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The Princeton union. [volume] (Princeton, Minn.) 1876-1976, September 28, 1911, Image 2

Image and text provided by Minnesota Historical Society; Saint Paul, MN

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83016758/1911-09-28/ed-1/seq-2/

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Explains, Without Becoming
Technical, What Makes
Aeroplane Fly.
Weight Carrying Effect.
"The weight carrying effect with
such an aeroplane is obtained from
the two big main planes. These, set
one above the other, are kept apart by
wooden supports, which are held rigid
ly in their place by tension wires. One
of the first things that an observer
notes regarding the lifting planes of
the machine is that they have a curve
upon them. The front edge tilts down
a little and toward the rear of the
planes curve down slightly also.
"There is no difficulty in explaining
how the curve on a plane acts when
the aeroplane is in flight. You must
remember that the plane moves
through the air, when the machine is
in motion, at a speed of more than
forty miles an hour. The air first
strikes the dipping 'nose,' as it is
called, of the plane. Some of it im
mediately rushes up under the curve
on the lower side of the plane and
sweeps away in a curving stream to
ward the rear edge of the surface. The
effect is that of gripping the air when
it passes under the plane.
"What happens may be better un
derstood, perhaps, if I say that the
air is thrust down by the curve of
the plane This action allows the
plane to derive an appreciable lift out
of the air which it displaces. The air
that passes o\er the top side of the
plane is made to do useful work also.
Its tendency is to move straight back
from the front edge of the plane. It
does not follow the downward curve
toward the rear edge of the plane.
Thus as the air passes straight away
a partial vacuum is created along the
dipping down edge of the plane, and
this exercises a distinct upward pull.
Therefore the plane is pushed from
below and pulled from above.
"By the adoption of this curved plane
the builders of aeroplanes know that
if they employ a machine with a cer
tain number of square feet of surface
and thrust it through the air at a cer
tain speed they will be able to lift
into the air a certain weight.
Balance and Control.
"The question of balance and control
enters largely into the flying problem.
Therefore you find set out upon wood
en booms at the rear of the biplane a
tail composed of two small planes
placed one above the other. These
two planes tend to balance the aero
plane when in flight in the same waj
as does the tail of a bird. Then one
comes to the point as to how the aero
plane is to be made to rise or fall, turn
from side to bide or balance itself
when it shows a tendency to tip side
ways in the air.
"Midway between the two small tail
planes one finds a ertical plane which
resembles the rudder of a ship. This
plane, in fact, acts for the aeroplane
sis does the rudder of a vessel.
"Now comes the question of making
the aeroplane rise or fall. To do this
one finds set out in front of the main
planes, on wooden outriggers, a small
horizontal plane, which can be moved
up or down at the will of the pilot
Very often this front elevating piano
is coupled up with a smaller one,
which is fixed at the rear of the tail
plane so as to exercise a greater lifting
"The only other controlling device
represented by the 'ailerons.' These
^.-.."-"""-"-"^-""""""Oo 1EA AND VEGETABLE TEST.
Walk Across Country to Decide Value
For Physical Endurance.
To discover the relative values of a
meat"and a vegetable diet for physical
endurance Jesse Buffum, twenty-five
years old, and his brother, Warren,
who ia twenty-three, are walking from
Boston to California. The elder eats
meat, while the younger lives on vege
tables. Both have to sleep on the roof
when they stay at hotels. Each takes
his turn at pushing a wheelbarrow
ding their luggage.
The test is being made under the di
rection of Dr. Dudley A. Sargent, pb
ical director of Harvard university
expenses are paid by the university
the aviator who
carried off many prizes in this
country, tells how he flies in
an article in the Independent. Mr.
White explains what makes an aero
plane fly, describes flying without be
coming technical and tells what he
does in the air and why he does it in
a way that any person not versed in
aeronautics will be able readily to
Taking, for example, a Farman bi
plane, in which he frequently flies,
Mr. White says in part:
"Suppose that we are watching the
aeroplane moving along the ground
prior to a flight. At the rear of its
two main planes is the engine. This,
revolving at a thousand revolutions a
minute, carries round with it the pro
peller and so forces the machine along
the ground. The propeller of the aero
plane is constructed very carefully
from layers of special wood. It has
two blades. These, whirling round in
the air, thrust the aeroplane forward
in the same way as does the propeller
of a ship.
He Tells What He Does While
In the Air and Why
He Does It.
are fixed at the rear edges of the
planes and work up and down
on hinges. Their object is to correct
any loss of lateral stability upon the
machine or, to put it more simply,
they counteract any sideway falling
movement when in flight. How they
act may thus be described: When the
aeroplane is struck down by a gust
of wind and tilts over on one side the
pilot draws down the 'ailerons' on the
side of the machine which is depress
ed. The wind, acting upon the 'aile-
rons,' pushes the machine back again
upon an even keel.
Question of Flying.
"Now comes the question of flying
such a machine. The pilot takes his
seat on the front edge of the lower
main plane exactly in its center. To
his left hand are the switches which
control the engine. To his right hand
is a lever. He places his feet against
a rod which moves to and fro upon a
central hinge. Mechanics start the en
gine by swinging round the big pro
peller. Then when the motor has
started he accelerates it by moving a
switch until it is turning the propeller
as its maximum speed.
"Until he is quite ready to start his
mechanics hold back the aeroplane by
gripping the tail booms. After listen
ing for a moment to the engine and
making certain that it is running well
the airman holds up his hand. This is
a signal to the mechanics to release
their hold upon the machine. WThen
they do this the aeroplane starts off
across the ground, running upon the
"The pilot allows it to gather speed
for a few seconds then he draws back
toward him the lever which he is hold
ing in his right hand. This has the ef
fect of tilting upward a little the ele
vating plane which is set out in front
of the machine. The effect of this is
to raise upward the whole machine.
The rush of air under the main planes
intensifies their lift, and the wheels
of the machine leave the ground, and
it begins to soar upward. The pilot
still holds the elevating plane at a
slight upward angle until the aeroplane
has 'climbed' sufficiently high. Then
he brings it gently back to a level po
sition again, and the machine flies
straight ahead.
"When gusts of wind assail the ma
chine and it tilts to one side or the
other he corrects this by sideway move
ments of the same lever which con
trols the elevating plane.
Making a Turn In the Air.
"When the time comes to make a
turn in the air the pilot moves the rod
against which his feet are resting and
swings the rudder over either to the
right or left. In this way the machine
is flown. When a descent is necessary
the air man points his machine earth
ward by tilting downward the elevat
ing plane. Then as the machine comes
gliding toward the ground he usually
stops his engine and makes what is
known as a 'volplane.' In this case
the machine glides downward with its
own momentum. Just before he touch
es the earth the pilot draws back his
elevating plane a little and brings the
aeroplane upon an even keel so that
its wheels touch quite lightly.
"This description may perhaps make
flying appear very easy. So it is, as
a matter of fact, when the weather
conditions are favorable. Many men
learn to pilot an aeroplane after only
two or three short lessons. In some
cases, indeed, it has been found easier
to fly an aeroplane than to learn to
drive a motorcar.
"But a very great deal of skill is re
quired to pilot a machine when the
wind is gusty. Then the aero swings
and rolls about in the air, sometimes,
in a very alarming way. Incessant
watchfulness is necessary to keep it
upon an even keel, and none but ex
perienced fliers care to ascend unless
the weather conditions are good.
"Another contingency which call^
for skill is when the engine sometimes
stops accidentally in the air.
"Perhaps when his motor fails him
the pilot is flying swiftly across coun
try. In such a case he has to descend
in. a 'volplane' and pick out a suitable
landing spot as he comes gliding down
to earth. To keep one's head at such
a moment and make a safe descent
means the exercise of a great deal of
skill, and this only comes by experi
Mrs. Plummer of the Indian Tribe of
Senecas Passes Away.
Mrs. Sala Plummer, 108 years old
and the oldest member of the Seneca
Indian nation, is dead at her home in
Jimmerstown, N. Y. She was born at
Irving, on the Cattaraugus reservation,
but lived the greater part of her lone?
life on the Allegany reservation. She
had a fine memory and retained her
faculties to the last. She greatly en
joyed pleasing visitors by recounting
events that she remembered of the
war of 1812, at which time she was a
child of nine or ten years of age.
Mrs. Plummer's sight was so per
fect thnt she could read even up to the
time of her death without glasses.
U. S, Steel and Harvester Cor
porations Wish to Dissolve,
Steel Trust to Divide Into Three Com-
paniesPlan of Harvester Combine
Is to Split Into the Four Original
Following conferences in which J. P.
Morgan, Jacob H. Schiff, George W.
Perkins and Elbert H. Gary took part,
it was announced that the steel trust
and the harvester trust would like to
avoid federal prosecution by dissolv
The steel trust is said to be prac
tically ready now to break up, but the
harvester trust can do nothing posi
tive until the next meeting of the di
rectors, which is set for Oct. 21 in
The dissolution plans tacitly agreed
on are as follows:
The United States Steel corporation
jrthe steel trustis to separate into
Chree companies, one controlling the
steelmaking business, another the rail
road and boat lines and the third ore
The government insists that the en
tire steel trade be given a right to buy
ore on the same terms as the United
States Steel corporation and that the
railroads transport all character of
merchandise, including steel products,
without any discrimination whatever
in favor of the United States Steel cor
poration. It is said that this plan has
been very reluctantly accepted by the
directors of the United States Steel
As to the International Harvester
companythe harvester trustthe pro
gram is for it to split up into the orig
inal four corporationsthe McCormick
Harvesting Machine company, the
Deering Harvester company, the Mil
waukee Harvester company and the
Piano Manufacturing company.
They were joined in 1902 in New
Jersey with $120,000,000 capital, of
which $60,000,000 was paid in cash
Following its acquisition of the four
companies the corporation took over
works and mills at Akron, O. Jloch
Falls, 111. Newark Valley, N. Y. Au
burn, N. Y. St. Paul and Chicago.
The United States Steel corporation,
with $1,100,000,000 capital, controls Io*s
than 50 per cent of the steel business
of the country, according to its own
claims. It, however, controls prat
tically 75 per cent of the steel ore rt
maining in the United States, and it
is said that both the Stanley comniiree
and the attorney general regard thi^ a*
the greatest menace- to the- steel indti^
try of the country.
The United States Steel corporation
owns in the United States a railroad
mileage of 948 miles, with 710 mile* ot
branches and spurs and 920 miles of
sidings. Its railroads tsave 1,108 loco
motives and 47,025 freight cars. If
marine equipment consists of 81 stearu*
ersr 52 steel barges, 70 wooden bargesv
1 ocean going steamer aad tugboat*.
It owns the city of Gary, Ind.T which it
has constructed: at a cost 3*f nearly $50-
Wants to "Get Off the Earth" to Ct
His Eye Trouble.
The strangest proposal of several
hundred made to- Melvua Vaniman to
get a berth, on the dirigible Akron dur
ing the attempt to fly across the At
lantic next moath was- made by A. Jl.
Mr. Flattery wants ai "cfcance to ge
off the earth/' even for a brief peruxl
and believes it will cure an ailmefflic
from which he- has suffered long year*-.
"I aim afflicted with, chronic neural
gia of bath eyes," he writes. "The suf
fering I hare been forced to stand
from my ailment for many years- val-
ines me for the hardships and priva
tions that are apt to Urn the lot of the
Akron's crew. I cam stand it without
a murmur and be useful, no matter
what happens.
"I believe I have undergone more
than my full share of pain in thi^
world, and although I wish you evevv
success in the expedition, I'm not
afraid to pass in my checks if disaster
should overtake the ship, in fact, I'd
welcome a chanee to get ogf the eartCu
even if the period be brief.
"It may be that a trip thorough the air
over the ocean would effect a cure to
my eyes, a tfoing that bas baffled spe
Noted Jaauit, Son of General Sherman,
Goes to Sanitarium.
Father Thomas Ewing Sherman, S.
J., eldest son of General Sherman, has
sought refuge In a sanitarium at San
Jose, Cal.
Father Sherman created, a sensation
when he tried to go over the ground of
his father's famous march to the sea.
He had a military escort and was
stopped in Georgia. President Roose
velt then withdrew the escort.
As a young man Tom Sherman was
one of the most dashing and popular
youths in Washington. He graduated
from the Jesuit college at Georgetown
and was to have become a politician
under his uncle, the Ohio senator.
Suddenly he made up his mind to be
come a Jesuit.
A private institution which combines all the
advantages of a perfectly equipped hospital
with the quiet ana comfort of a refined and
elegant home Modern ,a every respect No
insane, contae'ous or other oojectionable cases
received Rates are as low as the most effi
cient treatment and the best trained nursing
will permit
H. C. COONEY, M. D.,
Hedlcal Director,
FLORENCE 11. JOHNSTON. S'lcerintendent.
Ice m!Roofing
The illustration repre
sents one of six tests
contained in our free book,
Ten Tears of Wear In Ten
Minute Tests\" With the infor
mation this book contains* you
can solve the roofing problem.
Your dealer will gladly give you
a copy.
Get the book, and samples^ o
Use the tests^and put it up to
the roofing to make goodup
to Vulcanite to show quality and'
prove worth.
For sixty years Vulcanite Roof
ing has been made good enough
to make good. Today it is its own,
best salesman and its high quality
speaks for itself.
Go to your dealer and get the1
book and samples.
PatentVulcanite Roofing Co*.
Chicago, III.
Evens Hdw Co.
Vulcanite Distributers
Is veryexhilarating but
somewhat tiresome.
LAfter a day in the
"Leads them Air
Theo. Hamm Brewing Co.
5 Insurance, Collections.
Farm Lands
Farm Loans
Refreshes, stimulates,
strengthens and insures
a good night's rest.
Include a case in your outfit
Local Dealers
Princeton Minnesota
First National Bank
of Princeton, Minnesota.
Paid up Capital, $30,000
A General Banking Busi
ness Transacted.
Loans Made on Approved
Princeton State Bank
Capital $20,000
Farm Mortgages,
The Princeton Boot and Shoe Man
^jp*4* ^J^SjJp^fs -jp, -j 1^. JJ.
Interest Paid on Time De
Foreign and Domestic Ex
S. S. PETTERSON, President.
T. H. CALEY, Vice Pres.
J. F. PETTERSON, Cashier.
M. M. Stroeter will conduct, farm auctions either en commission
or by the day.
Banking Business
Interest Paid on Time Deposits.
Security State Bank
Princeton, Minnesota
Capital $32,000 Surplus $4,000
JOHN W. GOULDING, President G. A. EATON, Cashier
.fr.i. !j ft 4^44'4M4.44Mi.4M{MJ^.4MMM.^ .fr.$^^.. ..f..
HcMillan & Stanley
Successors to
Princeton, Minnesota
We Handle the Great Northern Railway Co. Lands
^mmmmmmmmmmmmtmmmmmmmmmmmmK. I Have a Good Floor!
gr It costs no more to have a smooth floor 3
E than it does to be bothered with a cheap 3
r splintery affair that needs repairing all 3
E the time. It will pay you to examine our 3
iE Clear Birch, No. i Hard Maple and Quarter
Sawed Western Fir Flooring for Porches 3
and Outside Cellar Doors. 3
We have a large and* select stock on
hand. Our prices are reasonable and
our service prompt. We also carry a
correctly graded stock of everything
else in lumber
Farm Loans
Farm Lands
tJl ,3, tJi
QEO. A. COATES, Hanager 3
Florsheim Shoes
VTfE are sole agents for the Florsheim
Shoe in this town. Any man who
puts his money into a $4.50 or $5.00 Flors
heim Shoe need not wonder if he will get it
out again. This shoe never disappointed a
wearer. We have also the
Buster Brown Shoe
for children, and many other good brands.
Come in and see for yourselves.
Yours truly,
Solomon Long

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