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The Appeal. (Saint Paul, Minn. ;) 1889-19??, November 09, 1912, Image 1

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Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83016810/1912-11-09/ed-1/seq-1/

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lIt aims to publish all the news possible.
8It does so impartially, wasting no words.
8Its correspondents are able and energetic*
VOL. 28. NO. 45.
HE ever-growing number of human
lives sacrificed to the advance
ment of aviation gives us ample
reason for pause and serious
thought. The toll so far paid is
rapidly nearing a total of two
hundred since the death of Lieu
tenant Selfridge, of the United
States army, in September, 1908.
Naturally, some of.these fatal ac
cidents were to be expected after
flying became a money-making
spectacle in some directions. The professional
aviator felt obliged to make his flights thrilling
in the eyes of the spectator, and to that end he
has done things of a venturesome nature for
which he has paid dearly more than once.
We are not concerned with this phase of the
art. Foolhardiness is no real part of the effort
to advance human flight, even though attendant
mishaps may teach useful lessons. What is of
serious concern is the loss of life of those ear
nestly devoted to the furtherance of the science
and the adaptation of the flying machine to the
needs of the army and the navy in time of war.
These officer students have gone into the work
with that spirit of professional devotion which is
of the utmost value to the promotion of helpful
knowledge, and they have generally avoided
those hair-raising performances which are val
uable only as an asset for the showman.
These calm-minded devoteesthe term en
thusiasts .might be misleadinghave earnestly
Ktriven to make the most out of the instruments
placed in their hands, but in doing this they
have made more than one fatal stumble despite
their caution. The use of the aeroplane in re
cent military maneuvers has exacted its doleful
price, and it is time that due thought was given
.some of these many accidents. Strange as it
may seem, the recent mishaps which have been
most suggestively illuminating have been those
that were generally not fatal in their conse
quences, although some have exacted the lives
of the participants.
On March 13 at Johannisthal, just outside of
Berlin, a flying machine driven by Schade and
an aeroplane handled by Rettinger came to
gether while In the air a short distance above
the ground. The machines were instantly smash
ed and sent crashing to the earth. Neither of
the aviators was injured, but a passenger was
hurt. Unquestionably, this collision was brought
about by the mutual effect of the disturbed air
between the two machines. The next mishap, of
a kindred character occurred at Douai. France,
on June ,19, but with disastrous results. Captain
Dubois and Lieutenant Melgnan, both of the
army, were operating aeroplanes during a dense
fog, and drove into each other while going at
high speed. Lieutenant Meignan was killed al
most instantly, and Captain Dubois died in the
hospital a few hours later. The machines were
splintered by the collision. Here we have a
counterpart of conditions which have so often
caused trouble upon the water,. but conditions
which may be even more frequent aloft under
atmospheric circumstances of common occur
rence. Of course, the gravity of a collision in
the air is unfortunately increased by the neces
sarily high speed at which the flying machine
must advance in order to sustain itself in flight.
On June 20, at Aix-les-Baines, Mile. Helene
Dutrieu, while aloft, fell upon two ascending
monoplanes, and all three machines dropped to
the ground in a heap. The two nether aviators
were pretty seriously bruised, but Mile. Dutrieu
was uninjured, fortunately falling upon the un
derlying machines and thus having the force of
her drop greatly lessened. Undoubtedly, Mile.
Dutrieu hit a "hole in the air," and her mono
plane started earthward before she could check
or control its descent by a gliding volplane. The
question is, What caused that hole in the air?
Did the movement of the two ascending aero
planes create the disturbance which narrowly
escaped causing a serious catastrophe? This has
been answered by subsequent accidents.
Two French army officers, Lieutenants Briez
and Buries, on July 6 started for Belfort, on the
eastern frontier, leaving the aeronautic station
at Villa,Coublay, Just outside of Paris. Lieuten
ant Brt,2 gad the start of his associate, and was
already about six hundred feet up, when Lieu
tenant Burlez overtook him, passing at greater
speed something like a hundred feet above.
Lieutenant Burlez's machine created, so it is said,
a downward moving "hole in the air," and this
struck Lieutenant Briez's monoplane in such a
manner as to destroy its equilibrium. Lieutenant
Briez and his machine were dashed to the earth,
the aviator having both legs broken and being
otherwise seriously but not fatally injured. In
this case the innocent cause of the accident was
the movement of the aeroplane passing above
at a height of a hundred feet, while Mile. Du
trieu's drop was probably brought about by the
maneuvering of the two monoplanes beneath
her. These accidents have brought us face to
face with new problems in the art of mechanical
flightthey show us that we have much to learn
about the air in which we are seeking to vie
with the bird.
The man in the street has a mistaken notion
of what these air holes really are he imagines
that they are areas of partial vacuum which fail
to give the flying machine proper support. The
hazard they present is reasonably pictured all
the greater because there is no visible sign of
their presencethe aircraft just suddenly starts
to drop and may fall-several hundred feet before
the movement can be corrected, if corrected at
all. If successful, the nicest Judgment is required
on the part of the aviator lest he suddenly bring
pressure to bear upon his planes in excess of
their reserve of strength. Collapse of this sort
has happened with dire results upon a number of
occasions. But, notwithstanding these physical
evidences,of something wrong, still, in the strict
er sense of the word, the term air hole la a mis
nomer, and a cavity as such does not really exist.
Did you ever watch the surface agitation of a
boiling pot? Well, that is substantially a dupli
cation of just what is going on in the air about
us. The earth acts like a great reflector of the
sun's heat and starts the air boiling below here
where we are and sends it upward in great col
umns of rising atmosphere like the movement of
the boiling water in the pot. This is what the
meteorologist calls "convections! disturbances"
of the atmosphere, and he tells us that this state
of things would not annoy the aviator if the ven
turesome airman would only keep aloft at a
height of from four to five milesa matter of
from 21,000 to 26,000 feet in round numbers!
Georges Legagneux has recently reached the
amazing height of 18,766 feet.
We are all familiar with the old saying, "What
goes up must come down." In the agitated belt
of air the upward rising column of warm air is
replaced by a descending column of cooler air.
The downward moving column Is what really con
stitutes the so-called "holes" of the aeronaut's
parlance. The layman scarcely appreciates the
conditions that are bringing about this convec
tion or boiling motion. When the sun strikes the
earth the air is heated and rises in the shadow
of a cloud the air is cooler and descending. This
see-sawing is of greater or lesser magnitude, de
pending upon the directness of the sun's rays
and the temperature of the air when shaded.
The evenness of the aviator's flight or the uni
formity of his line of advancewhichever you
choose to call itis controlled by the constancy
of the pressure which the air exerts on the
under or lifting side of the planes as his machine
Is driven forward by Its motor. The net result
is a sustaining or lifting moment, as the. engineer
expresses it. Tf the approaching air, Instead of
Defective Page
moving horizontally or upward inlopposition to
the surface of the planes, should be falling, then
the support of the flying machm| is suddenly
diminished to that extent, and She aeroplan*
drops. Again, if the aviator is traVeling against
a stratum of wind *of a definite speed and then
purposely descends, reaching an air belt of lower
speed or altered direction, these changes may re
duce the force of the air striking the surfaces
of his planes, and this drop in Pressure may
cause his machine to fall speedify earthward.
This is another proof, of course, of the imaginary
vacant places in the air.
We must bear in mind that the problem of
the flying machine is quite distinct! from that of
the balloon. The balloon floats because it is
either lighter than the air it displaceswhen it
risesor remains at a fixed altitudejbecause there
is a perfect balance between its weight and that
of the air which it thrusts aside? It remains
aloft whether drifting with the Wind .or being
driven by a motor. The heavier-than-air flying
machine, on the other hand, is sustained in flight
only so long^aa Jts mqvement^fO|j&ard arouses
sufficient opposi#cn"on ftetp aB^0^3^mJJfr
or to sustain it. When the propellers cease to
revolve the aeroplane starts earthward, and dis
aster can be avoided only by volplaning or per
forming a sweeping spiral descent. A maneuver
of this sort is nothing more nor less than a
modified drop. The safety of the aeroplane,
therefore, when in midair, depends upon the nice
balancing of the machine and the proper equaliz
ing of pressure upon the planes. Eddies in the
air or any other disturbance which will bring
the aeroplane into conflicting atmospheric belts
or zones will imperil the stability of the ma
chine and the life of the aviator unless he be
ever watchful, and there are some of these con
ditions against which he cannot sufficiently
The flying machine, in going ahead, hits the
air a succession of rapid blows, and by this
causes an area of compression which is equal in
the force of its reaction to the weight of the
flying machine. The fact of it is, this compres
sion actually affects a volume of air equal in
weight to the air craft it sustains, and as a cubic
foot of atmospheric air weighs only .08 of a
pound at the freezing point, a little figuring will
show how wide is the area upon which the avia
tor must draw for his support.
What happens then when the flying machine
has moved onward and the atmosphere tries to
resume its normal state? The reactipn is like
the release of a spring, and the air acquires a
vibratory motiongreatest in a. vertical direction
akin to the prolonged bobbings of a partly
water-soaked log after being hit a blow. But this
is not all.
We are living at the bottom of an ocean of
air, and we are living in that region of the at
mosphere where it is densest. The natural ten
dency for the atmosphere is to fall when not
made lighter by heat and caused to rise. An
aeroplane shooting through this lower belt .is
substantially knocking out the foundations from
beneath the atmospheric columns reaching many*
thousands of feet heavenward, and we have In
the air a virtual duplication of our bobbing log
many, many times repeated at every stage of
the onward movement of the flying machine and
the successive reactions of the compressed ,alr
which has momentarily sustained that mechan
ical flight. Isn't it clear, then, that an aviator
when passing above or below another aviator
is either stumbling into air holes ihus created
or producing a similar condition to menace his
nearby fellow? The airman advancing at the
greater speed will produce the wider area of dis
turbance and, within any prescribed limit, the
more dangerous reaction.
The flying machine when aloft is in a state of
decidedly delicate equilibrium, otherwise the
mere flexing of wing tips would be incapable or
correcting Its horizontal position. Any change
of pressure at the extremity of its wings is equiva
lent to adding or reducing the weight at the one
or the other tip, and an upsetting movement is
started. It is quite probable that even though
one aeroplane may be a full hundred feet above
or below another, still the greater speed of the
overtaking machine may cause a sufficient down
ward movement on the part of the air to over
weight suddenly one wing of the other machine.
This is certainly what happened In the case of
Lieutenant Briez. Mile. Dutrieu and a number of
The task set the investigators is that of find
ing how wide is the region of agitation created
by a flying machine in flight, and, with this
knowledge, to prescribe the proper distances
which aviators must observe when approaching
one another.
Fortunately, the flying machine is now studied
in the laboratory, and recent progress in experi
mental aerodynamics is doing much toward
clearing the way for safe advance in the near
future, but the public must be patient and it
must realize that flying Is full of hazards at
best, and we are really scarcely much more than
upon the threshhold of this wonderful science.VI
Preaching the Gospel to People
of the Hill Country.
Rev. William Greet Tells of Work He
and His Wife Accomplished
Amongst Tehri and
Hindi Men.
Another report of adventure, toil,
and conquest comes from the Tehri
Border Village mission among the
Himalaya mountains, where Rev. Wil
liam Greet and his wife are carrying
the gospel message to the people of
the hill country.
"The past season's touring," writes
Mr. Greet, "totaled up more than that
of any previous season, and included
reaching into some new country. One
of my first trips away from our fam
ily camp, after the writing of our last
letter, was to see poor old Prema at
Nauta. There he sat by the little wa
ter-mill, blind and very helpless, try
ing to care for the people's flour* In
the judgment of some who have lately
seen him, he seems a believer.
"We returned to our home in Janu
ary for a few weeks and then'went
out again to stay till April. This
time we pushed forward at once to
Devasari, a neighborhood of many
villages which last season we were
prevented from reaching. We pitched
our camp on the edge of a pine wood
and close to a small ravine, on the
other side of which lay a long line of
villages. Close by our tent was the
temple to which, on special occasions,
the people gathered from all sides.
"My memory goes back many years
to some remarkable results from the
very first visits to simple villagers in
the plains who accepted Christ at once
and stood faithful till death, but gen
erally where people are laid hoid of, it
is .after continued presentation of
the truth. A most encouraging thing
during our touring in the hills this
past springtime was the extent to
which the truth of the Gospel was ad
mitted by a man who has served us
for years, but had always passively re
sisted all we said. He sat with me at
the close of a hot journey up a long
gorge to a village, where we found
only one man, a lad and a child at
home. We conversed under the shade
of an apricot tree, concerning the Way
of Life and other ways, and at the
close our man, who has nearly always
boasted of the superiority of his own
religion, said to the village man, 'We
shall have to come to it! This religion
will win its way everywhere and all
will at some time have to yield, will
ingly or unwillingly.'
"As I write part of this letter here
on the roadside, half a dozen fakirs or
sadhus sit down with me to listen to
the singing of a bhajan which tells of
Climbing Himahya Mountain.
the One who can take away sin. They
have been to the Ganges source away
in the snows professedly to be rid of
their sin. Some Sirmoori charcoal
men come in the other direction and
they, too, sit down to listen. Neither
of these groups are Tehri men, so I
sing to them in Hindu. Presently
some others come, Tehri men to whom
I read the Lord's words about the
house on a rock and that on the sand.
One man wishes to buy a Gospel, but
has no coppers with him, so he con
sents to pay for a book with his stick,
which answers very well for a walk
ing stick for me.
"After presenting many various
arguments in trying to convince the
people of the truths of our eternal
Gospel we drop back again to the
proof they can have in their own
heart at this very time in their own
village, if they, will really give them
selves up in prayer to him who was
revealed to take away sin. After
talking with us the people find them
selves, perhaps the same day, in the
midst of, say, the slaughter of goats
throughout the village for the keeping
up of some special festival, or a great
dance before their gods right on into
the night. Who knows where the
Message has really found access?"
Persistency Restores Sight
Boston.After constantly repeating
to herself, "I shall see again," Miss
Stella Adams of this city has recov
ered her sight after being blind for
three years.
Must Send Wife to School.
Philadelphia.John Palasis whose
wife is thirteen years old must send
her to school or he will be sent to
Jersey Has Snail 8hower.
Washington, N. J.A thick show
er of snails, both hard -and soft-shell
ed, accompanied a heavy downpour of
rain here.=.v
Boston's Revolutionary Landmark Is
Taking an Odd Ap
Boston.From the chaos of loose
bricks and unplastered panels, Christ
church (better known as the Old
North church of the schodl histories)
is re-emerging in something closely
resembling its original guise. Restora
tion it at befit a difficult and often
thankless task, but fortunately this
process at Christ church was in part
simplified by certain authentic records
of the building's earlier history.
The first conspicuous change is in
the building's exterior.. During the
last summer the walls have been sand
blasted, ridding them of the drab paint
which has darkened them for years,
and revealing the brick in a warm,
rich tone, which will weather to a
still more mellow red. The front
doors of the church, which were with
out doubt not original, have been re
moved and a new pair, the lower
panels of which have been given the
Old North Church.
diamond or triangular shape, has been
substituted. Above them is a fan
light with leaded panes of glass.
With the walls freshened to a glowing
red and the spire and window frames
trimmed with white paint, the church
wears probably more nearly its orig
inal look than it has within the mem
ory of any living person.
The pew plan of the church was
fortunately extant, and it was possi
ble from the paneling which remain
ed to reconstruct the pew arrange
ment in virtually the original form.
This has been carried out, using as
much of the original paneling and as
many of the old doors as1
4-lt is the organ of ALL Afro-Americans.
5-It is not controlled by any ring or clique.
6It asks no support bat the people's.
and making the new a faithful repro
duction of the old. The pews as thus
rebuilt are of the long, "slip" shape,
and nearly uniform size, except those
set apart for the notablesthe gov
ernor's pew (which has, by the way,
been made the graceful occasion of a
generous gift from Governor Foss),
and "the Pew for the Gentlemen of
the Bay of Honduras," a group of
merchants who gave, in the early
days, the money for the spire.
During the turmoil of restoration
the bust of Washington has been re
moved from the marble niche, but will
be replaced, not for any special merit
as a work of art which it may pos
sess, but for long association and for
its unique position as being the first
public manument erected to Wash
ington in America. Its date is 1815.
The walls*, which were previously
blank, save for frescoes, will be di
versified by an array of appropriate
tablets one in memory of the first offi
cers of the church, bearing the date
April 1724 one in memory of Maj.
John Pitcairn one in memory of the
Rev. Timothy Cutler one In memory
of the Rev. Mather Byles, the last
minister before the revolution one
in memory of Capt. Thomas James
Gruchy, commander of the privateer
Queen of Hungary, who gave the
cherubim which ornament the front
of the organ and one to the memory
of Capt. Cyprian, Southack, who gave
the belfry clock in use before the rev
And It Kept on Its Way Toward Hole
Without Even a Swerve at Coun
try Club Links.
Boston.A strange freak of golf
was witnessed on the Brae Burn
Country club links a few days ago,
when a ball driven from a tee killed
a sparrow and then continued true
in its flight. The incident was -wit
nessed by a number of golfers.
The marksman was Joseph Gould.
He was driving from the seventh tee.
Mr. Gould got off a good drive and
the ball soared high. The bird was
flying in the same direction and
swerved just a trifle, apparently when
it heard the buzz of the golf ball com
ing behind.
It is common knowledge that a golf
ball is no mean projectile, and in this
case the bird wftg.instantly killed and
fell, a crumpled heap of feathers, as
though it had received a charge of
shot The ball was hardly checked in
its flight and landed on the green not
far from the hole.
Calls Beer National Beverage.
Boston.In an address here to the
Brewers association Col. Jacob Rup
pert said that "beer is the national
beverage and the mainstay of nation
al and practical temperance.'
1'^WMNEMT A *V*^:**
$2.40 PER YEAR.
Central Hall in London
Five Million Dollars.
Wesleyan Central Half.
committee and the Methodist brother
hood. There are also offices for pub
lie bodies, and among the organiza
tions already here is the Anglo-Amer
ican peace committee. This block
covers one-third of the area of the
elte,"the total of which is about 30,-
000 square feet.
The main or western block is known
as the Central hall, in which is a beau
tifully proportioned hall for meetings
or concerts. It possesses the third
largest dome in London, 90 feet in di
ameter and 220 feet in height to the
lantern, and is surpassed in size only
by those of St. Paul's and the British
museum reading room. There will be
seating for 2,500, or more, and room
Is provided for an orchestra of fully
Included in this block is a fine li
brary to contain modern standard
books of theology, science, biography,
travel, history and economics, and to
be furnished as a reading room, with
facilities also for obtaining tea and
coffee. Adjoining this is a small hall,
In which public receptions and lunch
eons can be held, and there is a hand
somely appointed conference room,
fitted on the lines of a council cham
ber, to seat 250. An enormous base
ment will be available for the use of
Methodist boys' brigade, or for popu
lar meetings, at which 1,500 will be
able to sit down.
IV England there are still the
three groups of the Wesleyan Meth
odists, the Primitive Methodists and
the Free Methodists. In America
and the colonies these have reunited,
and today it is estimated that they
form the largest English speaking
Protestant body In the world, exceed
ing In number the ChurcH of-'fKi'^pA^MWhM
itself ~'"~wY
Location of Beautiful Buildings Con
nected With Stirring Events of
English HistoryFunds Raised
by Contribution.
London.It is characteristic of the
spirit of John Wesley, who made his
ringing message not to a parish, but
to a world, that in these days his fol
lowers"the people called Method
ists"should have chosen a site alike
so historical and so commanding as
that on which the new Central hall
and Connexional buildings have been
reared at Westminster.
Here it was that Edward V. was
"born in sorrow and baptized like a
poor man's child," in 1470, and from
here, too, 13 years later, his mother,
Queen Elizabeth Woodville, sitting
"alone belowe on the rushes all deso
lat eand dismayde," saw him go out
with his brother to the Tower to that
pathetic of deaths by murder. With
in a stone's throw is St. Stephen's
hall, through which the Norman
knights of Rufus tramped, and where
King Charles I. stood on his trial be
fore those who knew not what true
freedom meant. Above all, the build
ing stands under the very shadow of
the noble abbey, the nation's Mother
Wesleyans the world over are proud
of the vast pile and the position it
occupies. Its inception goes back
to the conference of 1898, when it was
decided to endeavor to raise a twen
tieth century fund of a million guin
eas. When it is stated that the total
membership of the church in this
country was considered less than a
million, including children, it will
be realized that it was a great deal to
The period for giving extended orig
inally from January 1, 1899, to Janu
ary 1, 1901, but it was found neces
sary to prolong it, and it was not un
til 1904 was well advanced that the
last gift was received. In that time
holidays were cheerfully foregone,
clothes were patched and mended,
walking was substituted for omnibus
or car rides, and little luxuries of to
bacco, sugar and butter were given
Out of the million guineas some
thing like, one-fourth million pounds
was used for the purchase of the site.
Upon this have risen two blocks. In
the eastern one, called the Central
Building, provision has been made for
the departmental officers of allied or
ganizations of the Wesleyan church
the Home Mission fund, the commit
tee specifically charged with Wesley
an interests of the navy and army,
the temperance committee, the cen
tral finance department, the London
'ti.i(i ft.

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