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JTl a g of 1 1) c Union.
The Union, It must rc preserved." Jackson. T. PALMER &. EDWARD PICKETT. EDITORS. FRIDAY, XOVKMBKK , 1MO. TO THE PUBLIC. Believing that the time has arrived, when it ' becomes the duty of every good and true patriot, j to merge all party distinctions, and to obliterate j all party lines, in the great issue which id now ; tipon us Shall the Federal Union exist 1 ! I have, in conformity with my own opinions, i and with those of my political friends, determ- , ined to take down the head of the Southron", j and to place in its stead, the " Flag or the j Union." The latter title I adopt, as being in- j dicative of the principles and purposes which 1 have resolved, in conjunction with my friends, i to pursue, now, and at all hazards. To enable ,' me, in the future management of the Flag, to carry out those principles and. purposes referred j to, I have associated with me, in the Editorial department, Dr. Edward Pickktt, of this city, whose efforts will be zealously given to the , Federal Union, as it is. Our summary or j principles, will be found in the resolutions ' adopted by the Mass Meeting in this city, on : Monday last, ;nd to this pillar will our Flag be j "nailed," and there it shall remain, unless torn : down by revolution or civil war.. Of Dr. Pickett's capacity, to give any addi tional interest to our paper, I must decline to peak. I trust, however, that the Flag will not be found less worthy of the kind regard of the public in future, tliao the Southron has been in the past. THOS. PALMER. November SC, 1850. It is not only in pursuance of custom, but because I think I have something to say to my i readers, that I now claim the indulgence of a ' few remarks, introductory to duties which I have deliberately and voluntarily assumed. To take upon myself the responsibility, in part, of j conducting a political journal at present, when t the public mind is highly excited when ques- ; tions of the highest moment are proposed, not ! only for discussion, but for absolute decision i and final action, I may well pause, and distrust t my competency for such discussion, in such manner, as to develope truth, and a wise practi cal result, in the settlement of the agitated ques tions at issue. But believing that the issue is now made, ard cannot be evaded, and that the interests of every American citizen are deeply involved in the determination of this issue, I .,uw is. Sio luy umuuio cuoris 10 uiai . cause, inhich are treasured up, in my opinion, i the interests, the prosperity, the honor and safety j of our common country. That issue is open resistance to the laws of Congress, passed, in my judgment, by competent constitutional au thority, and dissolution of the Union on onj part; and acquiescence to these laws, and the preservation of the Union, on the other. The cause to which I intend to give my feeble 1 fatigued with his late labors, he never was more aid, is the Union as it is. This I believe yet i himself than upon this occasion. He was full to be the Union of our fathers, a constitutional of hope and glowing with the bright r rosprcts Union, in which our rights have been strictly j of success which he. believed awaited the tri observed, by all, and every act of legislation by ! umph of the great cause, in which he was en trie Federal Government, during the late session : gaged. The greetings which he received by of Congress. j t,e multitude assembled, were such, as we This contest, now involving the very existence doubt not, he will long remember, for they of the Government, is far, very far, above all j sprang forth, fresh and warm from the hearts of party contest. It is not a question, as to the policy of this measure, or the wisdom of that whether or not we obtain this concession or the other whether strict and exact justice has been done to this State or to that, in the estimation of the States themselves but it is one ot existence. Shall our Federal Government, formed by a con vention of perhaps the greatest men of modern times men fresh from a successful revolution, waged, in the estimation of the whole civilized world, for the political redemption of man, and therefore, whose patriotism was high above sus picion be preserved, or shall that government, thus formed by such men, be "dismembered," by such patriots as entertain a holy horror of the "dismemberment of Texas 1" All this seems to me and I shall attempt in future to orove ittn ,v-n " i.... I ,An. i ,u . i. .... . 1 """"-o" -iii3iue. ii appears 10 me to i be surrendeiing up certain blessings, now in j full possession of us all, for certain but unknown I evils and calamities. It appears, in my judg ment, to be throwing the future prospects and hopes of our common country, upon the bosom of a wild and fearful ocean, and g,ln VhP i civijuiiii" m uaiMies!) anu 10 storms. w no can penetrate the future, or who would desire it, ' if the American Union bo broken into thirtv-on ! independent elements ! ! With the r,;;,.. . t .i i v un these opinions, and these purposes, I . beg leave, most respectfully, to present myself, ' and the Flag of the Union, to the consideration of the People of Mississippi. Inrtat f" r- I. ... i... V J .... I . 11 . . , .. ni in.j , t utsire 10 aaa, mat I snail en- itmTnr.nnirnm.lv A .. ! all the courtesy and kindness which should, at all times, mark the intercourse between gentle men. KDWARD F1CKETT. GEN. FREEMAN'S LETTER. VVe desire to call attention to the letter of this gentleman, to be found on our first page. Do not fail to read it. We would be greatly de lighted to see some of the disunion lawyers re- tute it or rather try to refute it. If they will do so, we promise to publish their reply, if con densed into an ordinary space. If there be such a politician as a retister, but opposed to a disso lution of the Union, we respectfully ask his attention to the argumentcontained in this letter. It was said of a late able divine, that he was converted from infidelity, in an attempt to refute Scoit's Force of Truth. We should have great hop of a similar result, in any fair-minded re tister, who would undertake to re.V.e General Freeman's letter. t3P The pressure of business, connected with the late changes in our paper, and the shortness of time intervening between these changes and our publication day, have post poned matters, which would otherwise have attracted our attention. In our next number we propose a special examination of the Governor's message, and the letters of Colonel Davis and of Ex-Governor Drown. 07" The friends of the Union will meet at the City Hall on Saturday evening, at 7 o'clock, for the purpose of forming a Central Unio.v Association. The friends of the Union throughout the State are requested to follow this example, and send their proceedings to the "Flag," Postage paid. f Professor Copelanu, of Aberdeen, was invited by the friends of the Union to deliver an address j-esterday evening, but was compelled to leave by an unexpected event, and begs us to render this apology, and to say for him, that his motto is, "sink or swim, live or die, survive or perish," he gives his heart and hand to the cause of the Union. The Oreat Mass Meeting in Jackson, on Monday the ISttu We would as soon hope to give a full and graphic picture of the falls of Niagara, to one who had never seen this great wonder of nature, as to do justice to the Union Mass Meeting, held in this city on Monday last. It was truly, a rally for the Union, and a rally from nearly all parts of the State. We had men from the Eist and the West, the North, South and centre, and all hearts seemed to have one impulse, and all minds, one purpose and one object, and that, the preservation of the glorious Union, and the vindication of the wisdom and patriotism of our fathers and ourselves, in the formation, de fence and perpetuation of the government of our common country. At an early hour, the crowd began to assemble in front of the Capitol, with a fine band of music, and the emblem of the Union, with all its stars and stripes, streaming and waving over us. At 11 o'clock, A. M., the procession marched to the City Hall, where very soon a large and crowded assembly, filled the Hall, and nearly asmany were collected about the Soutli side of the building, in a window of which a temporary stand had been erected for the speak ers. Hon. Chief Justice Sharkev was chosen President of the Meeting, and after calling the immense assembly to order, he delivered a brief, but powerful speech, in explanation of the meet ing, and in defence of the Union. The conclu sion of his address, was a touching and eloquent appeal to the patriotism of his auditory, and pointing to the stars and stripes, and referring to the glorious triumphs achieved under its folds, and the respect and admiration of the world which had collected around it, and the honor, justice, power and safety, which still glowed in everv star, and shone in everv utiinp. and thpn askedf if we were ed to tear it fron its standard, and to rend into fragments, that gov- ernment of which it was the bright glorious em blem ! We heard but one response to this ap pal, artH from he manifestations which we saw in the faces of the dense mass of eager au ditors, we feel authorized to s y, that not one heart in the whole audience, refused to unite in tjie ,eep.tone( f no ; ,u. Ii.n no ! which reverberated niiuugiiyut kllc 1 1 (1 1 1 . But the gallant, and fearless, the indomitable Foote, was there, and great was the desire to see and to hear our distinguished Senator, who had been so often and so barbarously "demol ished" at various points during his brief tour through part of the State. So far from his pow- j ers, either bodily or mental, being impaired or the people, and spoke the sentiment more em phatically than we ever heard it uttered before, "well done, good and faithful servant." As soon as suitable arrangements would be made, he took the. stand, and for about three hours, he fixed and retained the attention of his audience by the masterly exhibition of his various pow ers, to a degree which we have never seen sur passed. His perspicuous statement of facts, seemed to require no argument his argument so clear as to require neither illustration nor elo quence to impress its truth upon the minds and his eloquence, either in his appeals to the patriotism of his hearers, or in the scathing de nunciatious of his traducers, was equally irre sistible in its effect. We cannot at present re- r .i : j t w l" Tar,ous BUDJec" mscussea Dy t.en. rorie, nor can we pretend to give even a sketch of this, his triumphant vindication of his Sena torial labors, during the late session of Con gress, and of our Federal Union, for we could not do the orator j usticc, nor ourselves, as faith ful reporters of his speech. We could not, however, avoid the conclusion, after hearincr hlm' thal 1,e 1,3,1 not fu,ly and 8uc"essfully defended himself againtthe charge of unfaith fulness to the South, and the measures of the comProlnise against the spirit of disunion, then lrulce(1 tnpre was no truth in history, and no , , J pV" A,ftw lhe -nclu8ion ot" T. " th" COm"',Uee rePortpd ,,,e . , . A. .. i i"iuiiuii i uie meeting, wliicli, helnr (Jispos And to the edi- i . - r, ,..,. B 1 i cu vi, wen. i. i . lavi, ot Lafayette county, i .n,. . , wds ca,loa 10 we stand. He referred to the able address of our Senator, as liavincr covered ... oaruig coereu all the ground which ho had proposed to occu py, and which he most heartily approved. He sketched, in a very clear and striking manner, the benefits, and inestimable blessings of our Federal Union, as the ark of our domestic safe- ty, and the bulwark of our power and indepen- dence, so far as our relations with other nations I of the earth, were involved. After the close of j v.c... a,. peecu, me meeting aojournea till evening, wiicii n again assembled at halt-past seven o'clock. The Hall was densely crowded, and so soon as the President had taken his seat, Hon. Jno. D. Freeman was loudly called for. He took the stand, and as he had just received the mes sage of the Governor to the legislature, he un dertook to give the meeting a review of this ex traordinary document. His exposure of its mis takes, assumptions, positions and conclusions and the "decided opinion," which the Governor -' .."'" - I imwin in i -Wp,,. .ii, .in.. ..in mi l ,.. ,, i .-,..- , , .- i. 1 t, rVM.-i i. ,,,, - ' "Tj'- did not "hesitate" to express, "that the only ef fectual remedy" waS a 'prompt and peacaeble secession of the aggrieved Stales," met with a rebuke and chastisement from the late Attorney i mission as unconstitutional and void. Fortu General, that will long be remembered by those j nately, Gov. Quitman is not the only man of who heard him. For an hour and a half, he j legal acquirements in the South. Had he con poured forth a torrent of argument, withering j suited Judge Sharkey, Judge Hopkins, of Ala denunciation, wit and ridicule, upon this mes- ; bama, or almost all the leading legal men of the sage, which is impossiile to describe. He ' Southern States, he would have found, that his more than onco brought the audience to their feet, while the roars of merriment, and great and repeated cheering, occasionally suspended for a time, the progress of tpe orator. Indeed we met some gentlemen on Tuesday morning, who informed us that they "were not done laughing yet. After the conclusion of Gen. Freeman's speech, which was cert linly one of the most nt efforts to which we extraordinary and brilli.; ever listened, Dr. Wm. p. Lvles, of Noxubee, was called to the standi The Doctor is a very plain man, but u very strong one. He is well informed, clear headed, alnd possessed of a great deal of that commodity! usually denominated, common tense indeed Ilia is a man of marked talent, and of unquestionable patriotism. His speech throughout was filled with clear argu ment, lucid exposition, and patriotic sentiments. Indeed his speech was j list such a one, as would make a disunionist feel extremely absurd, and a Unionist entirely triumphant. As the meeting was about to close, the disun ionists, who were assemjbled in the State Capi tol, fired five guns. Gen. Freeman instantly arose and remarked, tint the audience should not be alarmed at the cannonading that when great military chieftains die, it is cus'omary to fire a salute over their graves. There had been a funeral at the Capitol to-night. Upon which, the audience immediate y rose to their feet and gave three times three hearty cheers. War Message ot" CJov.j Cj,uitnian t !"Mutid the Alarm J! Let the Cciuntry in tJeneral, and the World in particular, take notice!!! Our readers will be stlruck with astonishment at the position which Gjv. Quitman has assum ed. Secession is recomimended as a remedy for present grievances. Disunion and civil war are sounded in our ears, The cannon's roar, the clang of trumphets, tile flashing sword, the gleaming arms, the veteran legions are soon to be in our midst. The project of the campaign is arranged. Mississippi is take the lead. Pal- mettodom declines the hionor, her valliant Gene rals give the precedence to the heroic spirit of the Magnolia State. The first two-thirds cf the message is the re fuse of the late speeches of the Governor on the stump, revamped and lewly bound, modestly contributed "to the common stock of public opinion." The tcitty jiiortions of the late ad. dresses have been omitted, for reasons best known to the author. We suppose, however, it must have been dono out of compassion for those who have weak mention, the notorious nerves. V e need not fact, that whole lines of embattled hosts have b ;cn entirely swept away under the discharges of the Governor's batteries of sarcasm. Some havj thought him cruel and blood-thirsty in his scithing assaults. We do noi think an such riiijT. It is to bse slander upon the Executive, a lid we would like to see the man who dares boldly to charge this upon him. The Governor advises secession from the Un ion. In adding his 'jadvice to the common stock of public opinioii" he says: "the Union of these States has been so grossly perverted from its original purpose, as to render its further continuance incompatible with the honor, the prosperity, and the safety of the slaveholding States, unless some correction of past aggres sions, and some additional and more effectual remedies for our future protection, be obtained from our associates in the confederacy." Now Gov. Quitman knows, and ev :ry sensible man st!ug circumstances, no knows, that under ex such correction or guara nties can be had. When the preser.t constitution was formed, all the States, with one excen lion, were slaveholding. Guaranties for the protection of slavery were expressly introduced, namely, the recovery of j fugitive slaves, the baais of representation, raa- king five slaves equal end other provisions, a moment, that the fot tj three white persons, Can it be supposed, for nders of the constitution did not understand th sir own wants and inter believed, that two-thirds ests ? And it is to be of the States will submit to grant further guar anties, when half of the States have abolished slavery, or have not allowed it to enter their midsi 1 And with respect to the falsely assum ed aggressions of the present Congress, can it be thought, that it will turn around, eat its own words, and abruptly u ndo, what it has consurn- mated by means of n the cost of individual utual concession, and at sacrifices of opinion at both extremes of the t ountry 1 The idea is ab surd, and Gov. Quitn an must have known it. What conclusion, therefore, are we to drawl It is this: that he purposely made demands, which he knew wero impracticable and unat tainable, for the purpose of avoiding the direct issue of Union or Disunion. If we look to the spirit and context of t manifest, that secess Jie message, it is palpably ion is his wish. We re gret that he did not say so distinctly : for the question is a momentous one, involving the in terest, prosperty and future destiny of our State. The naked fact should not have been wrapt in the mystical folds of impossible contingencies; it ought to have been in the black colors of its native deformity. Wo have no fears for the re su't of the trial, when the issue is fairly pre sented lo the people. Disunion will be trium nhnntlv and indirrnantlv nnt down, so far a it L. j .l t. r . Kascrj upon thj late acts of Congress, let it would be better that the issue should have been presented at once, so that the decision might be made, and peace and harmony again restored in our borders. Had not the arguments in the messasre been overthrown time and again, we should deem it d.je to notice them The charge of executive influence with respect to the admission of Cali- fornia is parlicuiarv harped upon. It is sur- nrioinrr Iri if m C inoit (rnfkrulnace cKimiI1 persist in making this statement. The charge has been shown to be false by the evidence of . the Governor of California, Gen. Riley himself, and many others who participated in the various meetings to establish a State Government. But a purpose is to be accomplished : a plausible case must be made but, with or without facts. Had the same zeal been used to give a fair and candid view of the actual history of California, which has been shown in distorting and misre- presenting the true state of the matter, Gov. Quitman would have arrived at far different con clusions. He unhesitatingly declares her ad- ! assertions are in direct hostility to the constitu- j Hon. He would have found that a little less: pretension and a little more wisdom would very j much improve his addition " to the common stock of public opinio.!." ; j We publish on our first side an article, ' discussing the proposition, whether or not a ! State can constitutionally secede from the Union. It is from the pen of the editor of the Louisville Journal, whose versatile talents are equally hap py, whether employed in producing an elegant poem, inditing a pungent sarcasm, or elaborating a powerful political argument. As( it seems to us, he takes ground against the right of seces sion under the constitution which canot be suc cessfully refuted. This is' made (particularly apparent, in a case supposed, wherej a State has been formed and admitted into the I Union from territory acquired by the general government. New States being entitled to all the rights and immunities of the original States, itj follows that territory could by a very easy and quiet policy be snatched from the tuition. Supposing Cuba to be purchased for the sum of twenty millions of dollars, and forthwith to beconie one of the United States. One year's experience proves to her satisfaction, that she can do better out of the confederacy, and, therefore, she concludes to set up for herself. According to the secessionist she has a perfect right so to do, notwithstanding the sister States of the confederacy have contri buted millions for her purchase. This simple case involves an absurdity so palpable, that it seems impossible for any man to reconcile it to reason or law. Yet if this be true with respect to Cuba, it is equally true concerning any State which might desire to secede. Mr. Prentice, however, is far j from being a passive yielder to enactments notoriously uncon stitutional and tyrannical. WThen people are oppressed, they have a riht to rebel ; but this is a revolutionary right, inherent in any people subject to government. No powej on earth can divest a nation of this fundamental right. But under this constitution, 'no. such right can exist. Did it, the constitution would contain within itself the seeds of its own destruction; it could not stand a moment against the powers of pas sion or faction. " I i J. TELEGRAPHIC DISPATCH. It will be Eeen by the following dispatch from Judge Hutchinson, one of the delegates to the Nashville Convention, to Col. Tarpley of this city, that that bdy has determined upon a ser'es of measures, which are summed up thus: 1st. Of attachment to the Union of the Con stitiuion. 2rtd. J'maoierationofagTravati'jt4 impending. I 3d. The rtffht of secession. 4th. Recommending to the South not to meet the North in any National Convention to nominal, for President and Vice President and until our constitutional rights are restored. 5th. Recommendation to the Southern Stat ?s to elect delegates with plenary powers to a Southern Congress. The Convention adjourned, sine die, about noon. We leave between seven and nine p. m., to-day, and urge a reply, giving in a word, Message and the complexion of the Legislature. A. Hutchinson. 07" We are indebted to the Daily Missis sippian for a synopsis of the proceedings of the Legislature. MISSISSIPPI LEGISLATURE, i This body assembled on Monday last. The Senate was ..called to order by Hon. John I. Guion, President,' pro tern., when it Droceeded to an election' for President to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of Hon. Dabnev L Lipscomb,fWhich resulted in the choice of Hon. Jno. I. Guion, on the first ballot. The Presi dent retu:ied thanks for the honor conferred. Resolution's of condolence to the families of Hon. Dabney L. Lipscomb, late President of the Senate, and Hon. B. Kennedy, late member from Carroll, were adopted. A committee was then appointed, in conjunction with a committee from the House, to wait on the Governor to an nounce that they were prepared to receive any communication he had to make. A message was received from the Governor, and 10,000 copies ordered to be printed. The Senate then adjourned. . The House was called toorder at 11 o'clock, by the Speaker, Hon. Jno. J. McRae. A mes sage was received from the Senate that it was ready to proceed to business. A resolution was introduced by Mr. Huie that the House shall act on such matters, only, as relate to the objects for which he legislature was convened laid on the table. The Governor's message was then received, and 20,000 copies were ordered to be printed. The House then adjourned. In the Senate, on Tuesday, Mr. Brooke intro duced a resolution, which was adopted, that 15,000 copies ot VYas'niigton's Farewell Ad dress be printed for the use of the Senate. Mr. White offered resolutions to the purport that the adjustment measures of Congress are satisfactory to the people of Mississippi, and that no action should be taken by the legislature on these questions; which, after protrocted discus sion, were rejected. I In the House, the resolution offered by Mr. Huie yestetday, (the Senate concurring,) that during the present session the legislature will not act upon any subject except that for which it was specially convened by the Executive, was adopted. On Wednesday, in the Senate, the message was taken up in committee of the whole. Mr. Stone moved that so much of thn message as relates to Federal Relations be referred to a joint committee of the Senate and House of Repre sentatives, which was dopted. Mr. Brooke offered a resolution to th effect that the recent actp of Congress do not offer sufficient grounds for the secession of any of the Southern States; and that we are disposed to acquiesce in the same, until such aggresiions upon the rights of the South shall be committed by the" North as are set forth in the Resolutions of the October Convention; which wis laid oh the table. Mr. Sharkey offered a resolution that the Gov ernor be requested to communicate to the Senate, whether any of theStale Arms have been ca- -L i c-.- ii : LJj ried from the State since the last session, artd for what purpose; whih passed i- The Senate then adjourned. . In the House, a series of resolutionswere introduced by Mr. Nash, approving the course of Senator Davis and the members of the House of Representatives; anJ disapproving the course of Senator FoQte; which were laid on the table. A resolution tendering the use of the Hall to Senator Foote, to address his fellow-citizens, was adopted. - When ths House adjourned. GREAT MASS MEETING CONVENTION Uf 1 HE f IlLrlNDS Uf ThE U.N ION AT JACKSON , On the ldtlt November, 1850. At a Mass Meeting of the Friends of the Union in Mississippi, held in the City of Jack- son, on the 18th of Nove nber, 1S50 On motion ot Dr. Wm. D. Lyles of Noxubee county, the Hon. WILLIAM L. SHARKEY was appoiniea rresiaent Un motion ot Uen. J nr . D. r reeman, or Jack ... 'A fun, ...c cuiii-iiieu vcie ajjjuimcu Vice Presidents Hon. Daniel Maves, of Hinds, Dr. Edward Pickett, " Gen. Patrick Henry, of Madison, judge P. N ol and, of Warren, Hon. Walker Brooke, of Holmes, Hon. Stephen Adams, of Monroe, H. H. Worthington, esq., of Lowndes, Dr. W.B. Smith, of Winston, B. D. Nabors, esq., of Tippah, Geo. H. Foote, esq., of Noxubee, Hugh M. Rooers, esq., of Itawamba, J. V. Hodges, esq., of Rankin, Benjamin Collins, esq., of Tippah, Col. F. O. Talbert, of Amite, Jehu Wall, esq., " A. K. Farrar, esq., of Adams, L. Madison Day, esq., " John Wesl, esq., of Wayne, Peter J. Myrks, esq., of Perry, John McInnis, esq., of Greene, I. V. Welsh, esq., of Kemper, A. K. Reynolds, esq., of Tishemingo, William Huie, esq., of Choctaw, George Dunlap, esq., " Judge Fields, of Lowndes. On motion of Grafton Baker, esq., of Hinds, the following gentlemen were chosn Secretaries: Col. T. C. Tupper, of Madison, W. I. Proby, esq., of Franklin, H. C. Adams, esq., of Holmes, Alex. H. Arthur, esq., of Vicksburg. On motion of Mr. Baker, ot Hinds, a com- mittee of thirteen were appointed to draft reso lutions expressive of the sense of this meeting; and the chair appointed the following gentle men : Grafton Baker, esq., of Hinds; Gen. Isaac N. Davis, of Lafayette; D. B. Nabors, esq., of Tippah; Dr. Wm. D. Lyle, of Noxubee; C. C. Shackelford, esq., of Madison; D. W. Adams, esq., of Hinds; Wm. Regan, esq., of Yazoo; C. R. Crusoe, esq., of Lowndes; H. C. A dams, esq., of Holmes ; A. M. West, esq., of Holmes; F. M. Aldridge, esq., of Yalobusha. Gen. Henry S. Foote, U. S. Senator, being then called for addressed the meeting at length. At the conclusion of his address, the committee reported the following resolutions, which, after having been read by Dr. Wm. D. Lyles of Nox ubee county, were adopted unanimously : Whereas, the October Con venton of Mississippi, 1819, passed the following resolutions, viz : "That Congress lias no power lo pass any law abolishing slavery in the District of Columbia, or to prohibit the slave trade between the Stales, or of prohibit the introduction of slavery into the territories of the United States." '-That we would regard the passage by Congress of the 'Wilmol Proviso' as an unjust and insulting discrimination to which the slaveholding States cannot, without political degra dation, submit ; and to which thiscon vention, repre senting the feelings, and opinions of the people of Mississippi, solemnly declare they will not submit." Therefore, Resolved, 1st. That Congress has passed no law inconsistent with the principles of t he preceding resolutions; and that therefore no contenzency has arisen which can excuse or palliate a lorcible resis t. 2d. ra iim lat cotnDrotnie measure adored tance to its action oy congress are constitutional enactments; are now the law of the land, and imperatively demand the acquiescence of every citizen of the United State.' so long as tl.e same remain unaltered or unrepealed. 3d. That the friends of the Union are the friends of peace, the lriendsof the safety, prosperity and happiness of the people of Mississippi; and we are resolved, with the assistance of Alinignty God, to preserve that Union, because we believe that therein we shall preserve toourselves the inestima ble blessings of civil and religious liberty bequeat li ed to us by our forefathes; and as American citi zens, duly appreciating the advantages of that Un ion, we hold ourselves ready at all limes lo respond to the call of our common country, and peril our lives, our fortunes and our sacred honor in its de fence. 4'h. That whilst we acquiesce in the enactments of the late session of Congres, and feel a strong attatchinent and veneration for the Union establish ed by our forefathers, siiLl we declare thai violations of our rights may occur which would amount lo "intolerable oppression, and would justify a resort to measures of resistance; amongst which are the following : 1. The in:erlerence by Congressional legislation with the institution of slavery in the State. 2. Interference in the trade in slaves between the States. 3. "The abolition by Congress of slavery in the District of Columbia. 4. The refusal by Congress to admit a new State into ihe Union on the ground of her tolerating slavery within her limits. 5. The passage ot any law by Congress prohibi ting slavery in any of the territories. 6. The repeal of the Fugitive Slave law, or ihe refusal by the General Government to enforce the constitutional provision for Ihe reclamation of Fugitive Slaves. But that we aie now and at all times opposed to any agitation, by conventions or otherwise, of these questions, reserving the mode and measure of redress until such injury shall fre inflicted. 5th. Hesolocd, That we believe there is ample evidence of an organized plan being now prosecu ted by agitators, disorgntizers and disnmonists of the South, the object of which is the destruction of our present glorious Union, and the formation of a Southern Confederacy. 6th. Resolved, Therefore, that we do heartily concur with our fellow-citizens of Noxubee county as to the necessity of a full and complete organi zation of the Friends of the Union in Mississppi; and do accordingly recommend to the citizens of the several connties forthwith to form associations, whose object shall be the practical enforcement of that noble aud patriotic sentiment ot the sage of the Hermitage-: "The Union, it must be preserved." th. Resolved, That we regard the presenl crisis and the momentous quest inns now at issue, as jus tifying the obliteration of all old party lines; and that we will, and do unite, heart and hand, as a Union party for ihe preservation of the Union. approve the course of the Hon. Henry S. Foots i bth. Resjli ed, 1 hat we do hereby endorse and in his efforts to preserve the Union, and that his patriotic endeavors in lhat behalf in the Senate ot the United States, entitle him lo our confidence and gratitude. 9;h. Resolved, That the heartfelt thanks of this community and of the whole nation are due, and, on our part, are hereby tendered to those eminent statesmen and patriots, who, when they saw ihe Union in danger, threw themselves into the breach, disregarding all personal consequences, forgetting alt party predilections, and willing to be sacrificed, if need be, for the good of the country. iOth. Resolved, Thai the President of this meet ing appoint a committee to prepate and publish an address to the people of the Slate of Mississippi on the subject of the meeting. Col. I. N. Devis of Lafayette county, was then called on to address the meeting, when he delivered a soul-stirring and effective speech : , I ITie meeting adjourned till o clock, P. m. ! The meeting met pursuant to adjournment; and was addressed by Gen. Jo. I). Freemax and Dr. Wm. D. I vles. After which, th fol lowing resolutions were adopted Resolved, That we recommend lo all of the friends of the Union throughout the State to appoint delegates to meet at the city of Jackson, on the first Monday of May next, "lo nominate a Union Ticket for all State offices. Resolved, That we also advise the fiiends of the Union to appoint delegates to meet at some eligible point in each Congressional district to nominate candidates for Congress. Resolved, That we will use evry effort in our power to eitend the circulation "of the " FLAG OF THE UNION," to be published at Jackson, and recommend it to the patronage of the friends ol the Union throughout the United States. D. W- Adams, esq., on behalf of the Com mittee of Invitation, read the following letters Detroit. Nov. 1st, 1650. Gentlemen- : While thanking you for the invi- tation vou have been good 'enough to give inc. to i ?"eo.a.,nV , , ,i . " e . v-f a . r j the friends ot the Union, I am yet obliged to de- ciine it. I cannot be with vou upon ih.it occasion, though no ooe feels a deeper irr.eiesl iu the result of iis proceedings than I do, nor is any one more anxious ihan I am, that its voice should speak loudly and firmly lor that Union, which has given us all a people can desiie; which was the work ol our Fathers, and has been crowned by the blessings ol our Fathers' God. How strange is the spectacle we now exhibit lo the world! Possessed of a greater measure ol tree.lom than ever before lell imiiuii, rnju nig Ull, Aaiiipieu puuiii to th. !..! n . I., i U!:.. anu pi i vaie prosperity through the vast region committed by Providence to oor government, and with a tuture where we have nothing to tear but our own crimes and follies and the just judgment : of God, still society issiirred from its foundation, j the elements of trouble are every where in opera- ' lion, and men begin tola Ik as lightly ol dividing this ! Conlederation, as they talk of dividing a county or ! a lownstiip in those portions of the country where I .settlements are rapidly extending. And in two I Slates of the Union, representative bodies legally I constituted, are about to convene, with the avowed purpose ol deciding upon propositions lo be sub- i mined to the people for the aband jnment of this, , Confederacy, and for the establishment of" another. ' For others I might well say, for who can tell what ', new combinations will arise, should this work of ; destruction go on, or into how many fragments, hostile in feelings and interes:s, this glorious Union j may be broken! He, who under:akes lo manage : the political future, and lo designate the boundaries I of independent communities, which are to arise ! out of this contest, would be more wisely employed j io building a wall of sand lo resist the waves of the j ocean, when the tempest is the fiercest. There is j but one thing certain in such a Inline, and that is j as certain as anything in the pajC, the S:ates lo be i established would be always rivals, often enemies, j and we may readlheir history in the history of the j world f rom the earliest period, down to the very 1 mement we are setting at naught the fearf ul lessons, of experience. j And what is all this fori What sectional griev- j ance exists toawaken sectional feelings and actionT The great question, which agitated us, as to the j power of Congress to act upon the subject of .lav- , ery in the new acquisitions, has been settled by a ' j the place of action, andc;, cumstances independent relusal to exercise it. ;on iiilei vention has taken i of the Ueneral Government, the will of ihe people to be atlected by the measure and ihe operation of natural causes, have settled and are settling this question in a way lo give no sectional offence and in conformity with the fundamental principles of our institutions, which recognize the right of every political community to act for themselves upon ail subjects of internal and domes'. ic concern". This mode of adjustment removes all cause of difficulty, and furnishes no local or party triumph. The tri umph is one of piinciple and not ol politics; of fensive to none, and should be acceptable lo all. That it is not, is deeply to be deplored, and North and South, it is but too evident, liint a great struggle is before us, and that if those who yet love the Con stitution of our country, do no! rally in its snppoit, it may soon become like many other lessons of his tory, a warning to after limes of the facility with which Ihe blessings of self-government aie'sacii ficed in periods of internal dissensions. I ain hap py thai you have Come up to this noble woik. and I trust that the exertions of the friends of the Union in Ihe State of Mississippi may be crowned with success. 1 am sine you will not want the aid, as cheeifully rendered, as it will be efficiently ex erted, of your distinguished f.!lov-rii izen. Gen. Foote, known through all the country, as ihe able and zealous advocate of ihe Union, during the le cent session of Congress. Prompt and powerful in argument, and fearless in his course, he brought the resources of a well stored mind, and the impul ses of an ardent patriotism lo the task, and placed himself in ihe very front rank ( f ihose who souehl to alay ihe agitation, and lo adopt measures of com promise, calculated to restore harmony and good feeling to ihe country. I observed his course with equal pride and pleas ure, and never have seen a man, who displayed more political intrepidity, or who exhibited jess lear of personal responsibility, in such difficult cir cumstances as those in which he was placed. And j he w?,jr as jealously seconded- by men o," both Ihe great political parties which divide us; for the ex istence of the constitution is farabove all party con siderations, and politicians separated for almost a half a century, by their views and associations, found themselves side by side, laboring with equal zeal in ihe holy work of pacification. And now the issue must depend upon the people, and may he, who safely guided and guarded our fa hers in the period of their danger, guide and guard their sons in the present crisis, and equally conduct them to Union and safely. Very respectfully, I am gentlemen, your obedi ent servant, L.KW . CASS. Messrs, AdamsPickett, Jennings and Harper. Asin.Asn, Oct. 31, 1S50. Genti.emeu : I received your letter, officially in viting me to attend a mass meeting of the friends of the Union at Jackson, on the ISth proximo. I retain a most agreeable recollection of the only visit thai 1 ever made it, and 1 should be happv to renew ihe pleasure which lenjojedon thai occa sion ; but its great distance from mv residence, and other controlling circumstances will not allow nie that satisfaction. 1 do not regret the necessity of my absence, because I feel perfectly sure that, without any exterior assistance, ihe cause of ihe Union will be entiiely safe in the good sense, in ihe loyalty, and in ihe patriotism of the people of the S'ate ol Alississippi. It is a matter of great snrptise and of profound regret that a state of things should any where ex ist, which seen. s to require a rally of the people around lhat Union which, under the guidence ol Providence, has, with unexampled i apidity, cat l ied this Nation forward, in power and prosperity, and j greatness, to an elevation which commands ihe j admiration ol the whole worid. Nothing but ex- treme blindness and madness could prompt us lo throw away the countless blessings which we enjoy, and cast outselves rashly upon the perilous exper imenl of a dissolution uf the Union. What bold i and darinc hand could draw a line of separation between the dissevered pans? And if new con federacies could be formed out of the bleeding frag ments of the old one, how long would l hey remain united before other and other combinations would be formed! How long before war would break oui, the mo-t vindictive, implacable and desolating! But I foibear. Imagination isappalled by the con- , lempiaiiou oi me startling consequences, j It is gratifying and consoling to witness with what patriotic aidor both the great political par ities, in the country, lay aside their former differ i ences, and rush to the support of the Union. They j know that it is ihe paramount interest lo be cher ! ished and sustained. They know thai the systems j and measures of public policy, the off-pring of ihe ' government of Ihe Union, which have hcietot'ore j divided ihem, watilrf cease in be objects of conten tion, ii uiai gieaiesi oi an puoiic calamities, a dis- i solution oi ine Union, were unhappily to occur. ; They feel, therefore, the wisdom and propriety of j ,0IS E aCed ln an "nPrel.le position. . . -.v..u..,8 on ya y so iic oinii me un- i Unable io be present and to assist on the occa- ; sion, to whicn you have done me the honor to in- i vite rne, you may rest assured of my hearty co-np- eration in the object of the mass meeting at Jack- J son, at all limes and in all places where I can be i as long as I am spared, and to the utmost of my i poor ability. J I 1 am, with great respect, i Your obedient servant, ! . , U CLAY. , Messrs. Adams, Pickelt, Jennings and Harper. Monroe, La., Nov. 3, 1850 icniicmrnt nave received your letter of )3th , ult., inviting me lo a Union Meeting at Jackson ! j on the lSlh int., and nothing would afford me crea , ter pleasure than to nniie with the friends of Un ion ana peace on that occasion, and tobear tesiimo- 'n favor of, and defend, if necessary from the an"'c assaultsot his opponents, your distinguished" Senator, Fooie, with whom it has been my pride and pleasure lo art in the eventful scenes of trie re cent session oi congress; out previous engage ment, which will occupy ihe whole of the "little time that remains before ! must start for Washing ton, will prevent me. How it happens liiaf Mississippi and Louisiana differ so widely on the subject of ihe recent ad justments of ihe spvery qoe,iion by Congress is to me a mystery. In Louisiana, I am sustained with out any impulse being given to the movement by myself or friends, by all political parties, in the city and iu the country wiih a unanimity which I have never before seen on any other subject. And yet we are told the people of Mississippi take an entirely different viewof the subject, and lhat many of her statesmen, her orators and her press are ac tively engaged in opposing it, with a zeal, indeed as if the very salvation of the South depended on ibeir success. I confess I cannot understand this there is a mistake somewhere. 1 cannot believe' Ul! I see it, that Mississippi will decide against the adjustment. Why shoti! 1 she do it, what betd jj could .she expect 1 L We have by the adjustment aesirovea trie o , -it Pntviflo u have destroyed the project o " ' mm Provi... we have destroyed the project ; abolishing slavery in the District of Columbia j ihe leadinr obiectsof the abolitionists for years past i wb,c ! dantr h were the source of all the excitement and sibi ilaneers of the slavery question. We have sett ed the Texas boundarv fairiv anJ honorably to tier nnd to the South. 'We have obtained a fugitive slave law, which i as favorable to us as any rea. suitable Southern man dt?ires. and w hich has ai ready proved its efficacy. The admission of Cali fornia was only carrying out the Democratic doc trine, in the l.ing'i.ice ol' Mr. Calhoun in his cele brated resolutions ol lolT. "Thai a people in fram- S inn a coiisiiintioii have the uncjindilimuil riijht lo f und form and adopt the government wliieh they may j think best calculated to secure their liberty, pros- j perity and happiness." I The abolition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia is a municipal legislation; such a many of the slave Stales have adopted for them selves, and is a matter of little coit'-equence. when we know there are iioa only a few hundred slaves in ;he District, and that the number is diminishing every year. Tiiese measures, tak' n collectively, were ap proved by a viajori y ot Southern members in loth Hiiuses uf Congess, anc resi-ied by a majority of Northern members and a 'I the Fteesuilers. Thcy are approved by a majoiity of the Southern States What reason then have you in Mississippi to be dissatihed with them, or how d i vou expect to do better it you are! Accuse not the friends of the adjustment, ot dividing the South. We were in the majority, and when it was unfortunately found out lhal we differed, our opponents oitu1 lit lo have come io us and not have expected us'.s t. to ihem and if they had done so, no b"iv knows better than' your own Senators that -j,e might h.ue ob air ed beti?r terms that tl Mmus of California might ha ve been resti ie (.,) Resp..ctlnlly, ic , S. W. DOWNS. Messrs. Ailjm, I'n'keit, Jennings, and Harper. her. the meeting adjourned. The following letter from Jno. M. Chilton, esq., of Vicksburg, and addressed to tht Tr-qi-dent of the Meeting, was handed in for publi cation by Judge Sharkey : VlCKSHlItU, Nov 1(1, l-0. Dear Sir: I regret very much that ihesessim of our Circuit Conn on the 1H h insl., will prevent me Iroin attending your patriotic meeting at Jack son, on that day, and ro.nbaliing with von those w ild and pernicious opinionsj the atlthors'of which, like sharks, aie now pursuing the vessel of State, eager, in the event of its wreck, to snatch whatever prey the storm may cat within their reach. I was a member of the October Convention, which elecicd delegates to the Nahvi!!e Conven lion. Thai botiv was control tl ctm illv id' whirs and democrats, and iIip committee appointed to re port an address nnd reso! u' ions rouiuincd live of each patty. Among Ihe resolutions siibiniiied u the committee, was one inlroilMced I'.y (invcrnor Matthews, lo the eli'ect that Ihe admis-inn ,,f foinia as a State, with a constiti,.jrm containing a prohibition of ilaveiy would, under the i-fcniii-stances, couti!tr.e a gloss hand on the rrn -t i ! -i ; i . .n , and an ou: rage on the Sou' hern States of i he l'ii ion which ought lobe resisted. Being anxious o get a vote of the Convent, nn on ihis proposiuop, I voted lor it. but oiiiv two other members of ihe (iinimiiiee voted w ith me, an,! the resolution was rejl-cied. Al er the committee had reported In the ('..nv.-.i- uoii, i oiicieo, w l'ii a view oi icscing ti.e s 'nse (, the Convention, ami tins asr-enamipi: He M-nii men's oi nei r constituents tliice res. lis ri i I Hist Id i'uuy in;; me sn me proposiuon, inieiy ii in !- ss v lolci,. er language than that ottered by Gov. M.oitiews ( l.:r. ... ... I. , 1 , t . 1 1 .... : ........ i. : l , ' ' pi m. 1 1 ti pi ii , it- 1,'ii'iwiii uie su os, a tn i.i 1 1 y a Co jty . 1st. Congress has no power lo le:isa.- in rela tion to slavery, except lor the pi vu-cn ui theieol eit her in the States or ler t imr ies I ... I . . , ,, , .., 2d The people of a territory o' the United S-a'c-f1'1" can only ligjslate with the consent of Congi es .. ! ivcry arm inereiure sued people rannot enact any I .- M prohibitory of slavery icruusf, ihe mere ciri ol Congress cannot imparl validi vtoa law. u I i Congiess had no original power to enact. Tu imperlect powers canno' make a perfect one. 3d. Therefore, the admission of California as State, with a constitution containing a prod ilm,, of slavery, would be in fraud on the cons in i, and an ontage ihe Southern States ol ;U i;, ion, wiiicn woulil jiislity resistance. These resolutions were suppuned by the H yyijnnson in a veiy able and elabu cefvt.jjie vote i f more than ten member Tit's by the vole of Representatives fiom every county in Ihe Sate, reflecting e,ui.v sentiments'-of both parties in the State, it's solemnly declared that in the opinion of the pe of the State of Mississippi, ihe admission o C fornia as a Siale, wiih a ronstitu ion adopted hv i own inhabitants, ami containing a prohthi i r, slavery, would not be either such a hand or i. lage as uould justily resistance to the I'i,!t Government bv the slave hold mi: States. From ihis lime 1 was convinced iha1 Cili.'c;; would be admitted by Congress, with her nbm.xi. coiiMiitiiion, and that a majo.iiy of il w ould sui i i,, ,. Occurrences sinre th have shown that I did not fir m n,. otivi.-'i r ft.-1''. 'I" I thoiiL'tii Ihen, as I ihink now. that the admis-e. M ...,.., be:'ii (. tt r f 1 ir last - liv,.fd it.s !-...., ot California was contrary to preceleni polii y of Ihe Union, and lo the snirii ot the union ol the United States. I believe then ;.. V.t K' licve now, that ihe rotistiiuii-m of Caiil..nna ' e1Ii i adopted by people having no polito-ai nrh a -J a , , citizens, and thai it c ild denve no ao o , n.o i K , . approval or i oiisi-nt I l" .,e-r sr-i, 1 1 tn'-i. tn.'inv n u I; -.in : ,-c p ore - Htil Ihis bcliel was in opposition i,, i of a niajoiityof Congress, ( h, cludo linguislied salesmen oi the Soutli ) constitution Mas conferred the ex.'l.ish adini'iiug new States. Under these en ii nis,,,t.--( hdllv horn the approval or coiis.-io ,,i r .i.rc-. , . "' individual opposition would have been imp, ri if not ol.nox ioiii lo ihe charge of presumption tn jj.,n ..j,,', contumacy. L .j.j'j. t ,' ".Vf n5rww, tanttii cnmponere iilrs. ' (r ,' '' Far be it from me even lo iii-n e io renew a -., . ''l."nl J'' which has been quieter) by ihe constitutions P"S ' 1 1 , ;i , J -biinals ol ihe country. California is now ,i S'.i r M'""'i .m in ronfoimiry lo the letter, if not the sj.(rn (.( -'-N't ill the constitution, and it should be t he prnvcr ol evctvp. t liol I triot, that she may illustrate bv her tut n re m ur't H aonl s. r l iy me oiessings oi rieing enci i ce( and pr i,ecte me migmy arm ol our glorious Union. ! As an oll'set io ihe obnoxioiisart 'a.lmii'iti? Ci ! fornia. Congress has pis.,P,j a Fugitive Sl.,ve B i in conformity to the provisions ot the con-nnut -r , Ii is predic.cd by many that public sr ntjinent w not perm, l ii lo b enforced. I hope I or Iwf j things. The armv and navy arc at the dispo-r' ; ihe President, and il is his duly to use th-m ir, t j forcing the execution of Ihis I.t.v. I confide is tt j intention faithfully lo execute Ihe law s, u herf.' ; actually res;sted, or obstructed by unlaw (til on.: ! nations of men opposed 1 i iheir exeu iou. At all events, let us nol be pr. eipnate. l.'t i not act on ihe presumption that the Fedeial i i-.w , mem iseiiner unable or unwilling to enl"irr law. i,ei us ral her re-o ve i ri MriKe one m mow lor ihe cross, b'-iVe we assume the m t., the unbeliever." For my pan 1 prefer vet un ingthe det k of the old ship (Joint, tuton. .inH 1 neum sia rs a no si 1 1 pes ol t he U n i on befoie re'ea oiiii,oihoi in e iragmems and splinters shattered and dismasted hull, lo fi ame a p:e rail on which to bear Souihern rights in "I" I- srit ti!f ihrouah every future tempest. Hut, while conscientiously enteriair.ine 'ti' sentiments, ( must confess that 1 find hu e in '' , a'inn of ihe present congress or -n I he en irs'' j the Northern people lo commend or to he ?'3 : for. 1 cannot piaise their acts, iho'igh I iil , denounce ihem. I iely not on l heir love rf " em men, but on their sense ,,f dependence ,,n :a j labor for Iheir own commercial pro-peri'v, ar,-! ' 1 necessity of the Union for iheir protection r ,"' ' 4-'-...s.m, MI t) man our own. Let, however. this reliance PrvP delusive, let us endeavor foril.wi li m rr, ourselves capable of a separate "oven, m't,'. independent of all aid from nr alliance wi h i Northern S'atf. Let u establish railroad 'A , will bring the Southern States into closer yrr.t-.v ty and fellowship; let us establish factories. i nals, and naval depot-;, which will render us, '' ! in peace or war, independent of .Nor .hem Ubrf. I protection; let us establish military school- ' t our youth may learn the ue of ' arms, ,r '. I science of war and form an inextingtiisl.;i! ' ; votion to Southern institutions an 1 Southern ti"' I And above all, let us cultivate Union and harms Morv i... of opinion and feeling at home, in order thai, i.v event of a conflict between ihe North and the Ssii' there may be also unity of action, and that f present a solid and undivided front lo the er.err of our domestic institutions. Let there be no testine disser.iions between Southern men, Southern right. "Strike those that Imr', and hnrt not those that ; One (Iron of blood drawn from a Southern bcects Should grieve us mere ihan streams of 'nr'i? t gore." I Hoping that your meeting may be diiinroi-" by firmness and moderation, wisdom and iiBJf'9 ty, and result in benefit to the South, I am, dear sir, very reprct fully, your fe;",v citizen, ' JOHN M.' CUILJI '0-' vet w put . Jl.'lS r'et icon f tide I of 1 tion shnl ! and j ever Icon! ho b. 'com heal: re 1 of .: conn jeil w , whet siniil tost l r ik fc :trul, ns I otnt; .ml 1 x'te i iitgain k 'I'll f:!Ul ibctiol 1.1. r in. it, unite, :o it. C'llldii of iv 1 .irv as va'te .- States lions c iteriiiin !:c s!a v hose 1 t nati vtii estic ,.,( flu 1; mi Lie all. g-iiall t f lemv V of ;'ihis , :irii.' i nt lor l!v t ist a i lotl;!l portii HHI in .oil Ii.-, file It Wo. I SI ml ; ptt'll Hit Hive .os rich torr. t 1 C.CI Ii. tTtie w In : ih is ii, ,i i tlivery. Jil t to Nil (riniiiati, he slave, time, s. giinst t! ,i tjae, whi la le, a di I'tl foot, t, 'V the S ry. T! .l poi; re iicoiir.'ijo test and at off th, ftcrcm, a i f their ill Moil as : ninistni 'ItelllCS t; a-, slop : they i C-ifonii.-i, fi'Mi. It ' ff .1 P1...IS1I n,. are! it. Mtain it. f fr-'uel) y,. flod of s still !, Minute! tl Ic lit to 't kvrno.l ti ot hi.r '.lite Sontl isseinhl. fled no Mis whi, Tt.'.ehtj,,,:, i ill the St i"lr ol tin; a sc posit I'-irliei;,. n!,,ry ,. 't '.l not, u -ti if. T, 8..'l!jo;,s U i -"'if-, an, I '.ial ri;-lit -! union. ;; r ilory 1... 1 I'es, ,;,.,'.. ui so - Colore Itid.-l 3 'h, h id t t'tiiitaiiod i ''llllost, '''''ihUy, 'ittitu.f,' , and tl '; l.-h-,!,. law. ' til, ..so til sl.soli,. and h y a,-, rf.Clh, 1 ''A for t, ?''-'h tfio J,. ;v Mc.vieo ,yin fv,n. '"id the terdict t! Th Tr'nl its -nt to , "y. had t ;V'si"n of , I nr.r