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The weekly Minnesotian. [volume] (Saint Paul, Minn. Territory) 1852-1858, May 15, 1852, Image 2

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THE MINNESOTIAN.
&t. Dxtil f _iHfnncsota.
Saturday,. May IS, 1852.
5T For New Advertisements, see end of reading
matter on next page.
HOME AGAIN.
We arc rejoiced, after an absence of
nearly four weeks, to find ourself back at
our post. We have been absent much
longer than we had intended; but it is
probable the patrons of the Minnesotian
have lost nothing by it, and in the end
will be largely the gainers.
We have much to say of St. Louis, its
business and future prospects; also of
other places and things along the river.!
For this week, however, we must defer
all this for want of time.
We learned nothing in regard to our
Treaties, or other matters of interest to
Minnesota, more than what is already
known. Minnesota is beginning to at
tract great attention below ; and we found
friends, ready and willing to labor for
her interests, in quarters where it might
have been supposed nothing would be
cared for us.
We left St. Louis late on Friday eve
ning of last week, on that superb steam
er, the Golden Era, and were in Galena
early on Monday morning, several hours
before the Nominee left. Those passen
gers who came with us to Galena, and
took the Nominee, arrived here in about
four days and four hours, after losing
seven or eight hours in Galena. This is
no doubt the quickest time ever made be
tween St. Louis and St. Paul. It will
pay well, even if persons going down or
coming up are in haste, to arrange it so as
to travel upon the Golden Era. She
leaves Galena Monday evenings, and St.
Louis Fridays. We waited two days
for her after our business was concluded,
and gained time by the operation. We
have never traveled upon a boat under
better government, or where greater at
tention was paid to the comfort of pas
sengers. Capt. Bersie, and the clerk,
Mr. Dawley, study nothing save the com
forts and safety of their passengers, and
undertake nothing but what their energy
and industry are sure to accomplish. As
we have heretofore remarked, the only
distinguishable difference in the appear
ance of the Golden Era and Saint Paul is
the letters upon their wheel-houses.
The Saint Paul left Galena twenty-six
hours after the Nominee, with a fine trip
of freight and passengers. She made no
attempt at fast running, and was com
pelled to land more often than we have
ever known upon any trip we ever made
over this route. We were about forty
seven hours from Galena to St. Taul, hav
ing been to Stillwater before coming here.
The run from Prairie du Cliien to La
Crosse, ninety miles, was made in a little
less than eight hours, including four land
ings and one wooding from a flat. This
is as good time as any business boat need
make. People should always be satisfied
if they can get through the world, up
stream, at the rate of twelve miles an
hour. Altogether, the Saint Paul runs
beautifully, with an easy and graceful
motion. She can pass fora steamboat, in
every sense of the word, in any port upon
the western waters. We have nothing
to say in regard to her relative speed with
other boats ; but we would consider it an
act detrimental to the reputation of her
officers and owners as boatmen, were they
to push her, new as she is, after the man
ner that older boats have been run, and
can be run without disadvantage. Any
practical boatman will coincide with us
in this particular. On Wednesday, at
half-past twelve, we met the Nominee
just below La Crosse. She passed at some
distance behind an island, but not out of
sight. When opposite to us she let eff
her whistle, in triumph, we suppose, at
having won the glory of making the
quickest trip. Capt. Harris, in reply,
blowed his horn, as much as to say, “you
have the glory, but I have the money."
It is a matter of no little interest to the
traveler at this season of the year, while
making a quick trip from St. Louis to j
this point, to note the progress of vegeta
tion along the banks of the river. Below
Keokuk, the leaves of the forest trees
were full size; between the lower and
upper rapids they appeared to diminish j
every mile; while from Rock Island to
St. Paul there was no perceptible differ
ence in the degree of forwardness.
The earthly career of Henry Clay is
rapidly drawing to a close. Even as we
write, it is not improbable that the intel
ligence of his demise is being transmitted
to different parts of the Union, through
the agency of the telegraph. Latest ac
counts state that his friends had aban
doned all hopes of his recovery, and look
for his speedy dissolution. His sons ; n
Kentucky have been summoned to his
bedside, but his aged consort is too feeble
to undertake a journey across the Alle
ghanies. Senators are in constant at
tendance on him.
The Maine Liquor Law, as amended,
passed tlie Massachusetts Legislature, by
26 majority. In what way they have im
proved upon this law, we have not
learned.
Facts and Fancies.
A steamboat company has been formed
at Galena, composed of the Harrises, Jas.
Carter & Co., 11. F. McCloskey, and
several other leading merchants, to run a
line of first-class boats between this
place and Galena, and one boat through to
St. Louis. The Saint Paul, in all proba
bility, will be the through boat, under the
command of Capt. Smith Harris. For
the present, only one boat will be pur
chased for the Saint Paul and Galena
trade, and she the West Newton, St. Louis
and Nashville packet, or the Cornelia, St.
Louis and Louisville packet. Either can
make two trips per week, if required*
with all ease, and do whatever way busi
ness may be required. The West New
ton has made the run from Cairo to Saint
Louis, two hundred miles, in sixteen
hours, and landed at all the important
points. The current in that portion of
the Mississippi, it must be remembered,
is a mill-race compared with this upper
portion of the river. We have before
remarked that we have no partiality on
the side of either of the lines. The old
line has been successful, and will continue
so to be, so long as its owners continue
so thoroughly as they have to merit suc
cess. At the same time, it is the inter
est of every Minnesotian to also keep up
the new line if we can.
The Nominee left Galena on Monday
at 2 P. M., and arrived here at half-past
eleven on Tuesday night, making her trip
up in 113 1-2 hours, the quickest time on
record. It is understood that she was
racing with time. She left at 2 o’clock,
A. M., Wednesday, and was at La Crosse
at noon, making half the distance down
in about ten hours. We received by this
boat a Missouri Republican of Friday
evening—only four days from St. Louis.
It came to Galena on the Golden Era.
The Commissioners of the La Crosse
and Mississippi Railroad Company give
notice that subscription books will be
opened in La Crosse at the house of Timo
thy Burns on the 2-lth of June, and on
the Bth of July at the Milwaukee Bank
in the city of Milwaukee. Five dollars
on each share of the capital stock will be
required to be paid at the time of sub
scription.
The vote of Cass county was errone
ously returned, probably through mistake,
as 19 majority against the Liquor Law,
when it should have been 25 majority for
the law. This makes a difference of 44,
and the majority in the Territory, instead
of being 191. is 233.
We learn from the Democrat that Capt.
\\ m. 11. Dodd has received from Chief
Justice Fuller the appointment of Steam
boat Inspector for the First Judicial Dis
trict. The Captain has examined the
Tiger and pronounces her safe. The
Tiger will make a trip up the Minnesota
the ensuing week.
IV e are under many obligations to lion.
Lewis Cass, S. 1\ Chase and 11. S. Gevcr,
of the Senate, and Messrs. Campbell,
Miner, Newton, Brooks, Sibley and oth
ers of the House, for various public doc
uments.
In the U. S. Senate, on the 30th ult.,
Mr. Atchison gave notice that he should,
on Monday the 3d inst., ask leave of the
Senate to go into Executive session im
mediately after the expiration of the
morning hour, for the purpose of taking
up the Sioux treaties. Whether they
were taken up or not, we have been una
ble to learn. The proceedings of Con
gress on the Ith and sth have reached us,
but nothing as yet of the proceedings on
the 3d. We are inclined to the opinion
that they were not acted on during that
day, else some intelligence would have
been received.
Nearly every body is traveling west
ward this year. Our exchanges state
that all the different railroad, steamboat
and stage conveyances are crowded with
passengers, who are emigrating to the
West. The Michigan Central Railroad
delivered over six hundred passengers in
Chicago in one day. A large portion of
these will eventually find their way to
Minnesota.
A large drove of as fine beef cattle as
w f e ever saw in any country, were land
ed from the Saint Paul upon her last trip.
They are for our market.
It is gratifying to see the large number
of fruit trees that every boat brings up
from below, "lhere is not a doubt but
what all the varieties of fruit usually
raised in the northern States, unless it be
peaches, and the experiment of raising
that fruit must be thoroughly tried, be
fore we shall be convinced that it will
not do well.
Mr. Fillmore, brother of the President,
has been here during the last week, as
agent for the Government, to settle with
our lumbermen, who have been cutting
logs this winter, in the Pineries, on land
not yet subject to entry. We understand
that matters have been satisfactorily ad
justed, so that the difficulties that were
at first anticipated between our enterpris
ing lumbermen and the Government, by
the enemies of the Administration, have
proven to be more imaginary than real.
In one of our letters from St. Louis,
we took occasion, in a pleasant way, to
make a few harmless remarks about the
general appearance of the ladies of that
city. Upon this the Editor of the Pio
neer has travelled out of the line of his
business to make some very harsh per
sonal comments. Considering the friend
ly relations which exist between Col.
Goodhue and ourself, we are at a loss to
account for this attack, unless it was ac
tuated by that narrow spirit of exclusive
ness which is known to be a trait of his
character, and which very often induces
him to abuse his best friends, if he ima
gines even a small pittance can be made
by the operation. Had he chosen to re
ply in the spirit which prompted our
pleasantry, we would not have com
plained, however severe might have been
his wit; but his remarks so prominently
strike every one as being an ebullition of
petty malice, that we cannot let them
pass. A man whose face would be
worth a fortune to a vinegar manufactu
rer, to make the necessary chemical
changes in sweet cider, by throwing at it
a single glance, we should think has very
little reason to quarrel, even with “the
chap that carries the jack-knife,” about
personal beauty.
The Caleb Cope, Capt. Burbank, ar
rived yesterday from Galena with a tre
mendous freight, having two barges in
tow. She was crowded also with pas
sengers. Capt. Brooks returned to Ga
lena upon the Nominee, from La Crosse.
\\ e stopped a few moments the other
day at the landing of the Rolling Stone
settlement on Wabashaw Prairie. We
had not time to visit the main settlement,
or we should certainly have done so. We
were pleased tolearn, however,that Gov.
Ramsey and Mr. Bass were then on the
ground, to administer words of encour
agement to the settlers, and show them
that in the most trying period that they
will encounter in securing for themselves
a new home, they arc not forgotten by
those in power and by the people gener
ally' of the older settlements. The Gov
ernor and Mr. B iss returned yesterday
on the Caleb Cope. We learn from the
latter gentleman that the settlers were
much encouraged to continue in the Ter
ritory, after conversing with his Excel
lency'. Many will remain where they
are—others will look for locations in other
parts of the Terrritory, while some will
return. This is always the result of im
migration to new countries, and therefore
not unexpected at Rolling Stone. Wc
say to our friends down there, courage,
courage! “ The darkest hour is just be
fore day'.” From what we have seen of you,
you have the stamina among you to build
up a prosperous and afllulent settlement
in a very short time. Those of you who
are dissatisfied with your present loca
tion can find others that will perhaps
suit you belter in other parts of Minneso
ta. Do not go back until you have look
ed about vou.
Our business men who arc trading be
low, will find in this number of our pa
per the advertisements of some of the
principal Galena merchants. It is un
necessary for us to do more than merely
call attention to these old and respectable
houses. Our St. Louis friends would
have appeared in full array this number,
had wc arrived home in time to get their
favors in type. Next week we will have
everything in complete order.
Our District Court, Chief Justice Ful
ler presiding, is still in session. The
docket is very heavy, and the court is
despatching business w ith its accustomed
energy. The term will run into next
week.
A portion of the culvert on Fourth
street, near Moffett’s hotel, gave way on
Thursday night, owing to the heavy rains.
This work should be finished with a
greater regard to permanency than it was
commenced.
Right Rev. Bishop Kemper. Mission
ary Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal
Church, came passenger on the Saint
Paul, upon a visit to this portion of his
field of labor. Mr. Meagher, an Irish
gentleman, cousin of 1 lie unfortunate ex
ile of that name, also was among those
who arrived by the Saint Paul. Mr. M.
has only been in America sixteen or
eighteen days.
The following notice shows a verv ac
ceptable change to the people of Minneso
ta and the North-west generally, in the
way of letting contracts for Indian pro
visions. This business should been have
entrusted to this Superintendency from the
time of its creation. We find the notice
in the St. Louis papers of the 7th inst:
Office Sup’t Indian Affairs, (
St. Louis, May 6, 1852. (
The duty of procuring by contract, the
Provisions for the Winnebago, Sioux and
Chippewa Indians, having been delegated
to Governor A. Ramsey, the ex-officio
Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Min
nesota ; notice is hereby given to all con
cerned, that the Proposals requested by
an advertisement from this office, dated
the 13th ultimo, are no longer required
by me. D. D. MITCHELL,
Superintendent Indian Affairs.
The Postmaster General has ordered
an additional weekly trip on the mail
route between St. Paul and Stillwater.
A lady passenger on the Saint Paul
had the misfortune to lose her bagge, con
sisting of a trunk and band-box, after the
arrival here of the boat on Thursday.—
If any honest person has got hold of
these articles by mistake, it is to be pre
sumed she will recover them.
Returned Californian. —Mr. Law
ler, a young man who has had the good
fortune to acquire and the good sense to
keep, a very handsome property, earned
by him in California, has come to St. Paul
and made some cash investments here,
with a degree of judgement and foresight,
which other young men in California,
would do well to imitate. Considering
the salubrity of our climate, the vastness i
of our resources in agriculture and lum- j
ber, and the certainty that St. Paul must
shortly be one of the foremost cities in
this great valley, Mr. Lawler has bought
valuable property here, and will build and
will pay for his buildings. Mr. Lawler
has also bought out the firm of M. Cur
ran &. Co., and will do business now,
with Mr. James Curran, under the new
firm of Curran & Lawler, at the World’s
Fair. Good fortune to them.— Pioneer.
A MILITARY ROAD TO ST. PAUL.
There can be no certainty of having a
Mail Route established between Dubuque
and St. Paul until a Military road shall be
located between these places by the Gen
eral Government. That part of the pro
posed route which lies within the State of
lowa, could, it is true, be opened and im
proved by the county authorities, but as
no county will presume to say in ivhat di
rection or what course the proposed road
should follow, and as it is not likely that
any concert of action will be had by the
counties north of us, by which the loca
tion of the end of the route could be de
termined, it is therefore almost essential
to success that some higher power would
step in and assume jurisdiction of the
matter. No other power can do this so
well as the general government, although
a joint commission between the State of
lowa and the Territory of Minnesota may
be able to accomplish the same result.—
But as Minnesota is a mere suckling of
the general government, and as Dubuque
is indicated as one of the points whence
that Territory will in some measure re
ceive its pap, it is but a matter of conve
nience for the government to have a way
prepared over which its agents may at all
times travel safely, cheaply and expedi
tiously.
To do all this, a good road is wanting,
call it Military, civil or what not.
Those who have traveled over the coun
try between Dubuque and St. Paul speak
of it as being well adapted for a good road
the whole way. Of course they mean a
nearly direct route, not a route inclining
to the right to strike this town or to the
left to touch that contemplated village.—
IV hat the St. Puulers want and what we
want is a direct road and a direct Mail.
The Mail is entirely under the control of
the government, and as most of the road
route is exclusively eonlroled by the same
pow er, the best thing that could be done
now would be for our members of Con
gress to unite with Mr. Sibley the Dele
gate from Minnesota, and have a Mail
Route and Military Road established sim
ultaneously. If both cannot be establish
ed at once, let the Mail Route be secured
at all events, a direct Mail Route remem
ber ; then, that being secured, it will be
necessary to open a proper road on which
the Mail may be conveyed.
Nor is it to afford Mail facilities alone
that the road is necessary and would be
useful. While there remains a remnant
of an Indian tribe in Minnesota, the gov
ernment will be obliged to have resident
Agents, soldiers, &c., and these will need
supplies in winter as well as in summer, j
With such a road as can be opened at a
trilling comparative cost between Du
buque and St. Paul, these supplies can be
transported salely, cheaply and expedi
tiously, and in this respect alone, and as.
a measure of economy the government I
would be the gainer, even if the road
should be good for nothing else, which of
course would not be the case.
!\ e have said enough to call attention
in high quarters to this subject and we
trust that the present session of Congress
will not be allowed to pass over without
having an effort made, and we trust a suc
cessful effort, to secure the establishment
of a Mail Route and the location of a Mil
itary Road between Dubuque and St.
Paul.
The welfare of Minnesota requires it,
and no time should be lost in affording that
Territory tiie advantages to which it is
entitled.—[Dubuque Herald.
Indian Supplies. —lt will perhaps be
recollected that we called attention some
days since to the unjust manner in wdiich
Col. Mitchell, Superintendent of Indian
affairs for the West, had advertised for
supplying the Sioux, the Winnebago and
the Chippewa Indians, remarking at the
conclusion, that we believed if the matter
was properly brought before Col. Lea,
justice would be done promptly.
Saturday evening a letter was received
from lion. Thompson Campbell, accom
panied by another from the proper quar
ter, saying that the business of contract
ing for supplies to be furnished the Indi
ans in Minnesota will be immediately
transferred, with all necessary instruc
tions, from the Middle to the Northern
Superintendency. The supplies will now
probably be advertised for, to be delivered
at St. Paul.— Galena Jldv.
The High Water. —The river con
tinues to rise, and is now in the neigh
borhood of 10 inches higher than it was
last year. It is now about the same
height that it was in 1544, but is yet
about four feet below the high water of
May, 1820, and July, 1828. Merchants
are vacating their cellars on the west side
ol Main street, opposite the levee, and
many of our mechanics are driven from
the shops. —Galena .'Mr. May 8.
M lsicae Combination. —An exchange
paper has the following:
Married. —ln Sherburne, on the 18th,
by Prof. Geo. W. Eaton, D. D., Mr.
George E. Baker, of the 'Baker Family,’
to Miss Clare Reese, of the ‘Chenango
Vocalists."
Speech of the Hon. H. on the Insane
Land Bill
In the House of Representatives, on
the 24th ult., Mr. Sibley having obtained
the floor in Committee of the Whole, on
the Bill granting a portion of the public
lands to each actual settler, after a few
remarks in favor of the principle and
policy of the bill, proceeded to speak on
a project for giving away a large portion
of the public lands in the Territories to
the States having no such lands. His re
marks are as follows:
But, Mr. Chairman, while I desire
most earnestly that the bill (Freedom of
the Public Lands) originated, and so ably
advocated by the gentleman from Tennes
see, [Mr. Johnson,] may speedily become
the law of the land, with such modifica
tions as shall render it most acceptable to
the actual settler, there is another land
bill now ready to be reported by the Com
mittee, which, I wish I could flatter my
self, would not receive the sanction of a
majority of this House. I refer to that
which was introduced by the honorable
member from Illinois, [Mr. Bissell,] pro
viding for a donation of ten millions of
acres of the public lands, to be appropri
ated among the Slates, in the compound
ratio of their area and representation, for
the relief and support of the indegent in
sane therein. It stipulates that each
State having public lands of a suitable
quality within its own limits, shall re
ceive its portion therefrom ; but those
not having such lands, shall be authorized
to select from the public domain, not in
the other States, but exclusively in the
Territories. This is the identical scheme
which the same gentleman introduced,
and pressed so warmly during the last
Congress, but which was ultimately de
feated.
Mr. Chairman, much as it grieves me
to oppose any bill emanating from my
honorable friend, my duty is so plainly
marked out, that I could not evade its
performance, even if I desired to do so.
I am led to resist the measure at the very
threshold, while I have the opportunity,
with the hope of convincing this House in
advance, that should it prove successful,
a great and irreparable injury will there
by be inflicted upon the Territories of
Minnesota and of Oregon. The bill, at
my earnest solicitation, was modified in
two important particulars, so as to render
the draught, if we are to be compelled to
swallow it, as little nauseous as possible;
but it is still very objectionable, and more
particularly so, in the invidious distinc
tion which it proposes to make between
the States and the organized Territories.
Sir, when these temporary governments
were established, there was an implied
but solemn pledge given by Congress,
that so soon as the increase of population
would justify it, these Territories should
be admitted, in accordance with establish
ed precedent, into the Union, with the
same advantages and upon an equal foot
ing with the original States, in all re
spects whatsoever. It is with this assu
rance, that Minnesota and Oregon are
now augmenting in population with unex
ampled rapidity ; and no man emigrates to
either, who does not look forward to their
speedy admission into the Union. It is
this expectation which nerves the settler
to meet with all the trials, and overcome
all the difficulties, which fall to the lot of
those who lead the vanguard of civiliza
tion. Thousands have already gotiS into
those favored regions, and other thousands
arc even now following in their footsteps,
to purchase your lands and cultivate
them in accordance with your invitation,
and with implicit reliance upon the good
faith of the Government. Will you fal
sity you pledges, and bring bitter disap
pointment to the breasts of these men, by
passing a bill which will deliver them
over to the lender mercies of the several
States ? Will you take the lands, which
the pioneer has rendered valuable by the
sweat of his brow, for the benefit of his
friends and relatives, and transfer them to
a foreign jurisdiction having no sympathy
with him, and no regard for the sacrifices
he has made; Will you cripple and em
barrass your Territories, and retard their
admission into the Union for long, long
years ? If this House is prepared to in
flict such a train of calamities upon us as
I have indicated, and fo trifle with the
faith of the nation, it will pass this bill,
but not otherwise.
The land States object most perempto
rily to any grants of public lands, within
their limits, being made to other States.
They have power to make themselves felt
in the two Houses of Congress, and
therefore their protest will be effectual.
There must be grave reasons for the
stand thus taken by them ; and the same
reasons exist in full force, against any
such schemes being carried into effect in
the organized Territories. They should
be prepared to resist any measure of this
kind, if intended to be enforced upon the
latter, with the same alacrity and zeal that
they would manifest, if their own States
were to be subjected to a like outrage.—
Ii it is wrong for the General Govern
ment to transfer to a State its title to
lands in another State, it would be a
strange train of reasoning which would
lead to the conclusion, that it would not
be equally so to give to the same State,
its lands in the Territories so soon to
become States. No, sir ; if the plan pro
posed in the bill alluded to should be car
ried out,•'it will be because Minnesota
and Oregon have no vote in either House
of Congress-, and are consequently pow
erless to defend their rights.
That Congress has the power to control
the public lands, whether in the States or
Territories, no man will deny. But, that
this power should be exercised with a
just regard to the interests of those who
dwell within the limits of such States and
Territories, is equally certain. There is
no moral or equitable right in this Gov
ernment to make any disposition of its
public domain, or other property, which
would result in certain detriment to any
community of its citizens, especially
when the previous action and invitation of
Congress, have induced them to place
themselves in a position where injury
must follow to them from such disposi
tion.
Mr. Chairman, it has been very plausi
bly urged in defence of this bill for the
relief of the indegent insane, that it pro
tects the actual settler in the possession
of his rights ; that it confirms pre-emp
tion claims ; that it prevents the States
from selling the lands at a higher rate
than the minimum price of the public do
main, and that it restricts the locations to
the lands subject to private entry at the
time of its passage by Congress. Above
all, we are told that we in the Territories,
shall have the right to tax the lands to be
selected by the States therein. Now,
sir, I would not give a farthing for all the
limitations, and restrictions, and guaran
tees, that you can crowd into this bill.—
If the lands arc once but transferred to
the States, the same majority which pass
es this measure will be found ready,
whenever occasion requires, to scatter
all these limitations and guarantees to the
winds of Heaven, and to forbid the Ter
ritorial authorities from imposing any tax
upon such lands. And even supposing
that this would not occur, the past expe
rience of this nation affords ample evi
dence, that any controversy which has
arisen between the General Government
and the individual States, the latter inva
riably have prevailed. Let the public
lands in Minnesota and Oregon but pass
into the possession of the States, and I
will venture the prediction, that thev will
be managed without regard to any previ
ous contract or agreement with the Fed
eral Government, and without the least
reference to the general interests of either
Territory. Should this be the case,
where is to be found the remedy for the
poor settler thereon ? He has not the
means to coerce a State, by the institu
tion of legal proceedings in the Supreme
Court of the United States, and he must
consequently abandon his improvements
and the fruits of his toil and labor, or
suffer such axactions as the agent of the
State may see fit to impose. It is no suf
ficient answer to assert, that no State
would pursue a vexatious or improper
course towards the tenant of its lands
It is enough for me to know that the ac
tual settler would find himself in the
power of a foreign jurisdiction, to causa
me to turn with abhorrence from any
project, which would tend to place him
in so humiliating a position.
Mr. Chairman, if the several Slates
must receive aid from Congress, to ena
ble them to discharge their obligations to
an unfortunate class within their own
limits, let the vote given be a direct one
upon the simple proposition which I have
submitted to the House. The bill intro
duced by me several weeks since, provid
ed that the proceeds of the first ten mil
lion acres of the public lands which may
be sold, shall be equitably divided among
the States for the relief and support of
the indegent insane therein. Sir, I will
be frank, and say that I do not think any
such arrangement as this, would be in ac
cordance with the spirit of the Constitu
tion. Although that instrument gives to
Congress the complete control of the pub
lic lands, without imposing any restric
tions in words , as to the particular ob
jects to which they shall be devoted, I do
not believe that any strict constructionist
will contend, that it was the intention of
its framers to grant to the National Leg
islature, authority to alienate these lands
for purposes strictly local in their char
acter, as is contemplated by the bill to
which I refer. Nor can I perceive how
any man can, with propriety, oppose the
project for the distribution of the pro
ceeds of the public lands among the States,
which was, and still is, so obnoxious to
the Democratic party, and yet vote to dis
tribute the lands themselves in the same
manner. Sir, in my poor judgment, the
one is as open to objection as the other.
If Cougress possesses no right to dispose
of the money in the Treasury, received
from the sale of the public domain, oth
erwise than for the defence of the coun
try, or the general welfare, he would
have to be possessed of much metaphys
ical subtility, who could convince me
that tiie domain itself could rigtfullly be
parceled out, except for the same speci
fic objects. It may be presumptious in
me, Mr. Chairman, to be thus obtruding
my opinions as to the constitutional pow
ers of Congress, upon this House, as I
profess not to be “ learned in the law.”
But it appears to me that a plain, com
mon-sense view of the subject, should
prevent any one, who is not an advocate
lor a latitudinarian construction of the
Constitution, from voting for any such
scheme, as is contained in the bill which
I am now opposing. And I have only
been induced to introduce a substitute,
such as I have mentioned, because of the
two projects, my own, being the choice
of two evils, will, at least, not be attend
ed with injury to my immediate constitu
ents.
But there is still another mode bv
which the object can be reached, if there
is a majority of the members upon this
tloor, who are determined that the sever
al States shall benefit by some such divis
ion of a portion of the public domain, as
is contemplated. In such case, allow the
land States to select their distributive
share of the ten million acres, within
their own limits, and provide for the is
sue of scrip to the other States, in pro
portion to the amount they may be enti
tled to receive to he sold but not located
by them. To this plan I can perceive no
reasonable objection, that can be made bv
the friends of the bill in question. It
would give the States the benefit of these
donations, without inflicting an injury
upon the Territories. The scrip would
sell in the market for the same price as
land warrants, and the money be realized
much more speedily than if the land it
self was granted.
Mr. Chairman, of the land States, (so
called,) not more than eight, should the
bill originally introduced succeed, would
be able to find public lands “ of a suita
ble character” within their own bounda
ries. Including Texas, which has no
other soil but its own, and which would
have a right to share in the general ap
portionment, there would then remain
twenty-four States to be provided for in
the Territories. And it is but reasonable
to suppose, that fifteen of these would
choose their distributive share in Min
nesota Territory. Supposing this bill to
have become a law, with what hot haste
would not the agents of thgse specula
ting States be despatched to our fair re
gion, each one eager to anticipate the oth
er, and to seize first upon the choicest
tracts ? As the bill provides that the se
lections may be made according to the le
gal subdivisions, there would be a gener
al and disgraceful scramble to enter here
a forty, and there an eighty acre lot,
without any respect for the interests of
others, or those of the people of the Ter
ritory. Who does not foresee, in such a
state of things, endless disputes and liti
gation among the Slates themselves, and
utter disregard of all the comity and
good feeling which should exist among
them? Minnesota, with millions of
acres of her best lands thus appropriated,
to the exclusion of other claimants who
would otherwise become bona fide settlers,
must languish under a system of non
resident proprietorship which has hereto
fore, but to a less extent, been the bane
and curse of the West.
Sir, the Minncsotians arc a peaceable
, and law-abiding people ; but it may well
be imagined—-that after they had penetra
ted the wilderness—endured all the trials
and suflerings inseperable from the set
tlement of a new country —made sacrifices
of every kind in advancing the interests
of our beautiful Territory—and built up
villages and towns by the labor of their
hands, with a view to meet the wants and
requirements of a rapidly increasing popu
lation—l say, it may readily be imagined,
, that they would not be prepared to greet
with much cordiality, the emissaries of
the States who might go among them “to
' spy out the land” which their own toil
had rendered valuable, in order to secure
its transfer to absentee proprietors, to the
exclusion of the friends and former neigh
bors of the pioneers of the country.
Mr. Yates. I wish to explain. The
bill provides that where a State has lands,
it shall take its share of the grant out of
the lands lying within its own limits.—
After all the States having lands within
their limits have taken their share of the
lands, it is not likely that the quantity lo
cated in the Territories by the other
| States, would be great enough to injure
the Territories. These locations, it is
not likely, would be confined to any Ter
ritory, but would be scattered over all
j the Territories. I cannot believe they
would seriously injure Minnesota.’
Mr. Sibley. My friend is very much
mistaken in his views upon this subject.
I have already stated my conviction that
if this bill becomes a law, at least fifteen
| States, having no public lands within
: their own limits, will select their portions
in Minnesota. Among these will no
doubt be numbered the four largest States
in the Union, to wit: New r York, Vir
ginia, and the States so ably represented
in part by the gentlemen now in my eve,
[Messrs. Chandler and Edgerton,] w hich,
from the number of their population,
would be entitled to a large proportion of
the grant. When I estimated that six
out of the ten millions acres contempla
ted to be distributed in this bill would be
| selected in my own Territory, I have no
doubt I fell short of the mark. I feel
'certain that more than six millions would
thus be located there. And, in view of
this fact, I would be glad to know with
w hat propriety the members from the land
States can vote tor such an accumulation
of evils upon Minnesota, when they will
not entertain a proposition that another
State shall hold one acre of public land
| within the confines of their own State?
Alas! sir,
“ ’Tls ali mu’soflec t.i speak patience
To tlio-e Kilo wring miiler the load ~t sorrow}
Out no man’s virtue, nor sufficiency.
To he so moral when he shall cn.lur.-
The like himself***
Sir, I trust no such anomalous proceed
ing will take place as this bill proposscs
—no such dangerous experiment be tried.
Who is there among the members of this
House, who would not recoil from being
the instrument of fixing upon Minnesota
and Oregon a system which will retard
their prosperity, and under the operation
of which they will come into the Union,
it at all, embittered in feeling against
their sister States, because the latter had
previously fixed upon them by legislation
a withering blight, which they had been
especially careful not to inflict, even to a
comparatively small extent, upon each
other ?
Mr. Chairman, it n:ay be deemed strange
by many, whose attention has not been
called to this subject, that I have taken so
early an opportunity to state my objec
tions to this bill for the relief of the in
digent insane. God knows, sir, that no
man sympathizes more than I do in the
sufferings of that unhappy class of be
ings ; and no one would be disposed to
make greater sacrifices than myself to
ameliorate their condition. The States
themselves are abundantly able, however,
to provide all the requisite means and ap
pliances for their comfort, without bur
dening the National Treasury. If you
now give lands for their support, you
will have applied the entering wedge,
and you will next be called upon to aid°in
the construction of hospitals and of
| school-houses, and public buildings for
other purposes. The only safe method
is, to let these matters alone. They le
gitimately belong to State jurisdiction;
and the Federal Government, in my judg
ment, has no right to interfere in any pro
ject of this kind.
But, sir, I know very well that the
bill is in the hands of those, both here
and in the Senate, (for it has been intro
duced in both Houses,) who will strain
every nerve to procure its enactment into
a law ol the land. And I most sincerely
regret that the blow which, if not arrest
ed, is to penetrate the vitals of Oregon
and Minnesota, will have been dealt by
YVes'ern men. That they do not appre
ciate the deep injury we are to suffer by
the passage of their darling measure, and
that they will not be convinced of it, is
our misfortune. All that can be done by
my gallant friend from Oregon and my
self to resist it will be accomplished. I
! sincerely trust that lie may be as success
ful in this struggle, as he has been on
other and more dangerous fields in days
gone by. His constituents and mine are
solely interested in the solution of this
question; as, happily for them, in this
case, the other organized Territories are
too remote, and too difficult of access, to
fear any injury, whatever may be the re
sult. 3
In etmclusion, Mr. Chairman, I beg

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