COMPILATION made by the
London Engineer shows that
dmiug the year 1911 twenty
eight war vessels, with an ag
gregate tonnage of more than 500,000
tons, were launched. As the cost of a
modern Dreadnought or cruiser battle
ship, with its guns and armor, is fully
twice as much as that of a modern
liner, the cost of the twenty-eight that
were launched during the twelve
months gone would have been sufficient
to set afloat twenty Mauretanias, ten
Olympics, ten Kronprinzessin Cecilies,
eight Campanias and eight Majesties.
The 450,000 tons of armored construc
tion that were'laid down during the
year would have paid for a merchant
fleet almost as numerous and costly as
the one enumerated.
The data gathered by the London
Engineer show the inexorable prog
ress of naval preparation. Today we
count eight first class powers. The
statistics show that every one of these
has largely added to its naval strength
during the year gone by. For many
years Great Britain's postulate has
been that, no matter what the cost, she
will have a navy equal to that of any
two other powers. Her attitude is that,
as the greater includes the less, any
preparation that is made with a view
to security against an attack by any
two of the greatest naval powers will
suffice to give security against any
Referring to this two power stand
ard, the naval correspondent of the
London Morning Post says it would be
difficult to say what combination of
two powers is regarded as most prob
able. "But it is clear enough," he
adds, "that the kaleidoscope of inter
national relations alters more quickly
than squadrons of capital ships can be
built, so that a provision that contem
plates an attack tomorrow by a com
bination other than the strongest pos
sible may prove, if the attack should
be deferred until the day after tomor
row, to be unequal to the new set of
Living up to the standard which she
had set, Great Britain's navy still main
tains a strength which is more than
equal to that of the combined strength
of any other two. Of the 1,934,502
tons of naval armament which she
could immediately mobilize for attack
or defense, the United States, the next
in naval rank, could oppose but 759.-
000, while Germany, now third in the
list of naval powers, has only 745.000
tons immediately available. Even if
the naval weight of France, fourth in
the list of naval powers, were thrown
in the balance her 640,000 tons of
available armament would not be suf
ficient to overcome the British prepon
The advent of the all big gun ship,
or Dreadnought, as the type is more
popularly known, wrought almost as
great a revolution in naval construc
tion as did the battle between the
Monitor and the Merrimac And it is
toward the upbuilding of this type that
the nations are now so feverishly
striving As Great Britain brought
out the first of the type and as she be
gan its construction during the war
between Russia and Japan, it has been
popularly supposed that the lesson of
the all big gun ship was first taught
by that war and that Great Britain,
being the ally of Japan, was the first
to profit by it
But as a matter of fact plaj ^i
two all big gun ships were prepared
by American na^v officers soon after
the close of the war with Spain, and
these were reposing in pigeonholes in
the navy department when admiral
ties were electrified by the news that
Great Britain had quietly built and as
quietly launched an all big gun ship
and had named it Dreadnought There
was an immediate dusting off of these
old plans, and the new Dreadnoughts
Delaware and North Dakota resulted
from one set and the near-Dread
noughts Michigan and South Carolina
from the other
Uniformity of Armament.
The type which has set nations at the
effort to surpass one another had its
origin off Santiago While this nation
was shouting itself hoarse over that
victory the naval officers who had tak
en part in it were soberly figuring out
the percentage of hits which our ships
had made. They found that it was
only a fraction more than 2 per cent
that is, for every 100 shells fired at the
enemy only two took effect, even at
the relatively close range at which the
battle was fought Then amid the
heedless clamor over victory the men
of the navy began asking themselves
the question as to what would have
been the result if they had encounter
rd an enemy who could have shot
fti .right and quick. For the first time
its history the navy went at target
vor\ in a serious and sedulous fash
ion Ranges were extended to five and
six miles Then came another prob
lem It was found the battleships, all
armed with big guns of different cali
bers, could not distinguish from the
splash which gun it wa that sent iN
missile close to or far fio'ii (ho ta*"?t
Suddenly it dawned epen the ex-
Their Cost Was Sufficient For Great Britain Still Is First, the
Twice as Many of the United States Second and
Biggest Liners. Germany Next.
perts that the solution was in a ship
carrying only one caliber of big guns.
The armor could be more heavily con
centrated around the guns, and these
could be of the largest caliber and of
the longest range.
Thus came about the Dreadnought,
the type upon which navies now place
their chief reliance. Of this type the
United States now possesses four, with
two nearing completion and two con
tracted for. Great Britain has eleven
built and eleven more under construc
tion. To the seven which she already
has Germany is adding nine others.
France at the beginning of the year
had twenty-one pre-Dreadnoughts
ready for service, the pre-Dreadnought
now being classed as ships built or
laid down before 1906, the year which
ushered in the Dreadnought type.
What Other Nations Did.
Japan last year mcieased her battle
ship fleet by the addition of the Setsu,
a Dreadnought with twelve twelve-inch
guns. She also laid the keels of three
super-Dreadnoughts, vessels which are
to displace 27,500 tons and which are
to carry eight 13 5-inch guns in their
massive steel turrets. During the year
two Dreadnoughts for the Argentine
Republic were completed in this coun
try and turned over to that country.
Italy sent three of the type afloat and
laid the keels of two others Russia
launched four of the type and began
the construction of three more. Even
Turkey entered into the race and laid
the keels of two vessels which are de
signed to displace 23,000 tons and to
carry batteries of ten 13.5-inch rifles.
Eliminating Great Britain and her
majestic naval power, the nation which
ranks highest in naval strength is the
United States, with Germany a close
second. But if the ships now building
and authorized were completed we
would be a very bad third, falling far
below Germany, which would then
have 1,082,569 tons of naval armament
against our 942,150. But it is conceded
that our ships carry batteries immense
ly superior to those mounted on the
German battleships and cruisers. In a
table prepared by the chief intelligence
officer of the navy is shown the rela
tive total broadsides of primary guns
on battleships and cruisers of Germany
and the United States. This gives the
weight of the German broadside as
133,900 pounds, that of the United
Rise of Battle Cruiser.
Following the Dreadnought into the
field came the battle cruiser, a type
which has been developed within the
last few years and which seems likely
to be an important factor in all future
naval engagements. The first of these
ships was launched in England and
was named the Invincible. As the
Dreadnought gave its name to the all
big gun type, so the Invincible has giv
en its name to all vessels of the battle
cruiser pattern. These battle cruisers
are of very high speed and carry guns
of the same caliber as those mounted
on battleships, but in smaller number.
The British battle cruiser Lion recent
ly completed her speed tests, in which
she showed the extraordinary pace of
thirty-one knots an hour The endur
ance trials were equally remarkable,
the vessel showing her ability to main
tain a speed of twenty-six knots for
It would be interesting to compare
the Lion with corresponding ships of
other powers, but the task is made im
possible by the fact that so little is
known of the vessels of the same type
which are being built by Germany and
Japan Evolved from the armored
cruiser type, the battle cruiser has not
found favor with our navy department,
the launching of the Montana six years
ago marking the end of armored cruis
er construction in this country
The navy department of this country
continues to pin its faith to the Dread
nought, and in its last issue the Scien
tific American says it has every reason
to be pleased with the design of the
latest two, the Nevada and Oklahoma,
contracts for which have just been let.
These ships, this authority says, rep
resent to a greater degree than any of
their predecessors the united experi
ence and thought of the various
branches. 12 GLASS EYES AT DINNER.
Each Guest Wore One, and They
Caused Telephone Girl to Faint.
Twelve men with twelve good eyes
and twelve glass eyes attended a din
ner served by Harley D. Hartley, one
of their number, at a Muncie (Ind.) ho
Hartley was particular that every
man present should wear a glass eye.
When dinner was over the twelve glass
eyes were removed, wrapped in a neat
package and sent to the proprietor of
the hotel, with the request that he in
spect and return them. He opened
the package in the presence of the tele
phone girl, and she fainted
Priest Elected Mayor.
Father B. W. Dunnigan, pastor of
the Lapeer Catholic church, has been
elected mayor of Lapeer, Mich.
^raWWKSWW^ THE PRIKCETON TJKIOK
TWENT EIGH iivSl.^THViCTiH
I TH E YEA 191 1
Mafion Has Caused Many Fa
talities Since 1908.
SEVENTEEN KILLED THIS YEAR
Great-great-grandson of Commodore
Perry Made Notable Flight From
Coast to CoastMotorcycled From
Buffalo to New York In a Day.
Calbraith Perry Rodgers, who was
killed when his aeroplane fell at Lo-*
Angeles recently, was a great-great
grandson of Commodore Perry He
was noted for his coast to coast aero
plane flight, when, with his landing at
Pasadena, a suburb of Los Angeles,
he established the only cross country
record in the history of aviation
Starting for the Pacific coast from
New York on Sept. 17,1911, after many
mishaps and through countless dan
gers, he covered a distance of 3,220
miles, which more than doubled the
previous world's record of 1,265 miles,
made by Harry N. Atwood of Boston
when he flew from St. Louis to New
York. Unlucky weather conditions
and delays prevented him from win
ning the William JR. Hearst prize of
$50,000, for which he originally start
ed as a competitor, but which was
Withdrawn when the time limit expir
ed on Oct. 10
Recent Convert to Aviation.
Rodgers was a recent convert to avia
tion enthusiasm when he came for
ward as an entrant in the coast to
coast flight. He had been known as a
football player of power with a record
both at Columbia university and on
the University of Virginia team. He
was the tallest of the aviators, a strap
ping figure, appreciably above the six
foot mark, and he was of spare and
muscular build. Such an exploit as a
motorcycle trip from Buffalo to New
York in a day was one guarantee of
his endurance, and, though he had
been flying only two months, he car
ried off the duration prize at the Chi'
cago aviation meet the month before
attempting the coast to coast flight.
He had a reputation for daring, and,
though his mother rejoiced in the re
nown that came to him as an aviator,
she was beset by a fear of some such
disaster as finally befell him. When,
on the second day of his great flight,
he crashed into a tree Mrs. Rodgers
journeyed to Middletown, N. Y., to
plead with him to give up the race, but
he assured her he would be cautious.
Mishaps beset his flight in great num
bers, and when Rodgers finally reached
the other side of the continent his ma
chine had been broken and repaired so
many times that only the vertical rud
der and the dripping pan remained of
the original outfit
His most conspicuous accident hap
pened when he started on from Pasa
dena to Long Beach. The misfortune
held at bay until then came heavily
upon him when, on the outskirts of
Compton, he experienced a fall of a
hundred feet that shook him up badly
and delayed his actually landing at
Long Beach until Dec. 10.
"Ethereal asphyxia'' was his name
for the sleepy sensation that crept over
him, causing him to loose control of
"It lurks in the pockets of the upper
air strata," he said, "and creeps irre
sistibly upon the senses of an aviator,
lulling him into dreamy unconscious
ness. I believe this same thing to
have caused the deaths of Arch Hoxey,
Ralph Johnstone and Eugene Ely."
Rodgers' best day's flight was from
Kansas City, Mo., to Vinita. Okla., a
distance of 230 miles.
The death of Rodgers is the seven
teenth aviation fatality since the be
ginning of this year. This brings the
list of those killed in aeroplane acci
dents since the death of Lieutenant
Thomas E. Selfridge on Sept. 17, 1908,
the first air man to be killed by a fall,
France, though recognized as the
leader in aviation, has suffered the
most, forty-six of her aviators being
killed in accidents, two of them being
women. The first woman to be killed
was Mme. Daniz Moore, who fell at
Etampes, France, on July 21, 1911.
The other was Suzanne Bernard, who
was also killed at Etampes on March
10 last while she was making a final
test flight to gain her license as an avi
Each year has seen an increase in
the number of those killed. In 1908
one man lost his life, in 1909 four were
killed, in 1910 thirty-two died and in
RAW EGGS FOR LONG LIFE.
Mrs. Loud, Sprightly Ninety-two, Has
Always Eaten Four a Day.
Mrs. Mary O. Loud of Boston, whj
celebrated her ninety-second birthday
recently, is an out and out optimist.
She believes the world is getting bet
ter, but she thinks that women of the
present day are too frivolous. Mrs.
Loud is a firm believer in cold baths
and up to a few months ago took one
regularly each morning.
"To what do I ascribe my longevi-
ty?" said Mrs. Loud. "To the care I
have taken in the selection of my
food. I eat four raw eggs a day. The
only meat I eat is chicken. I eat a
good deal of jam and preserves. I
think sweets are wholesome. I like
andv. $ach day I eat several Dieces."
Reporfc of Freer school, district 4,
A division: Those perfect in atten
dance during the month of Maroh
were Edward Dejaralis, Anna and
Dora Burke, Walter Gustafson, Mar
garet Homme, Elvina Hartman, Ethel
Olson, Helen and Alice Peterson,
Fred Stelloh, Minnie and Ethel Teutz,
Lester Uglem and Ernest Wesloh.
Those who attended 19 days were Syl
vie Olson, Freddie Wesloh, Eugene
Hill and Clara Larson.
Mae Orton, Teacher.
A private Institution which combines all the
advantages of a perfectly equipped hospital
with the quiet and comfort of a refined and
elegant home Modern in every respect No
insane, contagious or other objectionable cases
received Rates dre as low as the most effi
cient treatment and the best trained nursing
H. C. COONEY, M. D.,
NELLIE JOHNSON, Superintendent
A Thing of the Past
The tired mother who
knows the body-building
Malt and Hop Tonic
has no fear of housework.
lt banishes fatigue and
brings refreshing sleep to the
tired body and mind.
Every Drop a Help to Health
For sale at all drug stores.
Tfieo. Hamm Brewing Go.
ST. PAUL, MINN.
This is one of the six tests con
tained in our free book, "Ten Years
Wear in Ten Minute Tests. Th
information contained in this book
will absolutely enable you to settle
the prepared roofing question to
know just how long and how well
any kind of prepared roofing will
wear on your buildings.
Ask our dealer for the book and a
Include Vulcanite in your tests and
you won't be sorry. Our only reason
for furnishing the tests and urging
you to include our roofing is, that
Vulcanite Roofing is its onvn best salesman.
Now if you want a roof that you know is
water-proof and wind-proof and fire-proof
and practically wear-proof, here's the way to
absolutely settle the questionto find out if
our claims for Vulcanite are true.
Ask our dealer for the book and samples
TAb'JBSDAT, APRIIi 11, Idle. SSW**^ fflfMWPr^ v,--r"^^#^^if^si
PatentVulcanite Roofing Co.
Evens Hdw Co.
First National Bank
of Princeton, Minnesota.
Paid up Capital, $30,000
A General Banking Busi
Loans Made on Approved
Interest Paid on Time De
Foreign and Domestic Ex
S. S. PETTERSON, President.
T. H. CALEY, Vice Pres.
J. F. PETTERSON, Cashier.
M. M. Stroeter will conduct farm auctions either on commission
or by the day.
Princeton State Bank
o.-.~i Banking Business
Interest Paid on Time Deposits.
Farm Mortgages, SKAHEN,
Insurance, Collections. Cashier.
Security State Bank
Capital $32,000 Surplus $4,000
JOHN W. GOULDING, President G. A. EATON, Cashier
^MMy..f..f..T..T..T..|MT..T.,v.t.,t t^-}^-M"t-T-TTT 11 1 T!- -?T!- -T--T-'??- 'T-!!- q.q.q.4..j.4.,|..j.
Farm Lands Farm Loans
I HcMillan & Stanley
1 H. S. RUTHERFORD & O. I
We Handle the Great Northern Railway Co. Lands
i Farm Loans Farm Lands 1
I 1 I1
If You Are in Need of a Board or a 3
s~ Load of Lumber see the 3
H| Princeton Lumber Co.
We can sell you at a lower price
than anv other yard. All that
we ask is that you will call and
E give us an opportunity to con-
E vince you. S* ^ff
The Princeton Boot and Shoe Man
PRINCETON LUMBER CO.
GEO. A. COATES, rianager 2
are sole agents for the Florsheim
Shoe in this town. Any man who
puts his money into a $4.50 or $5.00 Flors
heim Shoe need not wonder if he will get it
out again. This shoe never disappointed a
wearer. We have also the
Buster Brown Shoe
for children, and many other good brands.
Come in and see for yourselves.
.1. .|i .|.fl,|.
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