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iitm rmm tbb waanT crriaaa. On column on year. . $160 Hlfc.l .ma on jaw 80 Third 01 a column ox jmr SO Quart, r .f ft column on year 4H One piar one y tar IS Tw a naraa ont Tl SIS VntMMut Ailyerlieine; tM a aqnar imt iaaa tiaa end 7 ciila lr each enhaeqneat insertion Literal sdf.rtlser. will ka Ml wltd llherslly. l.e, .1 A.earttNtn; t me ntt. and at additional for proef of unhltction, ana niinwuof or publics tin to be (urniehrd mini In ree ia paid. Annoancin. Candidate for Slat and Diatrlct Offices Dally pauar chrira MO : Weekly pep" 14 ; franiiouBcl i. rundidatea for County uB- dally and we ly nanara ctorae 110. w-The-e are tna una and .... litlnna aareed apon l-y the Press Associativa for the leaal advertising- and announcing candidates, aad in no in atanca ran they he denartea from . Double column adeertitement are krgeH thirty-fire per cent, addition ml em the mbore rates. )rospcctus. THE AMERICAN CITIZEW IS l'riil.istth ii FVEJIY SaTVUMT MOPMNO BY JOHN F. HONWaKTH. j H is the. larjrc-t paper asibliiibed in litis section, and eOBttBBBB more sPolill.-nl, AHrlMlinrit HI itt n I ii 1 tn ra I lltl r, I . o i luit liigcnc. ITI ic.IlHaay Grnrrol PterTft, than moj OLhor paper In Madison and adjoining counties. The f.iriniT'i Drpsriteat ha been made a apeciajty, nut! will cuutaio the best articles thut the ablest practical and scientific AgricultmiitS, Fruit ((rowers anj Stork-raiser,' of the country can produce. In Policies, our course ahull be as it has ever been. " to stand by our country." Special attention will be given t-. the collection and publication of matters of l.ocn.1 ass C4-Mera! I iter real. To Advrrfiot-r. The circulation of Tbe Americas Cilimea b eitablished on m Arm . "t paying basis, and our list is rapidly end consfa- y latiuaaing. government will ihvw be eentralizeil, if not by the passage of laws, by tbe "Bo jut, and fear not; Let all (lie ends thou aim'st at bo thy God's, thy Country's, and Truth's. VOL. XIX. CANTON MISSISSIPPI, SATURDAY, MARCH 13 1860. NO. 10. I3Y JOHN P. BOSWORTH. PUBLISHED WEEKLY OFFICE, MASONIC HALL BUILDINC. SECOND FLOOR TERMS-Three Dollars per annum. t.i Urnfcssional (Karte.jtcb Drleaus Carta. ATTORNEYS. O A. IXCHKT r JSO. DAWSON LVCKETT A DiWdOV ATTORNEYS-AT-LAW, CANTON", MISS.. Will araeti.e In til Conrl of th Fifth Judicial IHetrtet and ia all the Cn-.rtB at Jacks, Mian. ttHSmir1 B. R. FEARN, nuaji, HIM. ITU.I. araatlra ia all the ConrU of th Fifth YV Jsalelsl Pi.lrlct. and In thaw held at Jack aea.Mtss. Offi oesr Tunelall Baldwin'a Dwa. It), run ly V. V. SHACKLE FORD. ATTORNEY AT LAW. rrira, .... state ml r.m. ,..r. neat 4e M . C aca k 1.1 rifled states Cumniiaaiomrr. aept a i -ti. v. w. aaanaLL. a. o.aaaata. HARRIS, KENDALL S HARRIS, ATTORNEYS AT LAW. M.laiMtMa btbsit. and a. Ill sua at sr., sin .BAria, i. . IIH-. mM.i ; hi. stairs rm rVeeeiet fa all r. Cesel. ..Zee.!. SjrA.-tpri ,1 attention K'een to th Celleotlon ot claims throughout th United State, ft, . new HILL & HARVEY, ATTORNEYS AT LAW, CANTON. Miss. Oflc oer Mosay it Kicbard' drag etore Jnly If. o B. -l-OLfTon. w. P. uno. Si NOT, ETON & OEOBGE. A TTORNEYS AT LA W, castos. mis Or'tPR to atolth asitdlaf. North west cornel a VI. euear. Marah 1. Ihii7 if FRANKLIN SMITH, ATTORNEY AT LAW, CANTON, miss. OS at I Brtak ballrtMi. north wsst corner PuUir rT J.alOtf B. J. BOWERS, ATTORNEY AT LAW. C.4.YTO.V, Jarl&ML, Wtl J. aracttee in the f iiiunf Uadieon. Iaki Wmk Holm! and Yaaoo. and in the Hijl i.'rt el Rrrtm and AppaUat larkenn. r Office Hnulh.we.it corner -f th Tubllc aajnnr. eeer Cneatbam Auction BoBe, Biown. MewHnlldini ml9tf r h EE ma omcK e n7 ATTORNEYS AT LAW, Jackson and Canton, Miss , ae.J.l ... tm .11 ll.vTuul.4t Iba'.'lil ii atal ln.lrirt. the HI Cart of Err era and p - . and lh Federal Contra at Ji k-m and Oz i4. Thj way :'C Bddreteed hj the I m name . Ither at Jaekeon or I'nnton. Oi-tl M yly JNO. MTCLARKr Attoi-ney at Law, yazoo orrr miss, w BX prsctir in th i".,art la the central parltno r the MUte Jan 30 PHYSICIANS. b. .iLiowir, a- a. a. h caar. a. a Ors. GALLOWAY It CAGE, CANTOS Mia. WBli. -' e h 1 1 .. . OeaeWr t. 1BU ly. On. HARVEY ft DIVINE. TTKnt South Mdb Coobt Ht n H in t i r fOBTIBUaa l glee apeclal atleatlon to sit Bcnoi SAL Csa As... G8. Dn. Seinmcs A Lurked, CANTON, MISS. eATllfti aaaosisted tbemeelves lathe practice f Madieliw aad Hnrrery, raptfully ofler saietves t lh publi. VI. aitlsTK Saetne .le.'.r.i tweles yesrssepe aldlytoth tdy and practice of OueAetrlc and Dtaea of feeAsles and cliildren. hope fur s lib ral psraatrs la that branch nf hi. prfetoB. StfOffl.. oT Mealry . Rtauard. At Co's. JaaMlT DENTISTS. DR If. C. ORRICK, D n T I T . OrilO OVER Moibt, RlCIAEOS 4 Co.1 DV ETOBB. AIX DISTAL (PKRATIOXrt DON F AT ASTK WAfl PRICEfl-F0n CASH. Feb a IHftE ly. DENTAL OPP:KATItNS At M Prlrrw, for I'mb. IH ennqenrn uf tba e,arclty of money, I have rtEwEett ttw tWa ir all d-aul tKv'u Rot all MIU asuat ba paid wImb tbe lervice la rendered farsnna of liaitud meant need not hesitate i sell. Mo Cm unit for examinatloa and advice (Ullarof-irtn and local nr 'Cie-ia (hy mean n Mlsev spray.) u-wd when aVausd... The attentton f lee pBbfle la rallvd to the Eral imornment In A RTtFtCIA I T E 8 Tit. Tbay ara durable, natural and Ufa hka in apseer nee. wern with rafflfort, and nsnch eheaner thn ttsssBiily. C. h KM APP. Jataskary 4, IMA Ira J Jarkaoe, Miaa. MECHANICAL. It X HK A I KK. MERCHANT TAILOR, I r",'l " rMrtfisMlKrnrni bUold frWnds 1 T v and nseteasara, aaaJ the public gBoarBl ly. tint he baa rsntweed frnce Hharoa and t taaal ! Ceniee, wbara km will rontmua the Mrrchaat Tailorm, Baslaoaa, la all Its earloas hrancha. ltavln an eiperlenc of nearly thirty year, he feel. couAdnt of hie abit Ke u are alefactfn to all what nay faenr him with their patron-- a llbsral shsr of which hs solUlU frraa th aWle. Mslng resided snd csrrled on hustnea In fltiaroo for elan, years, reepe. tf .lly refer la the aitiaaa r tht place aad vicinity. Saor oa West side PsMte 8qnsr-oa door HerthT 1 Rlehsrds 11 it. tan. SIEDE, WATCHMAKER -aan Jeweler. Watch. Jewelry, Ac. serf A II fBefrlBg don In the Beateat style. Partlenlar altenli'-n given to lh repairm ond df)ttftii,'.f l!e wat, hep Jta. jSt a!, ,r T. C. JAMES MAKTI, pJtBoot and Shoe MANUTACTURER AND DEALER IN TRUNKS, TRAVELING BAGS AND VALISES, Ko. 113 Canal Street, New Orleans. Plantation 8 Feb. 70, '69 no by Package or Dozen. J TOM URNDRHBON, lata of Henderson, Terry k Co. BAM BKNDKBSON. TOM & SAM HENDERSON, COTTON FACTORS, FOKWARDINti AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS, No. 38 Perdido St., Factory Roic, New Oblians. Jan. L 1S6D. J R. POWELL, COTTON FACTOR, AND COMMISSION MERCHANT, No 190 Common st. PTKW OKI K4rl La. Vf Liberal eaata advances made on Cotto i ly onaigned to lhi house. Feb. 18. 1h. J, D MUTTOat, I R- T. MOORE, 1 L. W.THOMFSON, If. CrUant, Ls. I Nrw Orluaai. Madison Co., Miu. i In Ctmumendom.) HRITTON & MOORE, COTTON FACTORS, AND GENERAL COMSISS'N M PRC H ANTS. 71. No. 71 Carondelet, Street, 71. NEW ORLEANS. La. aw Bnpvll, BuecnifE. Ate., furniabed, and cash drancea mad on Conaignmenta.a Mr. W. Tancy will pay th revenue tax on cotton conalf ned to Bi Itton A Moure. W. J. IfMTI, (I.atr Rhorer V Zanta.) COTTON FA CTOR. No. 94 Perdido Street, corner Carondelet, Jn,aon Now Orleans. n. S. SHIRK, PBOFR1BTOR OF PATBNT DKALKE IX PAT. PETROLENE BURNING FLUID, Lamps. Lamp Fixtures, & Glassware . l:it Pydrn. ti..brf.('nm1i A l ( hnn., 1TEW ORLEANS LA- ALL ORDERS PROMPTLY ATTENDED TO. PRTROI.KHE bi unr; Finn J'tti ia Ikf great dtnidrr&tfvm .f the aft. It will not imoke, witi uu mSim nr TttrrniitH. u can OV eXpttMra. It Wilt ..A ir t r ...... baa ixl a or r)rthr. No greasy or din v uhf'tanre eollcets on tht i)ittH..tc nf the lamp. It burn with grpnt-r brilliancy, tcadineM ami tonneHR than any Coal Oil known. It will burn Id any lamp with Marcv'i Hinge Hurarr, or with the Diamond or LigbtliouMi llnrm r Sept 12-ly BW. .IV'II HOTEL. MAGAZINE STREET, Between Orae ier and Natcbea ata., NEW ORLEANS, LA. R 8 MORSE. Proprietor. Feb. lC-ly. MISCELLANEOUS CARDS. Manlua-Making. MISS ANGIB M. ROBERTSON rpAKKS this method to inform her friends jl and the public generally mat ineis pre pared to cut and make dresses and feels as sured thai she will give satisfaction iti fitting. She will also make up suits fur gentlemen or bnjs. Orden sol. cited. In making ibis announcement Miss Ro hertson appeals to her lew particular friends to assist her in Irving to make enough mon ey to free her from debt and make an inde pen dent living. She feeU justified in plac ing hercelf before tbe people of Canton in this way to earn ber bread rather tbao be a mendicant. Jan. 2, I860. Photographs! Photographs! THE underpinned having pnrchnned the entire stock and apparatus of Mr. (i. H. Ticbneor's PHOTOGRAPH GALLERY, and having added largely tn the stock department, he flatterH himself, with twenty years experience. that he wilt he able to please all who will honor bm with their patronage. A. Photographs or every sise and style made at short notice. W. H- WILLIAMS, Artist. Canton. Dec. !8i8-tf TOWN L0TSF0R SALE. SEVERAL Lota suitsbls for Reesidnces, O the most desirsbls anywhere in the Suburbs of the city of Canton- Location boalthy, neighborhood excellent, title good. Apply lo Wm. II. CASSELL. Canton, Nor. 14, 1B63. FOR SALE. About lO Acre Of Valuable Open and Wood Land Situate two miles eftst of Cnntnn un the Msdisonrille road. For description and price of same, enquire at th;a nflicp, nr of J HO. D. HART, Agent. Jan. 0, 18C9-tf Dissolution. THE Ijiw Psrtnrrliip at LOGKKTT A RAM is ihla day dissnlvid.by mut'isl enneent. O A LUCKETT. I Ml, So 16) UN K EKAHN. A. M GURLEY. 1 1 IT A IKK IN II I 111 s I I Us AND WOOL Klist crarp miiibs, DUT rtALT " " (issiN Halt, Ksisr, VwM frnm 10 lo nnlity. So. 31 .IRBB-tf 1 r, to l cl 14. g II M 8 to 6 to 7 " 30 cents, according to RELIABILITY M the one thinir aluive all others that la most de riable in business man. Advertisers wilt find us Cways ready to gnarentee perfect aatlsfae tion in lbfitrnrt- that m iy made with u. We nre ens aaed to olfer special inducements to parties who my wlah to advertise extensively. Hend all ordets direct to oa, or write for eatlmatea. We are agent for all papers throughout the United States, and the aosdai. F. 1. IHBIILK A CO.. Publishing and Advettisfnjr Ron, s-pntf 10 Miin t , t,.,n -vill", Ky ilmgs,lciitincs,S-f. MOSBV k Wm CANTON, MISS. WHOLESALE AMD RttTAIL DBDGGI&TS AND APOTHECARIES. 4 DIALERS IN WHITE LEAD. OIIS, TARNISHES Window Glass, Sash, Doors, Futty DYE STUFF., PERFUMERY" BOOKS, WALL PAPER, STATIONERY, FANCY ARTICLES, Watches, Jewelry, Hardwaro, Cutlery, &c Janl2 II JUST RECEIVED and for .ale by MOSBY A RICHARDS, 400 lb Landreth'a Turnip Seed, war ranicri erowih of 1C67. 5000 Iba pure White Lead. 150 fralq Linseed Oil. 100 gals Spirits Turpentine. BN ROUTE 500(1 light"-of Window Sasi. 4 ''ozen Pannei Door 300 l ores of Window Glasf. All of which will bo sold at Nrw (Julians ratoaa. ivQ7ib. u7 if T O THE PUBLIC. THE GREATEST DISCOVERY KNOWN TO THE WORLD IN MEDICINE. EUREKA MFE-BL00D ELIXIR ! HAS at Inst made its Way into tMj mnntry, after having hfen in ufe in tlu- Old WorHJ for many yenrnt and especially in Chlrta. Tlu feielnalrd Ali'hemi.st ami Chfmi-t. Pr. Hepeerxlam, of Pekin. China. Uhm at last t-onsented to hie) ureat hini.sk Hkmkdv bsinft: introduced on tebis contiucnt, and eesj established wbolesale agencies for the pur Hje of suiiifiyiiiK all iiBiggiata ihroiiffhout the towns ond citieH NMr cojn'.ry. lliin k"1 Blood Medicine has performed cere (the moat Hstonish inff). where eveiy other remedy known in Maitria Me die a has most signally failed. IT IS KO HUMBUG QUACK nrOfETBUIfl. hut Is a preparation which has been bronpht out alter many lonpf years ot the deepest leaearch, aid ed hy the gieat'Nt chemical science nod wkill that could le brought to hear in its production, we therefore place it wholly UPON ITS OWN It SKITS, ASKING THE INV ALID OR AFFLICTED TO TRY IT ONCE, to be fully convinced, as its effects are instantane ous from the first dose taken, enteiinir at once into htood and penetrating every pore of the whole body, driving out every Inperitf from the whohs system, and creating instead PURE 1AV E-BLOOD ; hence its name. FOR SALE BY ALL DBUGGISTS. NOTICE TO DRUGGISTS! Eureka Life Blood Elixir, A NEW ERA IN MEDICINE OtN 1 HIS CONTINEN T By the use of the above GREAT CHINESE REMEDY. Drnggists throughout. the South and Went can be aupplie Ciroiiffh t ho arrangements made hy Dr. B. vV. Hepserdam, or Pekin, China, with J. B. f?ES on A Co..fif the Wholesale Drug Emporium, of Memphis, TuunuH-sce, to whom all oidcia mut be ddressed. -ly FOUTZ CKLtBaATKD S Horse and Cattle Powflers. Thii preparation, long and favorably known, will thor oughly reinvigorate broken down and low spirit"! horses, by strengthening and denuding tbe stomach and intes tinea. It Is a snre pre ventive of all see enst-s incident to this animal, such as LCSti FEVER, GLANDERS, YELLOW W TKR. II K A V ES, ClM" (i II S, IMS TKMI'KK. i R VERS. gOC fOER ums or aitk TITE A Nil VITAL ENb'Kti Y, &c. Its use improves ti, wind, increases the appetite- (tives a smooth and . glossy skin ami transforms tbe mi4'-rable ikclctou Into a fine looking aod BBMIsd Bona. To k-'per. "f Cows this BSWSSSmtlaai in invaluable. It iucrcaMcs the (luantity end teiiiiuves tbe uuaiitv 01 EM 11, ilk It BBB bean proven by ac tual avaesBBaeaS u, incisase tlic p-"p tity of Bilk inl SPSBaBi tarsasu r f tit aBkl make the butter firm and BSrei t In fattening aaBUs.tl aiseatiteai an .ippeiite. Ibbbi ns their bide, and BSSaaaaS tllCITI tliriV much faster. In all diseases of Swine, sue ss (.'o'lglis. Cloeri in bbb Lbbbbb, Ll r Ac. BMB artic at as a BjesfaV Hy pnttiuK f'"i iii' )i;ilf a BBS m "f will Bs raatsualiii or entin-ly paaveaSai, if Ervra In UaBB; a acrtani preventive and BtBVB f.ir HN Hog Caolcra Price 26 CentJ per aSpttr, 9S 5 lSpBTt for l. PBEPAKED BY H. jV. FOT T dte UliO., AT THEIR VVnoiFHtF DRI AND MFDIHN'F Mm, No. 116 Franklin St., Baltimore, Md. For Sale hy Dl UgglBBS and Storckeepera througb- rut the DaVBsd BtBti DAVID F- FOUTZ, aattBaaai to K. A. Foutr. ft C'i. for lei hy MOSSY It ('H A HPS , , .V iWl I . - tV. eI PRESIDENT JOHWSOM'3 FARE WELL ADDRESS. WaKBONGTOH, Jliircli 4. 1S69. To the I'tople of the United IStatea : The roho of oflirp, by Constitution al limitation, this day falls from my shoulders, to be immediately assum ed by my successor. For hiirhe forbearance and co-operation Jmtt American iieople in all his endra to administer the (iovernment within the pale of the Federal Constitution are sincerely invoked. Without am bition to gratify, party ends to sub serve, or personal tpiarrels to avenge to the detriment of the peace and wellfare of thecountrv, my earnest desire is to see the Constitution of the Republic again recognized and obeyed as the supreme law of the land, and tht! whole people North. South, East and 'West prosperous I and happy under its w ise provisions. In surrendering the high office to which I was called four years ago, in a memorable and terrible crisis, it, is my privilege, 1 trust, to say to the people of the United States a few parting words in vindication of an official course so ceaselessly assailed and opposed by political leaders to whose plans and wishes my policy to restore the Union has been obnoxi ous. In a period of difficulty and turmoil, almost without precedent in the history of any people, consequent upon the closing scenes of a great re bellion and the assassination of the 1'resident, it was perhaps too much I on my part to expect ot devoted par tisans who rode on the waves of ex citement, which at that time swept all before them, that degree of tolera tion and magnanimity which I sought to recommend and enforce, and which I believe in good time would have advanced us infinitely further on the road to permanent peace and prosperity than we have thus far attained. Doubtless had I at the commence ment of my term of otlice unhesitat ingly lent its powers or perverted them to purposes or plans outside of the Constitution and become an in striiinent to schemes of confiscation and of general and oppressive dis qualification, 1 would have been hail ed as all that was true and loyal and deserving as the reliable head of a p irty whatever I might have been as the Executive of a nation. Unwill ing, however, to accede to proposi tions of extremists, and bound to obey at every personal hazard my oath to protect and defend the Con stitution, 1 need not perhaps be sur prised at having met the fate of others whose only reward for up holding constitutional rights and laws has been the conscientiousness of having attempted to do their duty and the calmer judgment of history. A mysterious Providence assigned to me the office of President. I was, by the terms of the Constitution, the commander-in-chief of nearly a mil lion of men under arms. One of my first acts wtis to disband and restore to the vocations of civil life this im mense host, and to divest myself, as far as I could, of the unparalleled powers then incident to the office. Whether or not in this step I was right, and how far deserving of the appro bation of the people, they can now, on reflection, judge, when reminded of the ruinous condition of public a flairs that must have resulted from the continuance in the military ser vice of such a vast number of men. The close of our domestic conflict found the army eager to distinguish itself in a new field by an effort to punish European intervention iu Mexico. I5y many it was believed and urged that aside from the assumed justice of the proceedings a foreign war, in which both sides would cheer fully unite to vindicate the honor of the National flag and and further illustrate the National prowess, weald be the surest and speediest way of awakening National enthusiasm, re viving devotion to the Union, and occupying a force, conct r.iing which, grave doubts existed as to its willing ness, after four years of active cam paigning, at once to return to the pursuits of peace. Whether these speculations were true or false, it will be conceded that they existed, and that the predilections of the army were for the time being in the direc tion indicated. Taking advantage of that feeling it would have been easy as Com mander-in Chief of the army and navy, with all the powers and patronage of the Presidential office at my disposal, to turn the concen trated strength of the nation against French interference in .Mexico, and to inaugurate a movement which would have been received with favor by the military and a large portion of the people. II is proper in this connection that 1 should refer to the almost unlimited additional power-t tendered to the Executive by the measures relating to civil rights and the Freed men's Bureau. The powers that were placed with in my grasp were declined as being in violation of the Const it ill ion. dan gerous to the liberties of the people, and tending to aggravate rather than lessen the discords naturally result ing from our civil war. Willi a large aruiv and augmented authority, it would have been no difficult task to direct at pleasure the destinies of the lie public, and to make secure my continuance in the highest office known to our laws. Lei the people, whom I am addressing from the Presidential chair during the closing hours of :i laborious term, consider how tlilferent would have been the present coudtl on of attaint had I yielded to the dazzling invitation ot foreign conquest, of personal aggran dizement, and a desire to wield ad ditional power. I, el l hem with just ice consider that it' I have not unduly magnified mine office, the public burdens have not been increased by nn ncteand fin T IS tliot haps thonsandsor tens of thonsaads of liW8 sacrificed to visions of false glory. It cannot, therefore, be charged that my ambition has been of tbjit ordinary or criminal kind which"", to the detriment of the peo ple' rights and liberties, ever seeks to grasp unwarranted powers to ac con.Jilish its purposes, and to pander to popular prejudice and party aims. What, then, have been the aspira tions which guided me in my official ajfts? Those acts need not at this tjBMaelaborate explanation. They have every vlreit been comprehen sively and fully dsscusscd, and be come a part of the nation's history. By them 1 am ready to be .judged, knowing that, however Imperfect, they at least show to the impartial mind that my sole ambition was to restore the Union of the States, faith fully execute the office of President, anil, to the best of my ability, pre serve, protect and defend the Consti tution. I cannot he censured if niv efforts have been impeded in th tercsts of party faction, and if a noli- ey. which was intended to reassure anil conciliate the people of both sections of the country, was made the occasion of inflaming and irritat ing still further those who were re cently in arms against each other, yet as individuals were sincerely de sirous, as 1 shall ever be, of burying all hostile feelings in the grave of the past. The bitter war was waged on the part of the Government to vindicate the Constitution and save the Union, and if I have erred in trying to bring about a more speedy and lasting peace, to extinguish lart-burnings and enmities, to pn eiii ttouoie in tile south which was retarding material prosperity in that region and injuriously affecting the whole country, I am quite content to rest my case with the more deliber ate judgment of the people, and, as I have already intimated, with the dis tant future. The war, all must remember, was a stupendous and deplorable mistake. Neither side understood the other, and had this fact and its conclusions been kept in view, all that was need ed was accomplished by the ac knowledgment of the terrible wroner and the expressed better feelings and earnest endeavor at atonement shown and f it in the prompt ratification of the Constitutional amendment by the Southern States at the close of the war. Not accepting the war as a Confessed false step on the part of those who inaugurat -d it was an error, which now only time can cure, and which even at this late date we Should endeavor to paliate. Kxpcii cueing, moreover, as all have done, the frightful cost of the arbitrament of the sword, let us in the future cling closer than ever to the Consti tution as our only safeguard. It is to be hoped that not until the burdens now pressing upon us with such fearful weight are removed, will our people forget the lessons of war, and that, remembering them from whatever source, peace between sections and States may be perpetu ated. The history of late events in our country, as well as of the great est governments of ancient and mod ern times, teach us that we have every thing to fear from a departure from the letter and spirit of the Con statu tion, and the undue ascendency of men allowed to assume powers ill what are considered desperate emer gencies. Sylla, on becoming master of Borne, tit once adopted measures to crush His enemies and to consolidate the power of his party. He estab lished military colonies throughout Italy, deprived of the full Roman franchise the inhabitants of the Italian towns who had opposed his usurpation, confiscated their lands and gave them to his soldiers, and conferred citizenship upon a great number of slaves belonging to those who had prescribed him. thus creat ing at Kome a kind of body-guard for his protection. After having given Koine over to slaughter and tyranny beyond all ex ample, to those opposed to him and the legions, his terrible instrument of wrong. Sylla could vet feel safe in laying down the ensigns of power so dreadfully abused, and in mingling freely with the families and friends of his myriad victims. The fear which he had inspired continued after his voluntary abdication, and even in retirement, his will was law to people who had permitted them selves to be enslaved. What but a subtle know ledge and conviction that the Etonian people had become changed, discouraged and utterly broken in spirit could have induced this daring assumption ! What but public indifference to consequences so terrible as to leave tome open to every calamity which subsequently befell her could have justified the ' -lusions of the dictator and tyrant in his startling experiment f e find thai in the time which has since elapsed human nature and the exigencies in government have not greatly changed. Who, a few years ago, iu contemplating our future. could have supposed thai in a brief period of bitter experience every thing thai v as demanded, in the name of military emergency, or tlictated by ! caprice, would come lobe considered as a matter of course ; that conscrip , tion, confiscation, loss of personal J liberty, the subjection of State to military rule, and disfrauchismeut, with the extension of the right of suffrage, iu rely to accomplish party ends, tv on Id receive the passive sub I mission, if not acquiescence, of the j people of the republic '.' It, has been clearly demonstrated by a recent occurrence thai encroach ments upon the Const it ul imi cannot I be prevented by the President, how ! ever devoted or determined he may be. That unless the people inter ! pose there is no power under the Constitution to cheek a dominant majority of two thirds of the Con gress of the United States. An ap peal nl'tlic nation is attended with too much delay to meet the emergen ev .11 led h.e to act. the neonlfl a.1 t nu ll cils a miglit follow legislative usurpation 1 here is danger that the same power 1 which disregards the Constitution I will deprive them of the right to change their rulers except oy revo lution. We have already seen the .jurisdic tion of the Judiciary circumscribed, when it was apprehended that the courts would decide against the laws, having for their soie object the supremacy of party, while the veto power lodged in the Executive by the Constitution for the interest a id protection of the people, and exer cised by Washington and his sue cessors, has been rendered nugatory by a partisan majority of two-thirds in each branch of th) National Legis latin u. The Constitution evidently con templates that when a bill is return ed with the President's objections it will be calmly reconsidered by Con gress. Such, however, has not been the practice under the present party rule. It has become evident that men who pass a bill under partisan influence are not likely through patriotic motivesto admit their error, ami ttiereoy weaken theirown organ ization, by golem ily confessing 1 would relinquish their rights of rep it under the official oath. Pride of' resentation in the Legislature, a opinion, if nothing else, has inter- veiled and prevented a calm and (lis-j passionate reconsideration ot a bill disapproved by the Executive. Much as 1 venerate the Constitu tion, it must be admitted that this Condition of affairs has developed a defect which under the oppressive tendency of the. legislative depart mentol the Government may readi ly work its overthrow. It may, however, be remedied without (lis turbing the harmony of the iuslru inent. The veto power is generally exercised upon constitutional grounds and wherever it is so applied and the bill returned with the Executive's reason for withholding his signature, it ought to be immediately certified to the Supreme Court of the United States for its decision. If its constitutionality should be declared by that tribunal, it should j then become a law, but if the deci sion is otherwise it should fail, with- t out power in Congress to re enact it. j In cases in which the veto rests upon hasty and inconsiderate legislation, and in which no constitutional ques tion is involved, I would not change the fundamental law. for iu such eases no permanent evil can be in corporated in the Federal system, It is obvious, without such au amendment, the Government as it existed under the Constitution prior to the. rebellion may be wholly sub verted and overthrown by a two thirds majority in Congress. It is not, therefore, difficult to see how easily and rapidly the people may lose, shall I not say have lost their liberties by unchecked and un controllable authority in their law making power, and whenever de prived of their rights how powerless they are to regain them. Let us turn tor a moment to the history of the majority in Congress which has tcteil in such utter disregard of the Constitution. While public atten tion has been carefully and constant ly turned to the past and exposed sins of the South, the servants of the people in h- ir high place have bold ly outraged their trust, broken their oaths of obedience and undermined the very foundation of liberty, jus tice and good government. When the rebellion was being sup pressed by the volunteered si rvices of patriotic soldiers amid the dan gers of the battle field, these men crept without question into place mil power m the National councils. After all danger had passed, when no armed foe remained, when a penitent people bowed their heads to the flag and renewed their allegiance to the (iovernment of the United States, then it was that the pretended patriot appeared before the nation and began to prate about the thous ands of lives and millions of treasure sacrificed in suppression of the re bellion. They havo since persistently sought to inflame the prejudice en gendered between the sections, to retard the restoration of peace and harmony, and by every means to keep open and exposed to the poison ous biciith of party passion the terri ble wounds of a four years' war. They have prevented the return of i peace and the restoration ot tie I' i ion ; in every way rendered delu sive the purposes, promises pledges by which the army was marshaled, treason rebuked, aud rebellion mush etl ; and made the liberties of the people and the rights and powers ot the President objects of constant attack. They have wrested from the Pies ident bis constitutional power of the supreme command of the army and navy; they have destroyed the strength of the Executive Depart ment by making subordinate officers independent ot and able to defy their Chief Magistrate; they have at tempted lo place the President Un der the pow er of a bold, defiant ami treacherous Cabinet officer; thev have robbed the Executive of the prerogative ol pardon ; rendered null a d void the acts of clemency grant ed to thousands of persons mider the provisions of the Constitution, and committed gross usurpations by legislative attempts to exercise this power in favor of then adherents I hey have conspired to change the system of our government by pie felling charges against Ihe Piesi dent in the form of articles of im peachment, and contemplating, be fore heaving or trial, that ho should be placed under arrest, held in dur ance, and, when it became, their pleasure to pronounce his sentenie, driven from place and power iu dis grace ; they have in time of peace increased the National debt by a reckless expenditure of public moneys and thns added to the bur dens which already weigh upon the peopli ; they have permitted the nation to sutler Ihe e. i I st ot a de rangett currency W the enhancement in price of all the necessaries of life; they have maintained a latve stand- ing army for Ihe enforcement of their ! m.in.ni'uD c.t ,.1.1,1 ... . . . , .- I... measures of oppression ; they Lav engaged in class legislation, built and encouraged monopolies, that the few might be enriched ac the ex pense of the many ; they have failed to a;:t upon important treaties, en dangering our peaceful relations with foicign powers. T ieir course of usurpations has not been limited to inroads upon the Executive Department oy imconsii tutiousl anil oppressive enactments. The people, of ten Stales of the Union have been roduced to a condition mote intolchle than that fioin which the patriots of the Involution re belled. Millions of American citizens can now say of their oppressors, with more truth than their fathers did of British tjralhts, that they have for 'lidden the State Governments lo , j. . , pass laws of immediate and pressing importance unless suspended until their assent should be obtained. I 1-1 a , , 1 hat they have refused to pass other j laws tor the accommodation of large ws, ,,;ts, . icupie unless (nese people ! r , right inestimable to them and form idable to tyrants only. That they have made judges depeutlenton their will alone for the tenure of offices and the amount and payment ot claims. That they have erected a multitude of new offices and sent thither swaims of officers to harrass our people and eat out their substance. That they have affected to render ' military independent of and superior to the civil power. Combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction j foreign to our Constitution and un acknowledged by our laws. Quar tered large bodies of armed troops among us and protected them by a mock trial from punishment of any mnrders which they should commit on I he inhabitants Imposed taxes ; . r , - I on us without our consent. Deuiived us iu many cases of trial by jury. Taken away our charters; excited domestic insurrection among us ; abolished our most valuable laws; altered fundamentally ti e form of our government ; suspended our own legislatures, and declared themselves invested vith power to legislate for us iu all cases w hatever. This cata logue of crimes, long as it is, is not complete, liie Constitution vests (judicial power in one SupremeCourt i whose jurisdiction shall extend to all i cases arising uuder the Constitution ; and the lawi 1 Encouraged of the United States, by this promise, a refu- , gee train tyranny, a citizen ot the United States also, by order of a miliary commander, given uuder sanction of a eniel and deliberate. edict ot Congress, hail been denied i the constitutional rights of liberty of conscience a ud freedom of the : press and of speech, personal freedom j from military arrest, of being held to answer for crime only upon present I ment of an indictment, of trial by Jnry, of the writ of habeas corpus aad ihe protection of a civil and constitu tional government. A citizen thus deeply wronged appeals to the Su preme. Court for the protection guar anteed him by the organic law of the land. At once a fierce and excited majority, by the ruthless hand of legislative power, stripped the er mine from the Judges, transferred the sword of justice to the General, aad remanded the oppressed citizen to a degradation and bondage worse than death. It will also be recorded as one of the marvels of the times that a patty claiming for itself a monopoly of i constituency and patriotism, and I uoasuug oi us unlimited sway, en- deavored by a costly and deliberate! trial to impeach one who defended ! cation in retiring from the most ex the Constitution and Uuion, uot on alted positiou in the gift of a free ly throughout the war of the rebel : people, to feel and to know that iu a lion, but during the whole term of long, arduous and eventful public otlice of Chief Magistrate, but at tbe j life, my action has never been in same time could find no warrant or ' ttueuced by desire for gain, aud that means at their command to bring to : I can in all sincerity inquire, Whom ti ial even the chief of the rebellion, have 1 defrauded, or of whoso ban I Indeed, the remarkable lailnres in I have I received any bribe to blind the ease were so olteu repeated, that my eyes therewith? lor propriety's sake, if lor no other No responsibility for wars that reason, it became at last necessary 1 have been waged, or blood that has to extern 1 to bun an unconditional : pan. on. What more plainly than this illus 1 1 rates the extremities of party man agement and inconsistencies on the one hand, ntl of taction, vindictive - i ness, aud intolerance on the other. Patriotism will hardly be encouraged : when in such a record it sees that its : instant reward may be the most vir ! uleut party abuse aud i b'oqny, if not i disgrace. Instead of seeking to make treason odious, it would in truth ! seem to have been their purpose ra I i hi r to make the defense of the ( 'on stitutiou anil I 'punish fidelity iiiou a crime, and to to an oath of office. Happily for the peace of theconu tr.v, tin- war has determined against Ihe assumed power of Slates to withdraw ... pleasure from the Union. . The institution of slavery also found its desti notion in a rebellion commenced iu its interests, ltshould be borne in mind, however, that the war neither impaired nor destroyed the Cms; i uiiuii, bnt on the contrary prcservi It's.- istunce and made ap- pai'ini iis ic i p tier and endearing strengt h. Ail ;e rights granted to ! the States oi it-served to the people are therefore intact. Among those lights is that of the people ot each ' State to declare the qualifications ol theii ow n State clcetoi s. It is now assumed that Congress can o ntrol tins vital right, w hich can never be i taken away from the Slates w ithout itimairinrr the Fundamental neinainta oi the Vo ernuvmt Itself. It is uc- i eesai v to the existence of the States. at well ;is to the protection of the I nun i it s oi i ne peopu ; to select the elector for the right in whom the j political power ol the Slate is lodged iiivo.vesiuc right ot the state to govern itself. When this prerogative, the S no power worth rel.ni be rone, and thev w ill deprived of I tes will have dug. AM will be subject (o the ai In! i ai , will ol Congi i The adoption through partisan influence with the original design of the Con stitution. This proves how necessary it is that the people should require the administration of the great depart ejents of the Government to be strictly within the limits of the Cou stitution. Their boundaries hava been accurately defined, and neither should be allowed to trespass on the other, nor, above all, to encroach upon the reserved rights of the pt o ple and the States. The troubles of the past four years will prove to the nation blessings, if they produce so desirable a result. Upon those who became young men amid the souud of caunon aad the din of arms, and who quietly re- I turned to the farms, the factories, and the schools of the laud, will principally devolve the solemn duty miiiviiihim 11V I Vl I 1 .u ouigiiiu uuvr f perpetUati..g the union of the !,.,,';,,,,,,,, h:i, ,.,,,,,1,1. f ,v,A.',,ric! nf h.;r vi iiiuitoiiiiuo yj 1 1 1 iv 11 1. t 1 1 1 1 aut o " pU.ej anfl hundreds of millions of ,,,;' t nHliertnr.. ora i.w.rr,l llili I1IIIU1 lnruilllwlKt ST Vl J 1I1LIII I HI. a maulv ueonle will not neglect the training necessary to resist oppres- sion ; but they should be jealous lest the civil be made subordinate to the military element. We need to encourage iu every legitimate way a study of the Con stitution for which the war was waged, a knowledge of and reverence for whose wi-e checks bj those so soon to occupy the places filled by their seniors, will be the only hope ot preserving the Republic. The young men of the nation, uot yet under the control ot party, must re- sist the tendency to centralization. an outgrowth ot the great rebellion, aud be familiar with the fact that the country consists of the United States, and that when the States surrendered certain great rights for ihe sake of a more nerfect union. thev retained lights as valuable and . 0 . impoitatit as those they relinquished; lor the Commonwealth is sound doc trine, far different from the teaching that led to the attempt to secede, and a kii died theory that the States were taken out of the Uuion by the rash acts ot conspirators that hap pened to dwell withiu their borders, must be recieved and advocated with the enthusiasm of early manhood, or the people will be ruled by corrupt commercial centres, who, plethoric from wealth, annually immigrate to the capital of the nation to purchase special legislation. Until the repre sentatives in Congress of the people more fully exhibit the diverse iL'Pa and iuterests of the whole nation, laws cease to be made without full discussion at the behests of some party leader, there will never be a proper respect shown by the law making power either to the Judicial or Executive branch of the Govern ment. The generation just beginning to use the ballot, it is believed, only need that their attention should bo i called to these considerations, to in dicate by their votes that they wish their representatives to observe all the restraints which the people, in adopting the Constitution, intended to im.iose upon them. Calmly reviewing my adminis tration of the Government, I feel that with a sense of accountability to God, having conscientiously en deavored to discharge my whole duty, I have nothing to regret. Events have proved the correct ness of the policy set forth in my first and subsequent messages. The woes which have followed the rejec tion of forbearance, magnanimity aud constitutional rule are known and deplored bv the nation. It is a matter of pride and ffratifl- ! been spilt, rests on me. Mv thoughts have been those of peace, and my efforts have ever been to allay con tentions anions my countrymen. Forgetting the past, let us return to I the first principles of the Govern ment, unturl the banner ol our coun try, and inscribe upon if. iu inefface able characters, "The Constitution and the Union, one and inseparable." ANDREW JOHNSON. Old Maids. There is a stigma of reproach cast upon the term " old maid," too often justly se, I admit. But where : does the fault lie ? I know two women who may be classed iu that category unmarried, forty years old, or thereabouts. Both arc of gootl family, the daughters of wealthy men. The one, some dozen years ago, finding, as no sensible woman can fail to do, that fashion able life had nothing iu it to satisfy her, made a Stand for herself. She told her family that she must have a life of her ow n. She hail no special I gifts, except a remarkable aptitude t for business, inherited Troiu her father. Iu a quiet way, she had turned her ; attention to fruit growing, a branch jot industry offering many attractions to her, and into that business she de I terniincd to enter. Fortunately, she j had sufficient money, left ber by her j grand-father, to be able to carry ont her plaus, despite the sneers of her I raattissn iKIa nennnint.inees and 1 114 olfactions and obstacles raised by ; her home circle She established I herself on a frnit farm in the western part of this State. Her work pw- peretl. Now she is i.mm1miI .wees tlt, owner i of land, and w "'" " ' , remunerative oc has constant anilremu eupation ol a kj""g father died. Altera fe Eg rich man he was and. instea ( (o ,)e es imstefl, " i apt. of .,' .imendment directly in conflict .