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The Princeton union. [volume] (Princeton, Minn.) 1876-1976, March 20, 1902, Image 1

Image and text provided by Minnesota Historical Society; Saint Paul, MN

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83016758/1902-03-20/ed-1/seq-1/

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4" Th. Great Northern and
Pine hardwood Lands, Meadows and Open
LowhPtlces and on Easy Terms, for sale
0 St Pau & Duluth Railroad Companies
Paid Up Capital $30,000
Surplus, 5,000
A General Banking Business
Loans Made on Approved Se
Interest Paid on Time De
Foreign and Domestic Ex
change S. S. PETTERSON, Pres.
T. H. CALEY, Vice Pres.
Q. A. EATON, Cashier.
J- J- SKAHEN, Cashier and Manager. &
Doe a Genera Bankin Business
Collecting and Farm and
Insurance. Village Loans.
Railroad Lands
For Maps, Prices, and any other information
write to
Land Agent. Princeton,
Foley Bean Lumber
Manufacturers and
Wholesale Dealers In
White Pine Lumber,
Lath and Shingles.
Also Sash, Doors, Mouldings and a Com$
plete Stock of Building Material.
H. NEWBERT, Proprietor.
Choice patterns in
Prints, Percales
and Ginghams
Very pretty designs and goods
of the best wearing quality.
Gents' Hats
New stock, latest styles.
Stylish and Up-to-Date.
Our Grocery
Includes a fine line, both staple
and fancy. Look over our stock.
Job N. Berg.
I Princeton, Minn.
Centrally located Apartments light, well
heated and ventilated Trained nurses in at
tendance Operating room fitted with all mo
dern essentials for up-to-date surgery An in
stitution, fully equipped with every appliance
and convenience for the care and treatment of
the Invalid and the Sick, as Electrical Appara
tus, Medical Baths, Massage, Swedish Move
ment, etc.
Contagious diseases not admitted Charges
reasonable and according to needs of patient
Physician and Surgeon-in-Chief
Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat,
Miss WINIFRED fAu LOON, Superintendent
Do not
Forget that
keeps a good line of up-to date goods
and when you want anything in the
dry goods grocery or shoe line call
and see him before you buy It
no trouble to show goods even if you
do not wish to buy now, and we are
constantly getting in new goods
"which you .ought to see
I is the place to get the best goods for
A. the least moneyr as it has always
4. been at
The New Store
I on the old corner.
Dr. C. F. Walker's
dental Parlors
now located
in the
Oddfellow's new building,
Dr. Walker
will attend
to his
appointments from the
1st to 30th
of each
In Cambridge
21st to 28th
of each month,
office over
Qouldberg &
W TROWDirector,
of Glenville, Minn
W MCKEEN, of Maine
)N TRBY,of Ohio
of New York
more county, Minn
farmers' institute at Princeton
Friday and Saturday was one of
est held in the State the past
ir. There was an excellent corps
tructors. A. W. Trow, one of
[esota's leading and progressive
rs, was director and made an ex
Ait presiding officer. He was as
id by some of the best instructors
istitute work, among-them Me&een
,$ine, VanDreser of New York and
Teiry of Ohio, all foremost In the ad*
van&ament of agriculture They were
abijiassisted by Forest Henry of Min
nesota and S. J. Fairfield of Iowa.
Thep-opera house was packed at both
sessions on Friday, and despite the
weather on Saturday there was a good
attendance, all that could be asked for
considering the condition of the
wealher. L. C. Johannot who accom
panies the institute corps, enlivened
thejiessions with his farm songs, every
onebeing sung with telling effect.
of Mi cell sist ini ofl
A the forenoon session Friday the
operk house was crowded and there
were fully" 500 present when A. W.
Trtfw, who was In charge of the insti
tution work at this place arose and in
troduced Supt. B. W. McKeen of
Mjk&e, who spoke on the value of rota
$ty|jfc of crops. The speaker spoke of
the^nature and value of crops. The
matter of soil and the ability to pro
crops is of the first importance.
E^itything for which the world is
thankful to-day comes from the soil.
Too often it has become the custom to
continue the monied crops to the ex
clusion of those crops which are neces
saryto maintain soil fertility. How
ever* ricli the land may be paturally,
th4 persistent growing of these monied
grjtips alone, produces a constant de
twkacation in the land. Changing the^
cap^by some good system of rotation*
will prevent this undesirable result.
Stock should be kept as well as special
crops grown, to maintain soil fertility.
The natural soil is composed of finely
ground rock, or mineral matter and
the humus, or decayed vegetable mat
ter. As all crops are largely composed
of vegetable matter it is important
that the natural conditions be main
tained. Old, cultivated fields are apt
to be deficient in humus, unless an in
telligent system of crop rotation has
been followed. As every crop will re
move a portion of this vegetable mat
ter, so plan the rotation that upon
some part of the farm a crop shall be
growing to increase the productive
capacity of the soil. Nature works
with man through this method of ro
tation, creating a "sinking fund" in
the soil of plant food which can be
drawn upon by the subsequent monied
He spoke of the method of an intense
system of farming put in practice on a
35-acre farm in Maine where at one
time it required three acres of land to
support one animal and where one ton
of hay per acre was all that could be
raised. A fifty-acre pasture on an ad
joining hillside was abandoned and
allowed to pass bactc into the posses
sion of nature and more work and
practical study was put on the small
farm adjoining. The whole secret of
his success was in crop rotation. In
the matter of plowing he stated that
deep plowing turned the organic mat
ter of the soil to the bottom of the fur
row and the mineral portion was left
on top. Even in the distribution of
the farm manure there was an equal
distribution made over the fields so
that the land would derive ail the ben
efits possible from the same.
Rotation as followed by Mr. McKeen
consists in putting one-fifth of the farm
into corn, one-fifth into grain, two
fifths into grasses, and the remaining
fifth into pasture. This system has
not only given largely increased crops,
but in about twelve to fifteen years has
increased the soil fertility seventy-five
per cent.
Hon. T. B. Terry of Ohio, followed
with talk on "Soil Fertility and
Clover." He was introduced as a large
farmer on a small farm and was hon
ored by his own state with the pre
mium for having the best tilled farm
in Ohio. Mr. Terry said that by proper
cultivation of the soil the crop season
had been increased in length and
northern farms moved two hundred
miles" further south. The decaying
vegetable matter warms the soil. The
Farmers* Institute. I
The Last of the Winter Series Held
at Princeton Friday and Saturday.
Large Attendance and Much Inter
est Taken. "Wide Range of Farm
Topics Discussed. The Potato an
Interesting Theme. & & &
humus or decaying vegetable matter
is worked down into the soil and holds
the water in the soil and does not allow
it to soak into the subsoil. Grass taken
from the soil as hay robs the soil of
plant food, but with clover it is differ
ent. The crop may be cut and the
land is still richer than before the
clover was sown.
"There aire three principal erenfents
needed to increase soil fertility, name
ly nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and
potash. If you burn anything, like
brush or stubble, the nitrogen goes
into the air, while the phosphoric acid
and potash remain. The air is the
great storehouse of nitrogen. Eighty
per cent of the air we breath is free
nitrogen. Thousands of dollars worth
at market prices is over every farm.
The phosphoric acid and potash being
mineral matter, remain on the earth.
The mission of the clover plant is to
feed on the nitrogen and leave it in
the soil in an available form for other
crops. Corn, oats, wheat, timothy,
etc., cannot use nitrogen until it has
been made available by clover and
similar plants. Clover feeds largely
on the subsoil, striking its roots deep
down, sometimes six, eight or even
more feet, pumping up the phosphoric
acid and potash to the surface where
it can be used by following crops. On
the roots of the clover are little
nodules, sometimes erroneously called
seeds, which are fartories in which
many thousands of microscopic work
ers convert the free nitrogen of the air
into nitric acid, in which form it is
used by plants.
In the east farmers have to pay 26
cents per pound for nitrogen in the
shape of commercial fertilizers. Clover
is the middle man to transfer nitrogen
frotfrthe air to theJBOIL Grass creates
only surface 3tiPw$b'tJkve*-ni*ke
the soil mellow ana*" rich. Clover is
biennial while grass is perennial.
Many do not ve clover the chance to
secure a foothold on the soil and think
that one crop sown is sufficient.
A well arranged rotation of crops, in
which clover is grown regularly every
third or fourth year is one of a series
of steps by which a very barren and
run down piece of land can in time be
brought to a high degree of fertility.
Mr. Terry said. "Thirty odd years
ago, I went on to a farm in Ohio, so
run down that it would scarcely grow
weeds. One acre yielded forty bushels
of big and little potatoesmostly lit
tle. The previous year's corn crop
was not worth harvesting! My first
crop of wheat went eight bushels to
the acre, my neighbors called it a1
"good crop." Yet in ten or twelve
years we were growing per acre from
33 to 38 bushels of wheat, 200 to 250
bushels of merchantable potatoes and
from four to five tons of clover hay, in
two cuttings. These were larger crops
than the soil had ever produced.
"At considerable risk and expense I
arranged my land for a rotation of
crops in the following order, namely,
clover, potatoes, wheat continuing
this rotation for many years. For
three or four years the gain was slight
in six or eight years we were pretty
well satisfied: but with each successive
period of rotation the gain continued
until we were actually growing as large
crops as could stand on the ground."
Many questions were asked Mr.
Terry as to the cultivation of clover.
The best clover was the Red clover,
though the Mammoth was considered
very good.
At the conclusion of Mr. Terry's talk
Li. C. Johannot sung a song entitled
"The Farmer," which amused the
audience considerably.
A. W. Trow of Glenville, Minn., the
oldest manager of co-operative cream
eries in the State, spoke on "Summer
Feeding," and his practical talk on
how to provide feed for the cows at
time when the proper feed is very
essential, was a very interesting one.
He spoke of the value of sowing Cana
dian field pejLs and oats early in the
season. The peas were sowed two and
one-half inches deep, followed by the
oats, and in July when the cows were
in need of good succulent food, there
was an abundance of the same, twelve
to fifteen tons per acre being cut. He
also spoke of the value of sweet corn
for cows, "Stohl's Evergreen" was
considered the best, being of a large
growth and very palatable. The sweet
corn was much better than the fodder
corn, and he advised farmers to try a
small patch if they have never fed it to
cattle. He advised them to save the
seeds by husking and tying the tops
together with binder twine and hang
ing on the rafters in a good, dry place
in the house or barn. He spoke of the
value of rape sown with grain, using
as seed one to one and a half pounds to
the acre, and after the grain was cut
there was good pasturage. It was
especially good for the sheep, though
the lambs should not be allowed to
eat it.
Mr. Trow ownot forget to say that
pumpkins were relished by the cows
just as much as man relishes his piece
of pumpkin pie. He raises a patch of
pumpkins by themselves and feeds
them freely to his cows. There was
nothing in the seeds to hurt the cows,
and he feeds as high as 200 pumpkins
in a single day to bis cows. Mr, Trow's
talk was of a very practical nature
throughout, and was listened to very
TForest Henry of Olmsted county,
Minnesota, spoke on "Breeding and
Feeding Hogs," his remarks being
more especially on the raising of hogs.
Mr. Henry is well posted on the hog
and has a very wide reputation as a
most successful hog raiser. Twenty
years ago he went in debt $7,000 for a
farm in southern Minnesota, and in
'seven years he paid for his farm by
raising hogs. He of course raised
other stock and conducted his farm
along general lines of farming, but he
made hogs his specialty. In 1878,
when wheat failed and the yield was
seven bushels to the acre, and the
price was very low, prospects for the
southern Minnesota farmer were poor,
with land valued at $40 per acre. He
took a dressed hog to town one day for
his father, when he was a young man,
and received $19 for it, and he thought
at the time that hogs ought to pay bet
ter than wheat, and so informed his
father. When he got his own farm he
decided to go into hogs. With less
money than it required to buy a horse,
he got enough in the hog line together
to start in the business of raising hogs.
He paid $9 for the first pig ha bought
and in three months sold him for $19.
-When onejiow would ne% flSOperjrear
he oonsidered that the busiiiej& jrasj
profitable. "Any lard hogs are money
makers" said Mr. Henry. He had a
chart showing the proper type of sow
and boar for breeding purposes. The
sow should be long in body and deep
with short snout* and full between the
eyes. A chubby body in a brood sow
was a poor indication of good breeding
points. The ribs should be well sprung
and the animal should be a little coarse
in its make up. The brood sow should
be brought up largely on pasture. One
very essential feature in a brood sow
was maturity. Cholera and many other
diseases were traceable to immature
breeding many times. Full blooded
animals were not essential for brood
sows. In the boar however, a full
blooded animal was necessary, though
the sire could be a little more com-"
pact in build than the sow. The brood
sow should be fed protein or growing
feed for good development and hardy
litters of pigs. No sow will ever eat
up its pigs if it is properly fed during
the breeding season. Clover hay,
ground oats and bran and corn were
the rations necessary. Corn should be
fed sparingly and in quantities only in
cold weather. Oats were fed dry on a
feeding floor, which should be out of
doors, and kept clean. The animals
should have plenty of exercise. Bran
was not too bulky a feed and contained
good bone making material. After
farrowing time feed shorts. The hog
has the smallest lungs of any animal in
existence, and dust should not be
allowed to collect around the feeding
.floors. Special attention should be
paid to keeping the barns and all
places where the hogs are kept abso
lutely clean. There should be plenty
of sunlight. One second of bright sun
light would kill any germ in existence.
Mr. Henry spoke of his feed barns and
showed drawings of the same. Each
pen was 7x10 feet. He also showed a
drawing of his "wigwam" farrow pen
made of 2x4s and 7x6 feet and move
able, resembling a chicken coop. The
moveable pens were so built as to
allow the pigs to run out at any time.
Oat straw was the best for bedding,
and does not produce skin diseases as
claimed by some.
A good pasture is as essential to the
cheap production of pork as it is of
milk. June and Mammoth clover, and
June grass make an excellent pasture.
Small fields of rye, barley or rape will
give a variety of cheap food. Have
the litters come in the spring after the
weather is settled, so that the young
pigs can get out on the ground at once.
My own practice is to have them come 4

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