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SLIDES AND BREAKS MADE WORK
OF DIGGING BIG DITCH TITAN TASK, SA YS COLONEL GOEiHALS (Editor • Not**-Thi» in the mcoo'.l tart of Col. Ciocthulu' own story of tits Panama Canal. which h«> built, and It tills of the wonder fill work of prepar ations anil of the areal obstacles that ivers to be overcome. Two years ware spent In the work of prcp iration alone, in building u plant and netting to* aether the force and the machinery. And now, for tho Mrst time, the real story of those dibaatrous slides und breaks Is told, those tremendous up heavals of nature which increased the burden placed upon the shoulder* of the great directing genius, but which never caused him to waver front Ids pur pus. to finish the work In the time that was set for him to finish It. Thero fc ha* been no greater exhibition of en t urattce und sheer nerve in the history of the world thun this calm, able man has given, fighting the forces of nature. directing his tremendous army of more tlmn fifty thousand souls and pushing through every obstacle tt great achievement ) PART 11. By COL. GEORGE WASHINGTON GOETHALS. Corpg of Engineer*, United State* Army, Chairman and Chief Engin ••r, Isthmian Canal Commission. « (Copyrighted, mil, by the Newspaper Enterprise Association in the United Mates, Great Itrltuln. France anil Gorman y) Tho first two and a half years of American control on the canal zone were given to preparation. All ener gies were devoted during that time to rid the isthmus of disease by uaui tation, to recruiting and organizing a, working force, and providing for it rultable houses. hotels, messes, kitch ens, and an adequate food supply; to assembling the plant to do the work; isting railway system, and to estab lishing a system of civil government for the canal zone, which Is a strip of land 10 miles wide, five miles on either side of the center of the canal, extending across the isthmus. The work of sanitation Included clearing lands, draining and filling pools and swamps for tho extermina tion of the mosquito, the establish ment of hospitals for the care of the sick and injured, and the qiiarantlne. In addition, to secure and maintain better health conditions, municipal im provements were undertaken In the cdtloa of Colon and Panama and the » “Come With Us to Zrfe The Washington” Detroit'§ Mott Beautiful THIS is the slogan which we are going to impress on the minds of every con of finished actors SUITICr of Butter Flake and Malt Bread. “Come With Us to the Washington, the foremost on the sitncncuH stage. uno ™l‘k , h‘fh°')LS h pia i n ,!' ro " ,h "“ r ‘ go ‘" we mean by this, be our guest and enjoy the high-class performances at this well-known playhouse. This offer is made to all who are willing to par- WX*VX\A\%*XX\X%\X\\\V\VXXVVX*%V\X%\*\XVXVV»XXVV\XVS*\*VXX\ take of the exceptional qualities of Butter Flake and Malt Bread, which | j represent the highest standard of bread making. Quality has been | j | the p re( lominent slogan of our master bakers to produce these | two famous brands of bread and that they may have succeed- Vs\ll ed is evident by the growing demand. The very latest and M. UU most up-to-date machinery has been installed in order ——— to produce the very best obtainable known ii Are Invited • modern bread baking. To Enjoy a Performance the Van Dyke Bakery i —i—» ••••• a £ MISS JULIE HERNE. MR. MITCHELL HARRIB. gi S « • • *u S « \ Just save ten labels from either Butter Flake A \ Starring in a tenet of new playt never before teen in tnit city, Zt Q J Mitt Julie Herne and Mr. Mitchell Harrit, both well known playert, J or Malt Bread and present at Box Oflice for £ j will take a leading part in The Leper, a deep moral drama, the g ticket to any Tuesday or Thursday matinee. i week beginning Monday, December 1. Theae two favontet of the 5 itage alto appear a number other playt Qff ft ftff ft ' VAN DYKE BAKERY | various settlements along the Unc of tlu) canal, such as the construction of reservoirs, with mains and adjuncts, for furnishing wholesome and ouffl clent water, sewerage, pavements and a system of roads. Buildings to the number of 2.009 were constructed, including office buildiugs, hospitals, hotels, meases, kitchens, shops, store houroa, and llv • log quarters. In addition to this. 1.530 j buildings out of a total of 2,200 build !*lngs turned over by tho French were ■ remodeled and repaired for use. j Recruiting agencies were establish jed in the United States, Europe and tho West Indies. * The commissary department of the Panama Railroad <’c>. was enlarged until it became a great department store, supplying to tho employes what ever was necessary for their comfort and convenience. Man ufaotu ring, cold storage and laundry plants wore established and turned out each day about 90 tons of Ice, 14,000 loaves of bread. 2,400 rolls, 250 gallons of Ico cream, 1,000 pounds of roasted coffee, and 7,500 pieces of laundry. Four to five refrigerator cars, loaded with meats, vegetables and such fruits as could be obtained, were sdnt out on the night freight to distant points, aud every morning a supply train of about 10 cars, of which number six to eight were refrigerator cara, left Cristobal at 4:30 to distribute foodstuffs and laundry to the local commissaries along the lino, where employes could make their purchases and where the hotels, messes and kitchens secured their supplies for the day. The construction plant, consisting of steam shovels, locomotives, cars, unloaders, spreaders, track-shifters, pile-drivers, cranes, dredges, steam boats, tugs and barges, was pur chased, for the most part “knocked down.” and the shops for their erec tion and repair were constructed and enlarged. Some of the machinery was built from parts manufactured in thf» shops. The distance from the home market, with attendant vexa tious delays In securing parts and material and the necessity for keep ing the construction plant In the most efficient condition for economical oper-j ation, made It imi>eratlve that the THE DETROIT TIMES* » NOVEMBER 1913. shops be equipped te meet every pos sible contingency. The capacity of tho Panama rail road \va» increased by double track i Ing It throughout, except from Cris tobal to Puraiso. Yards were en larged and connections made to area* available for dumping grounds. Laws were trained and civil gov i arnment was established with its uoctssary adjuncts of courts, police force, fire eom;>anlos. customs and revenue service, postofllces, public works and treasury. A purchasing department was or ganized in the United States for the obtalnment of supplies of all kinds and descriptions. Upon arrival on the isthmus, the supplies were shipped to tho various subdivisions of the canal work for which they were purchased or they were placed in storehouses along the line for issue when re quired. It was only after these various, yet necessary, adjuncts had been provided and the forces for their operation were organized that the principal work in hand, the building of tho canal, could be pushed forward with any hope of eucesa, and too much praise cannot be given to those who looncelved and established them in a ' working condition. The Department of Engineering and Construction \faa divided into three construction divi sions. The Atlantic Division embrac ed tho engineering construction from deep water In the Carrlbean sea to In clude the Gatun locks and dam; the j Central Division extended from Oatun |to Pedro Miguel and the Pacific Divi sion from Pedro Miguel to deep water In the Pacific ocean. As already noted, the Americans continued the work in progress by the French in the cut commonly known as the Culebra cut, utilizing the French machinery until it could be replaced by more modern applian ces. This w’as the most formidable part of the enterprise on account of the magnitude of the cutting and also I because of the difficulties attending It due to the excessive falnfall and |to the varying character of the ma terials encountered. The Fri*ach so planned the excava tion that after the removal of the peak of the divide and lessor summits they could work a number of excavator* simultaneously at several |K>inls, so that a succession of benches or ledges resulted, lying one above the other, each with natural surface at the point of beginning. By working iu the di rection of the longht of the cut, the face of the bank gave th** longest cut ting possible, reducing t' number of times the excavator must be hauled liark, and secured a satisfactory drainage arrangement, since the cut ting was carried up grade on cither side of tho summit. The Americans followed the same method, the only difference being In Lite character of machinery used. The greatest difficulty enooniftered In tho excavation was due to slides and breaks which caused large mass es of material to slide or move into I the excavated area, closing off the drainage, upsetting steam shovels and tearing up the tracks. The term “slide" is applied to the movement of the overlying clay upon smooth, sloping surfaces of rock or other material harder than the clay. "Breaks" occur at points w'here un deriring rock la of poor quality, inter- Rocted by vertical seams or sloping toward the canal, and which is unable to bear up the superimposed mass. Generally the upper surface of the broken portion of the bank remains approximately horizontal, settling nearly vertically. The weight of tho broken portion forces up and dis places laterally the material lying di rectly below it in the bottom or on the berms or ledges of the canal. As the material thus forced up Is taken away the upper part gradually settles and moves towards the axis of tho cqpal until the entire broken portion Is removed. The greatest slide was at Cucaracha and gave trouble when the French be gan cutting in 1884. Though at first confined to a length of 800 feet meas ured along the lino of excavation, tho slide extended to Include tho entire basin south of Gold Hill. This slide was ths last obstruction to the canal and Its removal was th * opening that finally makes the canal an accomplish ed fact. There were, all told, nine slides and (The third and concluding chapter of Col. Goethal’s story will appear in The Times tomorrow.) » breaks to b»* reckoned with, and there !\\Us nothing to do but remove all the mgterb.l embraced within their llrniu. There is no other metluxi known to istop or prov.iui them. No apprehen sion is felt bemuse of the slides in ! the futuri of the canal. Tliey devel j oped as the depth of the cut lncreas [ed, and the banks slid or broke be cause of ttio condition of unstable equilibrium. When the grade was ] reached, expiUibrium was established and the back pressure of th* water re sults in greater stability. Work has le n in progress in the Culebra Cut sim e Ikßo and during the i French control ISbsu.oOO cubic yards were removed. Between Gatun aid Has Obisqo. the northern end of the Culebra Cut, the French excavation which was uae r ul to the present pro ject amounted to 2,201,000 cubic yards, or a total in the Central Division of over 20,000.000 cubic yards. Some id'ea of the magnitude of the operations may be formed from the fact that this dlvisi n had within its Jurisdiction over 200 miles of 5- foot gauge track laid, about 55 miles of which were within the side slopes of the Culebra Cut alone. - BANKS TRIES A~NEW STUNT AT CHECKERS Newell W Banks, I>etroit’B ex-cham pion at checkers, pulled anew stunt, last night, at the Bergboff pool room. He played four games of checkers and a game of pool at the same time, win ning tw'o of the checker games, draw ing two and losing the pool match. Chip Is Favored. CHICAGO, Nov. 25.—Qeorge Chip, Pittsburgh middleweight, is the favor ite with a big delegation of local fight bugs who will go to Racine, Wls., to see Chip battle with Tim O’Neill, of Indianapolis, in a 10-round go. tonight. A special train will carry both fighter* and Chicago fans to Racine, this after noon. In 1912 more than one hundred thousand persons returned to Naples from the United States. The Confessions of a Wife Aren’t Men Queer? CHAPTER VIII. After dinner on the train, at which Dick again ordered beefsteak, we sat out in tiie observation car awhile and finally we slipped out on the very end platform. Dick brought my heavy coat and sat down beside me, keep ing both my hands in his. Wo dies not say anything for a long v.hile. Dick’s cigar was half smoked out when he threw it away with a sigh of content. “Ah, sweetheart, it’s good to be alive,” he said und I agreed with him. I bejrin lo think that Love is a very Jealous littlo god and that he hides away and sulks when a men and woman who have been worship ping at his ahrine turn their attention to anything else. Out there on the platform with only the stars and tho ever-changing land scape, which, like a moving picture, showed hero the lights Os a small town and thero the dark shallows of a little woodland, 1 was perfectly at peace. Dick's warm hands clasped mine. I felt his breath ou my ear a s he said: “I never knew what a fine old wrorM it was until tonight, dearest, and I tell yon, I’m about the lmpptest cliap In It, Hero 1 ain at 30 with a good, position, the best little wife In all tlie world, good health and sense enough to appreciate It all.” “Tell me something about yourself, Dick,” I said; "you know you have been so busy talking to me about myself thnt up to now I only know what you have Just told me.” “There isn’t anything more to tell yon. Is there, Madge?” “Yee, tell me about your business.” "Say, Madge.” interrupted Dick a laugh, “you are not going to be one of those new women who expect to ‘butt In' and make a man talk over hie bus in res with her every night, are you? “A man wants something very dif ferent from business when he arrives home at night. He wants to get as far away from business as possible. He wants to rest and stop thinking.” “But, dear, I don’t men know how much money w$ have and, of course, I must know something about our Income before I can do my part and make that home for you.” "There you are, Mrs. Schoolteacher, again/' exclaimed Dick; "wherever you me, Margie, "ill bo home U> me. 1 * "All very beautiful, but It la evade lng the issue," I answered wtth a , lUßpority. , "Well, you mercenary creature,’ I .] said EMck, "if you must know Juetl what the man you married la worth, here goes: 1 get three thousand a year and have the proapect of a raise very soon. 1 think the firm gsvd roe that thousand instead of raising my salary, but they *havo got to coma across’ with a raise Just the same. ‘I never have been able to save s.l cent, but now that I am a Staid old married man I "rant to do so.” ,r We ought to save a lot, Dick." 1 answered. "I have only had twelve hundred dollars the last two years since I havo been principal, and ageh ve ir l have put away five hundred of* it" ‘‘Mercy, I've married a regular hetroßr." saltl Pidg in mockfOMtgrfth*,_ tion. "T have only five hundred of It now, > dear, for I am using five hundred dol lars for my wedding, but father left me six thousand dollars which was Invested In a mortgage which is due next month. 1 thought some time 1 would put It in a home." "I'll tell you what, Madge, HI buy you some stock in our book coo earn; it pays about 16 per cent and the nine hundred dollars can also be invested yearly. "Great work!" exclaimed Dick with a laugh, as we went back to our bertha. Aren’t men funny? Hera was Dick, who Informed roe that 1 meat Ml "butt In" on hi* busindks affairs, out as toon as he knew abput mlna be was more than ready and willing to arrange them for me—even though 1 had demonstrated that I was the bel ter financier by saving money toto vsft out of a salary only half as large U (To Be Continued Tomorrow.) Spike' Kelly la Suspended.. MILWAUKEE, Wla.. Nov. 26.-“Buo* pension of 9pik. Kelly *Wj£***2S the rules laid down by the Wiacanam boxing commission wss forecasted, te~ day, following Kelly’s draw with Dee Barrett here, last night. KeH£* c i?®* ofTense was hitting In the breaks. ™ bout was slow and uninteresting, ana the crowd poor.