lost cause r than this. Let as not mistake our- t selves, Mr. Speaker. The Demo- a cratic party are opposed to any t system that will have the effect of t making a majority of the present or , rising generation loyal to the Gov- 4 ernment. It has been admitted by I every lover of free government that a popular education, or the education a of the masses, is necessary to and a inseparable from a complete citizen- 9 ship. Then let the nation educate t her subjects. It is to the interest f of the Government, as also to the I people, to do so. An educated f people possess more skill, and man ifeet more interest and fidelity in a the afairs of the Government, be- I cause of their chance to obtain r more general information, which a tends to eradicate the prejudices t and superstitions so prevalent ] among an ignorant people An eduncated '-people seek always I to improve their condition, not only ' at home, but in all their surround ings. An educated people are more I social, more refined, and more ready to impart their knowledge and ex- I perience to others; more idustrious < because more ambitions to accumu late and posaees property; while the' ignorant and uneducated are more prone to idleness, more addicted to I low habits and dissipation, more careless and less ambitious, being more of a "turn" to content them selves and let things go about as I they are. The unedaeated person I cmannot have the influence among his fellowmen that educated persons have. As knowledge is power, in short, edncation is the pnamue for all our soial evils, injastiMes,.anad oppmions Thme -n. dribco of edesti among theim whole Per pl t the gmoth wQl e mndrm them less submissive to the social and po litical stigmas under which they are to-day laboring. Now that our people throughout this broad land are ree, it yet re mains for this Government to give them that which will not only en able them to maintain, defend, and perpetuate their liberties. Imagine your race, Mr. Speaker, as having been in bondage for over two hun dred years, subjected to all the hor- t rois of slavery, deprived of every facility by which they might have a asequired an education, and in this ignorant and helpless condition they ' were emancipated and turned loose t in the midst of their enemies; among those who were opposed to not only seeing them educated, but opposed to their freedom; among those who possessed all the wealth, controlled all the educational facilities of the country; among those who believed your race to be naturally inferior to themselves in every particular, and 5 fit only to be considered as goods and chattels. Imagine, I say, your race to-day i in this deplorable situation. Would you be considered as comprehend- . ing their desires and situation, were you to admit that their farmer en slavers would take an impartial in terest in their educational affairs ? I think not. Hence, I cannot be lieve that the Democratic party South would provide equal educa tional advantages to all classes. The gentleman from the District of k Columbia (Mr. Chipman) has cor rectly said that the lately enfran chised people are peculiarly the wards of the Government. Still, we ask that equal advantages, impartial protection, rnd the same educational facility may be extended to all classes, to the whole people. Give us this and we will further endeavor to remove the ignorance from our people, and about which so much i has been said by those who have occasioned it and v:ho are justly re- 1 sponsible for it ; tht v who have im posed it upon us through the opera tion of that once loved and cherish ed institution, slavery-that instita tion which has cost the nations millions of dollars and many of her best and bravest men, - aud has stamped upon the negro a curse which this generation will fail to. obliterate. In conclusion, Mr. Speaker, I ] might here pay a passing notice to the arguments generally used against the negro. And against his being educated. It has been said that the negro is an inferior race, with minds unfit for cultivation, I with no traits of science, skill, or literature; with no ambition for edu cation and enlightenment; in short, a perfect "booby brain." But these arguments, Mr. Speaker, fell to the ground many years ago, and have been rendered insignificant from the fact that notwithstanding all the 1 laws enacted prohibiting the negro from being educated, in spite of the degradation of over two hundred and forty-seven years of the most in human and barbarous lavery ever recorded in the history of any people and coupled with five years subjuga tion to the reign ofterror from the Ku-Klux-Klan, the dastardly hor rors of which those only know who have been the viotims, ad those who commit the deeds. Notwith standing all these obstacles and op positions, we find in nearly every town and rillage, where the whip-, ping-post and auction-blocks were once visible, echool-houses and freedmen's savings bank erected in their stead, which arethe growth of only ive years, and whieh stand to day asliving efutations to the foul, maligant, unjust, and untrue argaments used agapiLst the negro. We still find him, however, loyal to his Government and frimdly toward his former master, to-day looking to this Congres for the passage of a meawae that will aid in inreasing the eduational faiitiesthroughout the country or thebeneit of all cluse, and theby enable him to wer his childn to truly eompre ead Uheir reltioas withasd duts toward thi G ra G en. I[amme em ma, a 4 SATES OF ADVERTIBING. Squares 1 mo 2 mes mos mas 1 yr One 4 $S7 $9 $12 iS Two 7 9 12 90 o Three 9 12 20 35 50 Four 15 25 35 5 o50 7 Five 20 35 .45 60 85 Six 24 42 50 70 100 1Column. 45 80 120 175 350 Transient advertisements, $1 - per quare first ineestion; each bsehaesat insertom, 75 ests. All bu es oades at sadurtisemeats to be casisd t rty cents pe line eas insertia.e . Jos Pamrno executed with neat and dispatch. Wedding Cards executed in acccas with p i Ca fashionas. Funeral Notices printed on shortest ao tine and with quickest dispatch. AM- coireuk Programmes, mass Business Cards, Posters, etc., etc., guar anteed to giv3 general satisfa.tion to all who may wish to secure our services. PROFESSIONAL. JOHN B. HOWARD. LAW OFFICE, 26 St. Charles Street 99 New Orleans. Prompt attention given to cir business in the several courts of the State. A. P. FIELDS & IOBEIT DOLTN, ATTORNEYS AND COUNSELLOIS AT LAW, No. 9 Commercial Place, 2nd Flor, New Orleans. -o .A"Strict Attention to all Civil ad Criminal business in the State and United States Court. J. E. Wallace, bttorsney at ZIaaew, 69 CANAL STEET, NEW ORLEANS, LA. jal8-ly. Dr. TNT. lBile, OFFICa 69 CANAL ST., ianB roeroIrICE. A gra.nuate from the University of Coo. penhagen, Denmark, and honorary M. D. from the University of Padova, Italy; for several years assistant physician to the cele brated Prof. Ricord, Pars. DR. BILLE has acquired a high reputation as SPE CIALIST for all kinds of Sexual diseases, male and female. Private diseases cured after a new, sure and quick method. Painful and Retained Menstruation quickly relieved. .Perfect cure always warranted. Letters containing $5 and stamps will receive prompt attention. 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