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SATURDAY MORNING, JANUARY 6, 1855 Board of Trade. We are pleased to learn that the St. Paul Board of Trade is continuing to hold its meet ings regularly, and that the Directors have adopted decided measures in regard to the cur rency question, which the mercantile commu nity are carrying out, and which have been at once, upon presentation, acquiesced iu by the legitimate and responsible bankers of the city. The beneficial effect ot the determined course pursued by the Board is already apparent in money and business matters in St. Paul. At the last meeting of the Board, it was re solved to memorialize the Postmaster General to grant remuneration to the mail contract or between St Paul and Dubuque for carrying three mails per week, and to have the same service continued during the suspension of navigation. Territorial Agricultural Society. The society met at the Capitol on YY ednes day last, but the attendance being small, the meeting adjourned until next Wednesday at 10 o’clock. Our agricultural friends,T if they expect to succeed in establishing an efficient Territorial Society to promote the laudable ob jects at which they are aiming, must place the officers and committees of their organization In the hands of practical farmers, and not re ly upon meTc’*politicians, who turn up at ev ery agricultural fair or farmers meeting, mere ly to gas about Agriculture for the purpose of making great men of themselves, by professing to know something about a subject which God never gave them brains to comprehend. YV e hope to see a large attendance ot Farmers at the Capitol next Wednesday, and to sec bann ers take hold of the Territorial Society and manage its affairs. Clear the Track !—lt will be seen that the Messrs. Nettleton have placed a line of the old kind of horses on the road between Taylor s Falls and Superior, which is an act of enter prise merely anticipatory of the advent of the Iron Horse over that route in a very short time. Messrs. Burbank & Co. contemplate sending express packages by this stage line during the present winter, and next season will have reg ular messengers employed. Sweet Thixgs. —Rauch has a new consign ment of Stewart's celebrated candy, which he says should have been here before the holidays, but notwithstanding comes in use for the win ter festivities. Those fresh oysters of his arc also sweet. Cheat Storm. —We were having one of the snow storms yesterday—the kind that will make the Minnesota boys in the woods dance for joy, and enable country people to come into town safety on runners. This storm is certain ly a practical business operation to Minnesota at this time. We call attention to the proceedings of the meeting contemplative ol celebrating the anniversary of Daniel Webster's birth at the Winslow House. Donation Supper.— YY’e are requested to state that the friends of the Rev. Joshua Bradley and lady are invited to be present at a Donation Supper, to be given at their residence, on Thursday, the 11th January, at 7 o'clock, P. M. Counterfeit ten dollar bills on the State Bank of ludiana arc in circulation. They are well executed, but are darker than the genu ine, and the numbering on both sides arc in the same hand. Study out of School Hours. —The School Committee of Boston, upon the recommenda tion of the City Physician and of a sub-commit tee, who have thoroughly examined the sub ject, have rescinded the regulation which per mits teachers in public schools to assign les sons to be learn'd out of school. This has been done in consequence of ill health amoug the pupils, which is attributed to severe appli cation and too much study. Death of a Missionary. —We learn from the N. Y. Evangelist that Mrs. Scudder, wife of the Rev. William W. Scudder, and missionary of the American Board, died at the station in Ma dras. India, on the 14th of September, at tho age of 24 years. The Evangelist promises an obituary notice of Mrs. S. in a future number. Relics of the Past. —An antiquarian friend of ours (says the Nantucket Inquirer) informs us that he has in his possession a tea-cup, which came out of the ship Mayllower, at the time she arrived at Plymouth. The same gentleman has a timber head, about two feet long, which he sawed oIT himself from the ship Endeavor, which vessel accomplished the voyage round the world under the command of the celebrat ed Capt. Cook, having sailed from Deptford, England, June 30, 17C8. Her keel and floor timbers arc now lying on Ac' jtfeaek .at New port, buried up with the sand. • • .* :‘ t ; Dick, flic Chrrsiian has re ceived substantial*aftf frftnr lti&fhbnds in.’vjtri-', ous parts of the United States, lie did not re alize much from the sale of his works, and in his old age he was left comparatively poor, but these contributions, he says, have enabled him to live, not in affluence, but comfortably. Lord Palmerston's Theology. —Lord Palm erston, in a recent speech at an agricultural meeting in England, made the following re marks, which have been furiously taken up and belabored by the advocates of rigid orthodoxy, and the upholders of church and state. The learned lord would seem (o have entirely for gotten that such a doctrine as “ natural de pravity’' was included in the code of the “ Thirty-Nine Articles" : “You will find that all children are born good. It is bad education and bad associations in early life that corrupt the minds of men. It is true that there are now and then exceptions to general principles. As there are men who have been born with club teet, born blind, or with other personal defects, so also it will hap pen that children will be born with defective dispositions; but these are rare exceptions. Be persuaded that the mind and heart of man are naturally good, and it depends upon train ing and educating whether that goodness, im planted at birth, shall continue to display it self, or whether, by bad associations, it shall be corrupted and destroyed.” In a severe contest for Municipal of ficers at Newburyport. Mass., the Know Noth ings were defeated. The citizens elected their old Mayor, who had done his duty to their sat isfaction. From the Times ot Thursday. Minnesota Agricultural Society. The meeting of this Society was held at the Capital, yesterday afternoon, His Excellency, W. A. Gorman, President of the Society, in the chair. He proceeded to remark that the Secretary, Dr. Ames, not being present, he had confided the papers to Mr. Murphy. On motion, Mr. Murphy was appointed Sec retary, when he read the minutes of the last annual meeting, including the Constitution, By-Laws, and transactions of the Society. The President suggested the election of offi cers. Mr. Stevens of Minneapolis, remarked, that it had been suggested that a future day be ap pointed for the election of officers, as it would be necessary for the delegates to the Society to present their credentials, in order that we might know who were members of the Society, and who were not. In order to do this, he moved that when we adjourn, we adjourn to Saturday, at 2 o’clock. Mr. Hotchkiss begged the gentleman would change his motion by changing the day, as Saturday being the last of the week would pre vent as full attendance as some other day. Capt. Holcombe begged leave to inquire if there had been any correspondence had with the National Society at YVashington. The President remarked that there had been an account of the proceedings of the Society forwarded, but there has been no reply from Washington. lam not aware, however, that it requires an answer of recognition from them to constitute us a society. Mr. Stevens enquired if any one had been named to deliver an address. Mr. Selby asked for the names of the Execu tive Committee, aud moved a reference on the subject to them. Names given by the Presi dent. Mr. Armstrong, of Benton Co., offered an amendment to the motion for adjournment by substituting Wednesday for Saturday. Mr. Sibley, of Dakota, hoped some action would be taken to distinguish who were dele gates, not by credentials, but by their own dec laration. Capt. Holcombe moved to amend the by-laws and was requested to reduce his amendment to writing. Mr. Sibley stated that owing to a press of public and private matters, he felt compelled to decline delivering the address. Capt. Holcombe then submitted his amend ment in writing. Mr. Selby moved that a Committee be ap pointed to wait on the gentlemen requested to address the Society. The President appointed the following Com mittee, Messrs.llotchkiss, Olmstead and Brown. On motion, adjourned to YVedncsday, at 10 o'clock in the House of Representatives. In Honor of the Memory of Webster. A meeting of the Committee of Arrange ments, appointed by the Literary Association of the City of St. Paul, for the purpose of mak ing arrangements for holding a festival at the Winslow House, on the 18th of January, com memorative of the birth day of Daniel YVebster, was held on the evening of the 3d inst. A. D. Munson, chairman, called the meeting to or der ; J. M. Denton, was chosen Secretary. On motion, Resolved, That the Hon. Willis A. Gorman be invited to preside at the festival. On motion, Resolved . That A. D. Munson, being Chair man of the Committee, act as reader of toasts On motion, Resolved, That a Committee] of five be ap pointed to draw up toasts aud invite suitable persons to respond to them. Ou motion, the Chairman was added to the Committee ou Toasts. On motion of Mr. Hayward, Resolved, That the Committee on Toasts attend to the distribution of complimentary tickets. Col. J. n. Stevens suggested that oilier names than those just read by the Chairman be added to the Committee of Arrangements, so as to give as fair a representation as possible from all the counties. Ou motion, Resolved, That each of the Daily Papers be furnished wish a copy of the proceedings and that each member of the Committee be furnish with a copy thereof. On motion of Mr. Morrison, Resolved. That a Committee of three be ap pointed as Committee of Reception ;—after wards increased to a Committee of five. On motion of Mr. Morrison, Resolved, That a Committee of three be ap pointed to confer with Messrs. Parker & Clem ent with regard to price of tickets and hour of the Supper and to report immediately. Messrs. Stevens, Ames and Hayes, were ap pointed and reported that tho price of tickets for a gentleman would be $2, and of a lady sl, and that the hour of meeting would be at 8 o’- clock P. M. The following gentleman comprise the Com mittees : Committee of Arrangements St. Paul—Hon. W. A. Gorman,Hon. Aaron Goodrich, Dorilus Morrison, C. 11. Parker, J. P. Pond, Edmund Rice. W. 11. Marshall, Wm. L. Ames. J. P. Owens, 11. L. Moss. 11. A. Packard, 11. L. Carver. A. D. Munson, J. M. Denton. St. Anthony—Hon. C. T. Stearns, D. A. Sc combe, G. A. Nourse. Minneapolis—Col. J. 11. Stevens, M. C. Ba ker, Chas. Hoag. O T Hayes, of Hasting ; Hon. SB Olmstead, of Benton Co; Hon. II H Sibley, of Dakota Co; Hon. Jlt Brown, of Sibley Co ; and Hon. M McLeod ofNickolotCo. A. D. MUNSON, “ f * * •„ .. Chairman. .’ Secretary. ’ St.’Pahl, Jau. 5, 1855. .-1 Jow. in Europe, writes very pleasant and entertain ing letters to his paper, lhe New York Express. From one of these letters—one written from Vienna —,we subjoin an extract present ing a picture of prosperity and happiness, where an American would least expect to find them: lIAPPIXESS AND PROSPERITY OF THE VIENNESE It is also a duty to say, that on the exterior never did there appear to be a happier people than these Viennese. Of the despotism that over rides them, they appear to be utterly un conscious. Whoever lets the government alone to do just what it pleases without holding it to any accountability, is let alone in all social, domestic and business relations. The Viennese dance as much as they please, (never in the street, however,) sing as much as they please, (no Marseillais song, however.) in short, do just what they please—provided they never conllict with the Austrian formulas. Hence, having arrived at the conclusion to ignore the exis tence of government, beyond absolute and cheerful submission to it, they become happv and prosperous in all their business relations. All affairs properly conducted, seem to pros per. I have hardly seen a beggar in the streets, or in the suburbs. It there is any great extent of poverty, it is not visible in the streets or al leys, where my researches have penetrated.— Such a government and such a people are ano malities to me, which I cannot well define or translate, with my present ideas of a Govern ment aud a people. I cannot understand this prosperity and this happiness under absolute despotism. I cannot understand how a great, lively, aud intelligent people can thus ignore the very existence of the Government over them, or how that Government can exert its absolute authority without making itself harsh ly felt. Our race could not endure it without one everlasting struggle—and yet here is a race prosperous under, and apparently enjoy ing it! Jt seems to me, all puzzled as I am, amid these anomalies, that lam in the veriißt land of liberty that I ever saw—judging only by the exterior of things about me. There are soldiers around, to be sure—but in the suburbs they are—and they are troubling nobody.— There are police about—but they let U 3 shout and bellow, laugh and roar, and drink wine and beer, and siug songs—and they seem to be happy, the happier we are. There is a Police Office and a Passport Bureau, and I must go and report myself, and 1 cannot stay here long without a police grant, or permission—but I have just returned from that passport man and he is so civil, so obliging, and gave me so lit tle trouble, that when I take into consideration the security his police regulations gave me, I am very glad to have the trouble in order to be under Ills protection. If I leave my purse, or my haudkerchief even, in a hired cab or a drosky.l have only to go to the policeman next morning, and he will return it safe to me. I ean wander all about the crookedest and nar rowest streets of Y'ienua with the utmost safe ty even at midnight. If I should be lost in the “spider's web,” as these streets are sometimes called, the policeman, a most perfect gentle man in his address in the blandest and softest manner, would show me the way home. No murders ! no assasinations ! no lights! no se duction and robbery of strangers! no brawls! no burglaries! no arson ! No private watch men necessary to guard your houses and shops! But, I dare say, it is a very miserable govern ment to live under, and yet it is certainly a most couvenient despotism for a mere sojourn er and traveller, such as I am. Lairs of Congress Enacted During the Pee sen Session. AN ACT to provide for the extinguishment of the title of the Chippewa Indians to the lands owned and claimed by them in the Territory of Minnesota and State of YVisconsin, aud for their domestication and civilization. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of Amer ica in Congress assembled, That the President be and is hereby authorized to cause negotia tions to be entered into with the Chippewa In dians for the extinguishment of their title to all the lands owned and claimed by them in the Territory of Minnesota and State of YY'isconsin, which treaties shall contain the following pro visions and such others as may be requisite and proper to carry the same into effect: First. Granting to each head of a family in fee simple a reservation of eighty acres of land, to be selected in the territory ceded, as soon as surveys shall be completed, by those enti tled, which reservation shall be patented by the President of the United States, and the pa tent therefore shall expressly declare that the said lands shall not be alienated or leased by the reservees or their heirs and legal represen tatives until otherwise ordered by Congress, and no change of location shall be made with out the assent of the President of the United States. Second. The annuities to which said Indians are entitled under existing treaties with the cousent of said Indians, together with such as may be allowed them for the cession or cess ions under the provisions of this act, shall be equally distributed and paid them at their vil lages or settlements within the limits of the ce ded territory ; but the President shall be in vested with power to cause said annuities to be commuted from time to time for such articles of goods, provisions, stock, cattle, implements of agricullure.thc clearing and fencing of land, and the erection of buildings and other im provements as. in his discretion, will conduce most to promote their comfort, civilization,and permanent welfare. Third. All the benefits and privileges gran ed to said Indians shall be extended to and en joyed by the mixed bloods belonging to or con nected with the tribe, and who shall perma nently reside on the ceded lands. For the Minncsolian. Fourth. The laws of the United States and the Territory of Minnesota shall be extended over the Chippewa territory in Minnesota whenever the same shall be ceded,aud the same shall cease to be “Indian country,” except that the lands reserved to said Indians or other property owned by them shall be exempt from further taxation and execution ; and that the act passed thirtieth of June, eighteen hundred and fifty-four, “to regulate trade and inter course with the Indian tribes," &c., be inopera tive over the said ceded territory, except the twentieth section, which prohibits the intro duction and sale of spirituous liquors to In dians. Fifth. The President shall have power to prescribe and enforce such rules and regula tions, not inconsistent with the foregoing pro visions, as he may deem necessary for the ef fectual execution of the purposes of this act ; which said rules and regulations shall be an nually reported to Congress. Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That,for the purpose of defraying the expenses of said negotiations, the sum of ten thousand dollars be and the same is hereby appropriated out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise ap propriated. Approved, December 19, 1854. [Public —No. 2.] AN ACT to relinquish to the State of Wiscon sin the lands reserved for salt springs therein. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives o f tho United States of Amer ica in Congress assembled, That in lieu of the “twelve salt springs, with six sections of laud adjoining to each,” heretofore granted to the State of Wisconssn for its use by the fourth clause of the seventh section of tho act entitled “an act to enable the people of Wisconsin Ter ritory to form a Constitution and State Gov ernment, and for the admission of such State into the Union,” approved the sixth day of August, in the year eighteeu hundred and for six, there be and is hereby granted to the said State of Wisconsin, to be selected by tbe Leg islature of said State out of any public land subject to private entry, and to be sold in such manner as the Legislature may direct, for the benefit and iu aid of the University of said State, and for no other purpose whatever, sev enty two sections of land : Provided, That any selections of land heretofore made under the act entitled “An act to extend the time for selecting land granted to the State of Wiscon sin for saline purposes.” approved the fourth day of May, eighteen hundred and fifty-two,and which shall not have been sold by the United States, and is not legally claimed* by pre-empt ion or otherwise, shall be and hereby are gran cd and confirmed to said State for the use of the university of said State, as a part of the seventy-two sections hereby granted. Approved, December 15, 1554. Japan Mormonism. —Concubinage is common in Japan. Besides a wife —who is always the mistress of the family—every man who can af ford it seems to have from one to five, or six concubines —depending upon his means or in clination —who are bought from their parents while young. These creatures do not of course either black their teeth or shave their eyebrows and arc often quite comely. They are made to perform the duties of maid servants, and are frequently, through jealousy, very cruelly treated. At Simoda, this class appeared to admire the foreigners very much, and were in consequence, often ordered out of their sight. Foreign Items. —Mr. Macaulay is said to have made an important discovery of a mass of Stuart papers relating to a period immediate ly auterior to the death of Queen Anne. This dircovery will, while adding to the value and importance of what he is about, delay, at the same time, the long-looked for day, when two new volumes are to appear. The veteran Lord Brougham has undertak en to collect and edit his works—including his speeches and orations. They will appear in a series of monthly volumes, and will be publish ed by the enterprising firm of Griffin & Co.pub lishsrs to the University of Glasgow. [Public —No. 4.] v LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY. COUNCIL. Friday, Jan. 5 The Council met at 10 o'clock. Prayer by the Chaplain, Rev. Mr. Rihcl dafl'er. Journal of yesterday was read. Mr. Van Etten moved that the permanent officers of the Council be sworn in. The officers elect presented themselves and were sworn in accordingly by the President, and entered upon the discharge of their respec tive duties. On motion of Mr. Brown, a Committee of two was appointed to inform the House that the Council was permanently organized,—Commit tee consisted of Messrs. Brown and Freeborn. Mr. Brown gave notice that he would on some future day introduce a bill to provide for the Apportionment of Members of the Legisla tive Assembly ; also, A Bill to provide for laying out certain Ter ritorial Roads; and also, A Bill to confirm the qualification of County Officers in Sibley County. On motion of Mr. Murray, the Council ad journed till Monday next at 10 o’clock. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES The House was called to order by the Speak er, pro tem, Mr. Sibley. After Prayer by the Rev. Mr. Riheldaffer, the journal of yesterday’s proceedings was read and approved. Mr. Cave offered a resolution admitting J. P, Owens on the floor of the House, as a report er for the Daily Minnesotian. —Adopted. Mr. Cave moved that the House proceed to the election of a permanent Speaker. Lost — ayes, 8 ; nays, 8. Mr. Norris offered a resolution admitting Charles J. Ilcnniss to the floor of the House,as a reporter for the Daily Pioneer.—Adopted. A Committee from the Council consisting of Messrs. Brown and Murray,informed the House that that body was temporarily organized. On motion of Mr. Hanson, a Committee con sisting of Messrs. Fridley and Davis, was ap pointed to inform the Council, that the House was temporarily organized. Resolutions admitting Mr. Munson, of the Daily Times, and James Mills, of the Daily Democrat, to the floor of the House, as report ers, were adopted. Mr. Andrus offered a resolution, inviting ex members of the Legislature and United States’ officers to scats withing the bar of the House. Lost. Mr. Cave renewed his motion for the election of a permanent Speaker. The ayes and nays were called and the motion lost by a vote of 8 ayes and 8 nays. A Committee from the Council, consisting of Messrs. Brown and Freeborn, informed the House, that that body had been permanently organized by the election ofS. B. Olmstead, as President, and other permanent Officers. Mr. Hanson moved that the House adjourn until Monday, at two o'clock. Carried—ayes, 8 ; nays, 7. COUNCIL Mr. Stearns offered a resolution declaring the office of Messenger vacant, which was adopted. On motion, the Council went into an election to fill the vacancy, and Edward Dixon having received a majority of all the votes, was de dared elected. Mr. Dixon was then sworn into office. Mr. Brown, in pursuance of previous notice, offered the following bills : A bill to provide for laying out certain Ter ritorial Roads; A bill to confirm the qualifications of certain County Officers in Sibley County, and for other purposes; A bill to provide for the apportionment of Members of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory. On motion, the rules were so far suspended as to allow said bills to be read a first and se cond time, and lay on the table to be printed. Mr. Brown gave notice that he should, at some future time, introduce a Memorial to Con gress for a further appropriation for the com pletion of Fort Ridgley ; Also, for an appropriation for the construc tion of a military road; Also, for a change in the boundaries of Laud Districts in this Territory. On motion of Mr. Van Etten, the following resolutions were adopted : Resolved, That the Secretary of the Territo ry be requested to furnish each member and officer of the Council with the ncceessary sta tionery and copy of the Journals of the last session of the Legislature. Resolved, That the Secretary of the Territo ry be requested to wait upon the Postmaster and arrange the amount and manner of fur nishing the Council with postage stamps and envelopes during the present session of the Council. Mr. Van Etten gave notice that he should, at some future time, introduce a bill To abolish imprisonment for debt, and for other purposes, Also, a bill to provide for the collection of taxes, Also, a bill to amend and act entitled an act to incorporate the City of St. Paul, Also, a bill to provide for the change of ven ue in civil action, Also, a bill to annul the act relating to As sessors. Mr. Murry gave notice of a bill to provide for laying out a Territorial Road from St. Paul to EUiota on the southern boundary of Minne sota. On motion, the Council adjourned. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, At two o’clock, P. M., the House was called to order by Mr. Sibley, Speaker pro tem. The Throne of Grace was invoked by Rev. Mr. Hodsdon. On motion, the House adjourned to ten o’- clock, A. M., to-morrow. The Sabbath. —To-morrow we all rest from our labors, or should, and therefore it is proper to remember that we “ keep holy the Sabbath Day,” is a divine lesson. Sir Matthew Hale beautifully enforces the idea in these lines : “ A Sabbath well spent Brings a week of content, And health for the toils of to-morrow; But a Sabbath profaned, Whatso’er may be gained, Is a certaiu forewarner of sorrow.” The aggregate vote of the State of New York, at the recent election was 469,674. INTENTIONAL DUPLICATE EXPOSURE New Territories—lndian Citizens—and an In dian Slave State. There is a notable scheme afoot for the man ufacture of three new slavcholdiug Territories and future States, in the region set apart for and occupied by the Creeks, Chcrokees, Choc taws, and other scini-civilized Indians, west of Arkansas and south of Kansas. It is well known that a bill was introduced in Congress, at the last session, by Senator Johnson of Ar kansas, for the establishment of such Territory and that it will come up for early action at the present session, having been assigned, in fact, for the 15th of December. The region above described is, according to Mr. Johnson's bill, to be organized at once into three Territories, to be governed by the Indi ans, as at present. One of its sections provides that no white men or Indians, other than present residents, shall be allowed to settle or trespass on any of said lands, without the consent of the Ltgisla 3 ture of the proper Territory, and in pursuance of laws enacted by it. Auother provision is, that all the free citizens of the tribes named, being of Indian or Indian and white blood , shall become and be citizens of the United States. Another section interferes with the doctrine of squatter soveieignty—it prohibits polygamy. The 48th section enacts that when ever the people of the said three Territories shall consent, they shall be entitled to be erect ed into a Territory, to be called the Territory of jYeosho ; and whenever Congress shall be satisfied as to their capacity for self-govcrn medt, and whenever they open their country to emigration and settlement, they may be erect ed into the State ofNeosha. The whole bill is a cunningly devised plan to open these territories to immigration from slaveholding regions, and close them, so long as it is thought necessary, against immigrants from the North or tom Europe. The Indians, now occupying this “ Indian Territory,” so called, are well known to have introduced the system of Negro slavery among them, and to be under the influence of Southern men—an influence which was sufficiently manifested in the action of the Choctaw Legislature in ex cluding so-called “abolitionists” from their schools, as noticed in the proceedings of the recent meeting of the American Board of Fo reign Missions, at Hartford, and upon which it was determined to withdraw all missionaries from the schools there established, unless they could be permitted to preach the whole Gospel. The bill for the establishment of three new Territories among these Indians, is speciously brought forward as a measure of “justice” to the tribes thus located—that they may be en dowed more fully with the privileges of self-go vernment, and prospectively admitted as an independent portion of the American Union.— To accomplish the purpose of the southern mo vers in the scheme, it gives tin* Indians power to exclude, for a certain period, all immigrants except such as they may see fit to receive, which of course, as they are under southern influence, will operate to colonize the Territory with slaveholders, and to exclude freeman from the North. It further provides, in substance, that when the Indians are ready for the organiza tion of a Territorial government, the President shall isssue his proclamation establishing such government, without further action by Con gress. Thus, if the bill passed at the present session, as calculated upon—a new slavehold ing Territory, may be organized by a stroke of the President’s pen, without any power to pre vent it on the part of the next or any future Congress. Were the question on the passage of this bill, to be decided by the .‘slth Congress, just elected, it would be undoubtedly thrown out—hence the asserted determination of the slaveholders to secure its passage by the I!fid Congress now on its last session. Having im mortalized itself by the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, the present Congress will scarce ly hesitate to accede to this new demand of the slave power. If the Territory of Neosho is thus established under the patronage and con trol of slaveholders, there is no remedy, except to deny it admission as a State, so long as sla very exists and is legalizsd therein. A major ity of freemen in the House of Representatives will always possess that power.- -Bangor / Ale) Whig. Monday, Jan. 8. Gum Mesquitk. —A valuable discovery, says a j Southern paper, has recently been made in Texas of the medicinal and adhesive qualities of the Gum Mesquite. A surgeon of the army has written a letter descriptive of the article, i which has been very generally published in the papers. It is said to possess most of the pro- j perties of Gum Arabic. Major Ueinlzelmau', who has lately returned from the Colorado re gion of California, furnishes the following in teresting information in relation to the tree and its product:—“The Mesquite Tree grows on the Colorada river in California, in New Mexico and in Sonora, as well as in many oth er parts of Mexico. There are two varieties, the screw bean and the pod bean, found on the Colorado. The similarity of its gum to Gum Arabic, w r as noted there, and it was used medi cally in the Hospital at Fort Yuma. The tree, however possesses other more valuable quali ties. It is a species of acacia. The two kinds differ somewhat in appearance ; the trunk and branches of the screw bean being straighter and not spreading so wide as the pod. The ! bean or pod of this resembles the thread of a screw, hardly so large as the barrel of an or- j dinary goose-quill, and three or four of them rising from one stem. The other is an ordinary pod. Both are excellent food for cattle, and the principal food of the Indians. The pod bean begins to ripen the early part of June; the screw a little later. The Indians eat it be fore it ripens, when it is still astringent, and move their lodges into its groves for the wo men to collect the beans and prepare them for winter. It is a feast time for them. A kind of couical basket is made of arrow wood and pieced in the ground ; in this the women pound the pods with a wooden pestle. The flour is afterwards dried and placed in earthen vessels for future use, and eaten as bread. When the pods are first prepared, the Indians mix the flour with water to the desired consistence. As 1 many as can get around the vessel seat them selves on the ground, and scoop its contents up i with the fingers placed together in the form of a spoon. The juice has a saccharine taste, not unpleasant, and is highly relished by the sav-; i ages. The screw bean has been boiled down j! into a syrup by the whites, and makes a < tolerable substitute for molasses. A failure of i the Mesquite crop would occasion a famine ’ among the Indians of the Colorado. The Mes quite has a yellow blossom, with fragrance sim- : ilar to that of the jessamine. A grove of young 1 Mesquites, at a distance resembles a peach or-1 I chard. The trees on the Colorado arc small, j with a short trunk and crooked branches. The j i wood is hard, susceptible of a high polish, and < suitable for small articles of furniture. In So- i % nora it is said to grow much larger. As fuel, it is superior to hickory. It grows on the hot- ! ( tom lands of the Colorado and Gila rivers, on i New River, and on all the low places of the j Colorado and Sonora deserts. The branches s are thorny, but are eaten with avidity by r mules, and without this valuable tree the difii- 1 cutties in crossing these deserts would be much £ increased.” IC The State of Vermont is intersected by 490 miles of railroad, which have probably cost, up to the present time, $24,000,000, or $50,000 per [mile. Their construction has doubled within the last ten years, tho value of the taxable property of the State. JSS* The Legislatures of Maine and Massa chusetts convened on Wednesday last. MONDAY MORNING. JANUARY 8, 1855 African Exploration. A correspondent of Her Majesty’s ship Pluto writes to the Atbenseum, under date Fernando, July 25 : “We have had a most exciting cruise. After leaving this place and communication with the senior officer at Loando, were sent up the river Congo to settle a dispute between the master of an English merchant brig and some Portuguese. After this was arranged,we we returned to Loando for our letters, but the Polyphemus not arriving in time, the ship sail" ed again for the Congo, and I was left behind in one of our gigs, with four Kroomen, for the mail. During our stay I met, at the house of one of the commissioners, one of the most ex traordinary men I have ever seen—Dr. Livings ton ; he was just arrived from the Cape over land, a most arduous undertaking, and one never accomplished before, although often at tempted. His plan of proceeding differed ma terially from any of his predecessors. Instead of setting out with half a hundred attendants, horses, bullock-wagons, Ac., he commenced his journey, carrying with him only a sextant,gun, chronomoter, tent, four servants, and as many days’ provisions, relying on Providence and his gun for a supply when these were gone.— After leaving the Cape colony, he w r as obliged to travel a long way to the northeast, in order to avoid the deserts and hostile tribes in their 1 vicinity that lay on the left; crossing in this route a great many branches of the river Zam begi, and others, the names of which I have forgotten, til! he arrived at a large town.— There, as the chief was very hospitable, he re mained a short time to recruit his health, hav ing been nearly drowned and starved half-a dozen times during the nine months it took him to perform this part of his journey, and his arm badly broken in two places by a lion. It appeared he had wandered one evening from his attendants, after they had pitched their tent, in quest of game, when he suddenly came on a large lion, crouching down, ready for a spring at him. Without waiting a second, he tired, and must have been knocked down at the same moment and stunned, as he remem bers nothing from the time he fired till he was fouud by his servants next morning. When they came up they found the doctor insensible, and the lion lying dead along side him. When he left, the chief, who was very desirous of find ing a route to the eastward for the transmission of his ivory, gave him twenty-four of his peo le, to assist him on his journey. After leaving he again traveled to the northeast, unil he ar rived in the parallel of Loando. Now came the tug of war. He had upwards of one thousand miles to travel across the unexplored countries of our charts, a tract never hitherto trodden by any white man, and wholly unknown even to the blacks lie had seen yet. However, this part of their journey proved to be the easiest; and it was not till he arrived near Cassanga, on the Portuguese frontier, that he met with any molestation. The country he found to be thickly populated, and the inhabitants very peaceably disposed. From their never having seen a white man before, you may fancy what an object of curiosity he became to them, j Wherever he stopped, the people from far and near flocked around him with the utmost aston ishment pictured on their countenances. As the doctor was very much sunburnt, his color did not so much surprise them as his liair,which i was very long ; this was the great object of at * traction wherever he went, and highly favored did those fancy themselves who became the possessors of a lock of it. Every tribe he met with had some idea of one Supreme Being and a future state of existence; though they all ! worship, in addition, various animals which I they hold sacred. At every place he stopped they supplied him liberally with provisions; and it was not, as I mentioned before, till he arrived near the Portuguese territories that he met with any trouble. There, the inhabitants have been in the habit of kidnapping the peo ple further inland, to sell to the Portuguese for slaves, and, fearing, should a road be opened that way, it w ould spoil their traffic, they be came very troublesome, and wanted the doc tor to pay toll nearly every step he took ; how ever, by putting on a bold front, he managed to make his way through, and arrived at Loan do safely in the beginning of June, making it exactly two years since he left the Cape. The doctor is very much emaciated from the hardships he has undergone, and h&s not recovered the use of his arm perfectly yet; but as soon as he is well, he is determined to return, trying this time to find a shorter road than the one he came by. We had the w hole of his attendants on board, and show r cd them over the ship. Having never seen salt water before or anything afloat larger than a canoe, they were very much surprised and delighted ; though they told the doctor they would never be able to get any of their people to believe them on their return, so perfectly astonishing did everything appear to them.” Installation'. —On Thursday, January 4th, the Rev. 11. M. Nichols was received from the Minnesota Association, and installed by the Presbytery of Minnesota, as pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Stillwater. The ex ercises were as follows : Invocation by Moderator of Presbytery ; Reading of Hymn by Rev. A. C. Pennock ; Reading ofScriptures and Prayer by Rev. J. S. Webber ; Sermon by Rev. Riehard Hall ; In stalling Prayer by Rev. Chas Seccombe ; Con stitutional Questions by Rev. G. 11. Pond ; Charge to the Pastor by the Rev. J. C. Whit ney ; Charge to the People by the Rev. E. D. Neill. The congregation in attendance, was large, and we learn that the ordinary attendance on the Sabbath has so increased,as to render it dif ficult to accommodate the applicants for seats. Mr. Nichols is a popular and useful minister, aud will, no doubt, be long acceptable to the enterprising inhabitants of Stillwater. Number of Slaves in the World. —The Afri can Institution of Paris, an association for the diffusion of civilization and Christianity in Africa, has recently issued a circular, which shows that the number of blacks held in slave ry in different countries, is seven and half mil lions —of which 3,005,000 are in the United States, 3,250,000 in the Spanish Colonies, 85,- 000 in the Dutch Colonics, 140,000 in the Re publics of Central America, and 80,000 in Eu ropean establishments in Africa. Some of the Choctaw squaws carry pink parasols to protect their coppery skins from the sun, and the fast young Choctaws wear plaid pants and big sleeved sacks, smoke Havana cigars, and discuss the news with great gusto. From the Minnesota Republican. Trip to Cannon River. Mb. Editor :—Having just returned from a short excursion south and west from St. An thony, it occurs to me that some of your read ers may wish the benefit of our observations. And so you have our “ Notes by the way.” After leaving Mendota, on our way to the Falls of Cannon river, we passed over a beauti ful rolling country, mostly oak opening, for se ven miles, when wc came to a most fertile pra.*- rie, skirted with timber, which continued three miles, to Carr's—the first stage house on the line to Dubuque. His hotel, or “ stage-house” is a log cabin, w ith shed roof, having but one room—about twelve by fourteen feet in size— which answers all the purposes of reception room, parlor, dining-room, sleeping-room, kitchen, Ac. We found the landlord and his good lady quite accommodating aud pleasant people. They gave us a good dinner, and wc went on our way six miles, over a fine prairie to the crossing of the Vermillion river, w here we found a family from Illinois, who had had been there but two months, in w hich time the man had procured lumber from St. Antho ny, and had got a good house nearly enclosed. But the only room they are as yet able to occu py, is still smaller than that at Carr’s. In this, however, they manage to accommodate travel lers, besides their own family, consisting of six persons. In these small quarters, we were, two of us, accommodated in the true spirit of Western hospitality. From this place we traveled over prairie and opening, twelve miles, to the Falls of Cannon river, where we found three families residing, and where Mr. Freeborn is about building a mill. This is twenty miles back of the village of Red Wing. The land in this vicinity is good but the timber is not very abundant. Nine miles above these Falls the “ Big Woods” com mence, and extend, we are told, from the Can non river, to the Minnesota, and west to the source of the Cannon. On the south of this ri ver the prairie is almost as extensive as the timber is on the north, and is being settled ve ry rapidly. From this point the country is quite thickly settled for thirty miles up Can non river, and near twenty miles up the Strait river. We were told by persons who had just come through from lowa, and were making claims on the Strait river, that there were set tlements all along the valleys of Strait and Ce dar rivers, to the lowa line. This is said, by the government surveyors, to be the nearest and much the best stage route from St. Paul to Dubuque. The town ofFarribault is situated at the confluence of the Strait and Cannon rivers.— The people there say it is to be the County seat of Rice County, and the greatest inland city of southern Minnesota. A more lovely site*for a town is not to be found in the territory, or one surrounded by a more inviting county for agriculture. And that is duly appreciated by those who visit it is proved by its rapid settle ment. As a specimen of the enterprise display ed in that vicinity. 1 will mention one family whose house we passed five miles this side of Farribault. The house and store are still un finished, but the work is prospering rapidly.— While a part of the sons have gone to Dubuque with ox teams for a portion of their stock of goods that were frozen in there, the other por tion having arrived at Hastings. It is said they bring on a lai’ge of goods, sixteen horses, near a hundred head o’ attle and & thousand sheep. Most of the sc ! tiers, we w ere told, are Vermont and N w Hampshire larmeiv. There are hundreds of families who ha. o mov ed into this vicinity dur ::g the past sun mer (some of them have not U-eu i.i tin r pi sent homes a month) who arc now living without schools, without ministers, doctors, or even lawyers ; and still, they seemed to be living quite comfortably, and enjoying the prospect of that “good time coming” when all these things shall be added unto them. There is a sawmill just completed at Farribault, and a grist mill is to be built there in the spring ; stores are being erected, mechanics are coming in, and there is, in short, every indication of a thriving town. They have a regular weekly mail from St. Paul, and there is a mail-route established from that point to Traverse des Sioux; and also to Fort Atkinson in lowa. The season is about two weeks earlier there than in St. Paul, it being further south. Wild plums and crab apples grow there in great abundance and furnish much fruit to the set tiers. Fish abound in the lakes and streams, wild fowls in the forests. Those who wish to settle in a thriving town, and those who arc in pursuit of pleasure, health, or good farms, will do well to visit this part of our territory. Yours Ac. N. St. Anthony, Jan. 3d, 1855. Masonic. —At the session of the Grand Lodge ot Minnesota, recently held in this city, the fol lowing officers were chosen for the present year:—Hon. Moses Sherburne, M. W. G.M.; A. T. C. Pierson, R. W. I). G. M.: C. T. Stearns, S. G. W.; A. Van Yorhes, J. G. W.; E. Case, G. J.; 11. Reynolds, G. S. Alter the installation, the following subordinates were appointed :- E. A. llodsdon, S. G. D.; B. W. Brunson, J. G D.; Gould T. Curtis, G. M. ;G. L. Becker,G.l*.; Win. Holcombe, G. S. B. ; Sami. Willey, B. Presley, G. S.; A. Richardson, G. Tiler. Anecdote ok Rufus Choate. —The New York Post relates an anecdote of the distin guished advocate aud scholar, Rufus Choate. At the trial of the salvage case of the bark Missouri, at Boston, recently, the case in which a part of the cargo was cmbezzeled by the masters of the two vessels ou the coast of Sumatra, one of the masters was examined as a witness, and disclosed the plan of embezzle ment, and stated the inducements that were offered to him by the other master, lie said that he objected at first, and told his comrade that they would be found out and convicted, but was overborne by the assurances given him. Mr. Choate cross-examined him strictly and particularly as to what the inducements and assurances were. The witness had the appear ances of holding back a little, but at last he said: “Well, sir, he told me that if found out, he could get Mr. Choate to defend us, and he would get us off if we were caught with the money in our boots. :} It was not five minutes that it required to bring the audience back to a sober countenance. The counsel on the oth er side paid a tribute, in his closing argument, to the genius of Mr. Choate, the fame of which, extending to the antipodes, was relied upon as stronger than the law and the evidence. Caught a Surprise. —A gentleman who lives in the neighborhood of the city has a number of choice fruit trees, which were badly injured by worms at the roots. He was inform ed that a small quantity of fish brine poured around each would effectually prevent the rav ages of these depredators, and so he brought a jug to town and had it tilled with pickle Iron a barrel of mackarel. On his way home, having an errand to do in another direction, and not wishing to “tote” his jug along, he hid it away in the corner of a fence which was at hand. A party of Irishmen in the weeds close by saw him hide it, and thinking it contained some of the “craythur”, of course, resolved to have a swig at it so soon as the owner was out of sight. One of them put it to his mouth ami took “a pull,” but quickly set it down in speechless surprise. The wry faces he made being nothing more than was expected from a man taking a swallow of raw whisky, one after another of his companions followed suit until nearly all had drank, by which time he came to his speech again, with the exclamation, “lio, Jases !—'whew!—may the devil fly away wid me, if that whisky is anything but lamp oil wid wathcr in it.” The jabbering t'rft ensued defies description, and concluding that it was a clear case of “conspiracy”' on the part of the man who placed the jug there, after breaking it the whole party went oft vowing vengeance against the murthering villain.— St. Louis ln tell.