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The Appeal. (Saint Paul, Minn. ;) 1889-19??, January 25, 1913, Image 1

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8 ^P^
VOL. 29. NO. 4,
do than any other with the promulgation of this
error was the famous hunt given by Charlemagne
to the ambassadors of Haroun-al-Rashid in the
dank Jlercyian woods that surrounded his hunt
ing lodge, Heristallum. According to the original
account by the monk Eginhard of St. Gall, the
aurochs were of such terror-instilling appearance
to the men from the east that they could not
even bear the sight of them, and fled from the
emperor's side. The latter, attacked by the fierc
est of these monsters, missed the vital spot,
with the result that before brave" Isambart could
slay it the emperor was slightly wounded in the
thigh and had his nether garment torn into
shreds. Rushing to his side, the assembled cour
tiers offered to divert themselves of their own
hose, but the emperor laughingly rejected their
offers, declaring that he intended to show him
self in his sorry plight to the fair Hildegarde,
who was a great huntress herself. Needless to
Bay, this adventure proved a mediaeval "scoop"
of the gaudiest kind, but in the course of un
numbered retellings the aurochs became a wi
sent, as was called the European bison, and since
that time a perplexing confusion has reigned be
tween these two animals. That the true aurochs,
which became extinct three hundred years ago,
was an entirely different animal from the bison,
whose name, alas! is also on the list of animals
about to share the auroch's fate, is now a fact
known to all scientific men. To the writer the
poor old bison's pathetic fate appeals more par
ticularly, for when shooting in the Rockies in
the seventies of last century he still saw them in
herds of ten thousand. But as the men who can
claim to have seen the same marvellous sight
will before long follow these lordly inhabitants
of the wilds to the happy hunting grounds, the
study of the past history of these two species
has for some people unusual attractions. And
not. the least interesting phase of it is the col
lecting of pictures made at a time when both
beasts were still roaming over the "wastes of
the earth," or had but recently disappeared.
Of the earliest of all pictures of what was prob
ably meant to be the bison, an interesting arti
cle which "recently appeared in an illustrated week
ly, in which the roof pictures in the Altamira
Cave were reproduced, gave one a capital idea.
After a gap of untold centuries we reach the
various pictorial records left to us by the chis
els, gravers or brushes of the classic ages.
Among those who have made important discov
eries respecting the distribution of the aurochs,
Professor Conrad Keller, the well-known Zurich
zoologist, occupies a prominent place. His dis
coveries in the ruins of the ancient palace of
King Minos in Crete of no fewer than sixteen
horn-cores and one skull of what unquestionably
was the original wild ox of Europe, or aurochs,
show that it lived there at one period, and that
the famous legend of the minotaur has a sub
stratum of truth. From his pages we borrow an
Illustration of an important fresco in Knossos de
picting an aurochs in the act of impaling a help
less-looking victim, while a bold bull-fighter is
actually turning a somersault over the back of
the beast, a third, possibly female, looker-on at
tempting to seize the bull's tail, the scene being
probably enacted in an arena. It is possible that
the Theseus story came from the slaughter of
captives in such exhibitions. Several other pic
tures have been recently discovered which be
long to the Minos period, i. e., between 2000 and
1500 B. C. Professor Keller's highly instructive
writings contain many other illustrations of Bos
Skipping tens of centuries, we reach the Bes
tiaries, the most ancient of which originated in
the period we touched at the outset when speak
ing of Charlemagne's aurochs-hunt. These ex
ceedingly primitive pictorial records do not add
much to our information "the choice hurts one,"
as Germans describe that state of uncertainty in
regard to what the monastic artists meant to
represent by their crude attempts. Skipping a
few more centuries, we at last reach, in the be
ginning of the fifteenth century, fairly intelligent
accounts of the animal's habitat, and are fur
nished with drawings presenting features suffi
ciently distinct to indicate, even to eyes accus
tomed to photographic accuracy, the Identity of
the animal the picture means to represent.
Very curious is the circumstance, to which,
by the way, nobody has so far drawn attention!
that none of the French sporting books of the
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, such as "Roy
Modus," "Gaston Phoebus," "Gace de la Buigne"
*nd "Fontalnes-Guerin," mentions either the
an the news possible.
does so impartially, wasting no words.
Its correspondents are able and energetic
,HF3 differentiation between these
two animals is a subject of unusual
interest to the sportsman-natural
ist To trace the origin of the
popular misconception that the two
names are synonymous, a mistake
to which even some of our best
known sportsmen of today must
plead guilty, we, have to dive into
the not always limpid depths of
early mediaeval history. For the
event which has probably more to
'22B5r"^2^K^ CZJHS8Z& $Z%cZZ& &&U2,"lZ72
aurochs or the bison by so much as a word. As
the authors of these classics were great sports
men and close observers, this would support the
theory that both these animals had already then
become quite extinct in western Europe.
In the sixteenth century, when Europe, so far
as art was concerned, had at last been aroused
from its mediaeval stupor by the invention of
printing, and an extraordinary demand had
sprung up for pictorial matter illustrating re
cent exploration of new worlds and the various
forms of the chase, there were produced quite a
number of pictures of the aurochs by artists,
very few of whom had ever set eyes upon a live
wild specimen, though they may have seen cap
tive ones. The one artist of whom we positively
know that he had before him at least a stuffed
specimen was the Viennese engraver Augustin
Hirschvogel (born in Nurnberg about 1503), who
illustrated the famous travel book of Baron Her
berstein, the authority most frequently quoted in
connection with the aurochs, for he was absolute
ly the last intelligent observer who saw the beast
in its wild state, and left pictorial records of his
impressions. Herberstein was gifted with pres
cient eyes, for he foresaw that the aurochs was
doomed to speedy extinction. Hence on his sev
eral expeditions to the unknown interior of Rus
sia as the ambassador, first of Emperor Maxi
milian in 1516-18, then on many different occa
sions as Charles V.'s and Ferdinand's emissary,
he made notes about it, and, what was much more
\mportant, actually brought back with him some
skins and skulls, which he had mounted in his
house In Vienna, and from which Hirschvogel
probably drew his celebrated picture of the
aurochs. To differentiate he drew next to it a
picture of a bison. As these two "portraits,"
which have been published scores of times, will
be familiar to all interested in this matter, we
will merely quote the inscriptions placed by Her
berstein over the two pictures, for it is a per
fectly correct differentiation. The picture of the
bison has the following: "I am a Bison, am
called by the Poles a Suber, by the Germans a
Bisont or Damthier, and by the ignorant an
aurochs." Over the woodcut of the aurochs: "I
am an Urus which is called by the Poles a Tur,
by the Germans an Aurochs and until now by
the ignorant a Bison." The inscriptions in the
various editionsHerberstein's volume appeared
in several languagesvary triflingly, but the
above, which are taken from the edition of 1556,
give the sense in the best form.
Shortly after Herberstein the Flemish painter
Stradanus, who lived and worked for over fifty
yeare in Florence (from 1553 to 1605), produced
a drawing of an aurochs engaged in a terrific
struggle in an arena where he was matched
against a lion, two wolves and a bear. This
original drawing Is not the least Interesting of
the twenty odd ancient pictures of the aurochs
in the writer's collection. In 1578 the Antwerp
publisher Philip Galle published this and one
hundred and three other sporting drawings by
the Florentine master, and underneath each of
the engravings there la a Latin Inscription. The
one under the plate reproducing the drawing
Defective Page
a-uns: "Some great lords are looking on at a spec
tacle in the arena. A furious Item with revening
fang and claws tears some wild beasts. He -lays
the wolves low and defeats the 'Taurus' in a strug
gle, while the bear cowers away in terror." Wheth
er the artist ever witnessd such a struggle in an
arena cannot be ascertained but It is quite possi
ble, considering their great popularity during the
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The blasts
were caught in pitfalls and
transported great distances.
The likeness is not a bad
one, and in the above col
lection of prints there are
three other pictures of
aurochs, and a fifth depict
ing the lassoing of the bu
balus on theJUdand of Sar
dinia: ^'S. coMenipbrkfy anil
countryman of Stradanus,
one Hans Bol, produced
also an interesting engrav
ing of an aurochs hunt
which forms the second
print of his attractive little
set entitled, "Venationis,
Piscationis, et Aucupii
typi," published in 1582 by
the same enterprising Ant
werp publishers that gave
the world the last-named
collection. Beneath the au
rochs picture we read, in
Latin elegiac couplets:
"Thus with darts, swords,
and light arrows men every
where drive the horned
aurochs into pits." A rath
er similar print was produced fourteen years
after bmy the Nurnberg engraver, Johann Sib
macher, who etched nine other sporting plates.
Then follow, in rapid succession, half a dozen
"portraits" by Tempesta, the pupil of Stradanus,
one of which prints we reproduce. It shows in
what awe the gigantic wild bull was held, for it
depicts a formidable-looking machine wherewith
the bull could be attacked and brought down.
Tempesta's pictures need not be taken seriously,
for his Roman "studio" was nothing but a work
shop where apprentice hands turned out a vast
mass of prints of little or no value in an enquiry
of this sort. His English contemporary of the
pen, Edward Topsell, in his illustrated natural
history hodge-podge called the "Historie of Foure
Footed Beastes" (1607) only added to the exist
ing confusion. "A Bison," he says, "is a beast
very strange as may appear by his figure pre
fixed which by many authors is taken for Urus,
some for a Bugle or wild oxe, others, for a
Railgifer, and many for the beast Tarantus or
Buffe." And, to show that he really meant what
he said, he affixes a picture of what is unmistak
ably a reindeer! Fortunately, however, he adds,
as pictures of the bison and of the aurochs, re
plicas of the two prints by Hirschvogel out of
Herberstein's "Rerum Moscoviticarum Commen
tarii," which, as we have already mentioned, are
among the most correct representations pub
lished at a period when the aurochs still existed.
In England, the belif that th aurochs was a
bison-like creature continued throughout the
eighteenth century. The picture taken from Sam
uel Clarke's "Julius Caesar," published in 1712,
shows what extraordinary ignorance still pre
vailed, the animal with antlers like an inverted
umbrella being a bison, or Bos germanus, and
the beast in the center an aurochs. The graver
of Holzab of Zurich, continues the misconcep
tion indeed, goes one better, for the bison is
here turned into an "American aurochs." Of
numerous other illustrations of our two beasts,
we have not the space to speak at length. One
of the most characteristic of the latter type is
the so-called Hamilton Smith picture of the au
rochs. This is a painting, dating, it is believed,
from the first quarter of the sixteenth century,
discovered in Augsburg not quite a hundred
years ago. This painting has mysteriously dis
appeared, but an accurate copy was made. For
the first "modern" picture of the bison that ap
peared in England we have also to go to Ger
man sources, and, strangely enough, to the same
city, for it was Augsburg's most famous animal
painter, Ridinger (1697-1767), who drew the first
life-like picture. A countryman of his, one J. S.
Muller, who lived many years in London, engrav
ed, in 1758, a fine set of plates representing wild
animals after Ridinger*s drawings from nature.
Among them is one of the bison, called by him
the buffalo, and underneath Is a lengthy and
fairly correct description in English, which he
also copied from Ridinger. Bat this and other
isolated efforts have not entirely prevented the
dissemination of the old mistake, for living au
thorities still tell us, quite seriously, that they
have grassed aurochs.
Romantic History of Virginia Edi
fice Built Before 1738.
Association Formed to. Rebuild Old
BuildingHas Been Used as a
Barracks, Distillery, and for
Other Purposes.
Richmond, Va.An association has
recently been organized for the resto
ration of old Farnham church, in
Richmond county, Virginia, says the
New York Churchman. There are
few of our colonial churches which
have had as pathetic and varied a
history as this old ruin.
Erected as the mother church of
North Farnham parish before 1738, a
massive cruciform .building in the best
style of colonial architecture, it has
undergone time after time the stress
of war and abandonment, the ravages
of decay and fire.
It stood abandoned during the days.
of spoilation of the church in Vir
ginia, after the revolution its marble
font became a punch bowl, its com
munion silver sold by order of court
and given by the purchaser to St.
John's church, Washington, which ia
1876 gave it back to the old parish.
The tombstones and the stone floor
of the old church went to make door
steps and hearths for the neighbor
hood, and the church itself was used
for a time as a distillery. After that
It stood as a resort for cattle and
then of creeping things which lived
in the jungle which grew up within
and without the walls.
It was restored and reconstructed
by Bishop Meads in 1838, was aban
doned again during the Civil war,
with soldiers of either side camping
inside its walls. It was used as a
barn by a neighboring farmer till
1*870, was again restored and used for
services till Easter, 1888, when its last
disaster, a fire, destroyed everything
except its solid walls.
And so it stands today, with trees
and underbrush growing within and
without, with poison ivy half covering
its bricks. The chance visitor can see
today on the south transept the scars
of bullets fired in a skirmish between
British and American soldiers in the
war of 1812. He can see where the
facing of the west door was broken
down in order to permit wagons of
grain ^o be driven in for the use of
the still which stood in" the old chan
He can see where a little lad, per
haps with all the spirit of a modern
youth, cut his initials and the date
upon a brick in the wall, "C. D., 1735."
Farnham Church.
And he can see over the window aper
tures and in the corners the cracks
which recent years have brought,
which threaten the final destruction
of the building, unless measures are
soon taken for its restoration.
The old church can be restored,
and it is hoped will be. The walls
can with comparatively little diffi
culty be made once more strong and
safe and a new roof and floors and
windows built. There is need for the
restoration for the use of the several
hundred people of the village which
has grown up around it, as there is no
place of regular worship of any kind
and no Sunday school within several
As one of the few remaining
churches erected in colonial times, its
restoration and preservation should
appeal to the interest of all who de
sire to preserve the still existing
monuments of the early days.
Joseph Salus of Chicago Receives Un
prodigal Treatment oh Return
to Webster, Mass.
Webster, Mass.The return of Jo
seph Salus of Chicago to his home
here, after an absence of twelve years,
was marked by a reception different
from that of the biblical prodigal.
Salus desired to surprise his people
and there had been no forewarning of
his presence, when the door was open
ed by his sister, now Mrs. Sak.
Overjoyed at seeing her, Salus em
braced the woman, who screamed,
bringing her husband to her side.
Salus was floored with a left hand
swing. Before he could recover, the
angry husband seized the supposed in
truder by the neck, dragged him down
a flight of stairs, threw him into the
street and called the police.
When the time for explanations ar
rived, Salus established bis identity
and received his welcome home and
first aid for his injuries.
Vanderbilt as a Weather Forecaster.
Newport, R. I.Master William
Vanderbilt, ten years old, son of Mra,
Elsie French Vanderbilt, has deve$
oped unusual talenta in predicting
weather changes and spends much
time studying and wwg copien i
official weather
Protest Made Against Digging a Sub
way Under the Cathedral in
London.A new danger threatens
St. Paul's cathedral, in the opinion of
those responsible for the fabric, the
proposed trawmay tunnel that forms
an important part of the St. Paul's
bridge scheme being regarded with
"The parliamentary bill seeking
power for this new venture has just
been deposited by the London county
council, and so we feel that wre
make our protest at once," said Canon
S. A .Alexander, treasurer of the Cath
"The danger arises out of the fear
entertained by our expert advisers,
that the proposed subway, through
which trams will run from a terminus
at Cheapside, under the east side of
the churchyard and Cannon street to
a point near the new bridge, will
MW* r*j--f
London's Pride: St. Paul's Cathedral.
drain our foundations. The cathedral
is built on water bearing soil above
the clay, and the constant danger is
that this soil may become dry, and de
crease in bulk, thus leading to settle
ments of the foundations, and crack
ing of the walls. Indeed, Mervyn
Macartney, architect to the dean and
chapter, takes so serious a view of
any such drainage that he is unable to
say where the damage might end.
When we remember that Holy Trinity
in Kingsway which stands beside a
similar subway, had to be rebuilt, we
cannot but do all in our power to
save St. Paul's from the possibility of
Must Cut Out Hookey and Get Good
Education, Says Superintendent
of Schools.
Syracuse, N. Y.A warning to the
American boy to take full advantage
of the high courses of education, lest
his foreign brother outstrip him, was
uttered by N. C. Schaffer, superinten
dent of education in Pennsylvania, in
an address before the members of the
state's educational societies, now in
session here.
"There are today at least 40 profes
sions which require a high school edu
cation by way of preliminary training,"
said Dr. Schaffer, "and the boy who
quits school before finishing the four
years high school course shuts against
himself the door of opportunity and
makes it impossible for himself to en
ter the vocations which aspire to be
ranked with the professions and which
have within their ranks the leader of
American civilization.
Tests at Philadelphia Show Counter
acting of Nausea Adds to Physi
cians' Success.
Philadelphia, Pa.Orange peel as
an auxiliary to ether to counteract
the nauseating effects of the anes
thetic was given the final test of a
series at the Woman's Homeopathic
hospital, and has convinced the resi
dent physicians that a new weapon to
be used against human suffering has
been given to the medical world.
"Of the twenty surgical cases in
which we have used the orange peel
oil as an auxiliary to ether," said Dr.
Benners S. Smith of the hospital staff,
"we have found it perfectly successful
in all instances but one. That one case
was due to a fault in administering
the oil."
The orange peel oil is administered
by pouring it into the ether cone with
the ether.
"No Place for Honest Man," Dies,
New York.Adolph Kohlenberg, a
printer, committed suicide in his
home, 1004 Forrest avenue, the Bronx,
by drinking carbolic acid and shoot
ing himself in the head. The cause
of the act was his having been
swindled out of $1,000 by a man who
advertised for a partner in the print
ing business.
Kohlenberg, who was forty-seven
years old, left a letter for bis wife,
saying this world waa no place for
an honest man to live.
"When a man works hard and saves
a few dollars some wise fellow cornea
around and swindles you out of it I
get roped In every time, therefore my
life ia a failure. I am better dead
than alive," wrote Kohlenberg, who
added a postscript requesting that he
be trailed in his full-dress suit.
Chorus Glrte Get Bibles.
Chicago.Chorus girls in the "Fri*
)oloas Geraldlne" company found OM
ton Bibles on their dressing tables.
$2.40 PER YEAS-
F. Captain Pote Haled to Courtfor
Sailing on Sunday.
House Built 175 Years Ago at Wolfs
Neck by Mariner Who Transport
ed Building From Falmouth
Foreside on His Vessel.
Boston.Few houses have a more
interesting history than the old
Greenfield Pote house at Wolf's Neck,
now owned and occupied by Evans C.
The house was originally built at
Falmouth Foreside by Capt. Greenfield
Pote,.a well-to-do mariner. Just wThen
the house was built nobody knows,
but it must have been fully 175 years
ago, as in 1762 Captain Pote had been
living at Falmouth Foreside for many
years and was quite prominent in the
In 1762 Captain Pote had brought
the ship to his home port while he
spent a few days with his family.
When the date came for his depar
ture there was no wind and his sail
ing was delayed. For a week, the
ship lay becalmed and Captain, Po.te
began to get uneasy, as every day's
delay in starting was costing him
good money. Finally on Sunday a
good sailing breeze sprang up and
Captain Pote summoned his crew and
put to sea.
He was gone for many weeks, but
upon his return he was arrested by
a constable and brought into court.
The old Puritanical Sabbath laws for
bid mariners to leave port on the
Sabbath, and during his absence one
of his neighbors, who evidently had
a grudge of some kind against the sea
captain, had entered a protest against
his wicked violation of the Lord's day.
In court Captain Pote attempted to
justify his action by the long delay
that had been occasioned by the calm,
but the presiding justice would listen
to no excuses and imposed a large
fine upon the angry mariner.
So angry did the captain become
with the town and its inhabitants that
he vowed that he would leave it,
never to return, and that he would
take all his possesions with him. He
straightway proceeded to tear down
the house and loaded that and all his
other possesions on board his vessel
and transported the property to
Wolf's neck, where the house was set
up in a sightly location overlooking
the sea. At that time Freeport was
a part of the old town of North Yar
In locating his house on Wolf's
Neck Captain Pote made one serious
mistake. He failed to study the lay
of the land sufficiently to determine
Old Greenfield Pote Home.
where the road would be laid out, and
when a road was finally built it passed
the back of the house, instead of the
front This necessitated changing the
Interior of the house sufficiently to
give a front door at the back' of the
Here on Wolfs Neck Captain Pote
lived until his death, Sept. 29, 1797.
On the hill which rises a short dis
tance west of the house he was bur
led. His gravestone shows that he
was born in May, 1736, and that he
married Jane Grant in 1758.
He was the father of several chil
dren, to one of whom, William Pote,
the property passed upon his death.
Another son went to sea in the priva
teer Dash, which was built and fitted
out by Freeport people. The priva
teer left Freeport just before a big
storm and was never heard from aft
erward. As years went by the num
ber of graves in the cemetery increas
ed and finally the property passed out
of the Pote family.
In 1855 Samuel Banks of Saco mov
ed to Freeport and was so well pleas
ed with the location of the property
that he purchased it. The property
has since been in the Banks family,
Its present owner, Evans C. Banks,
being the son of Samuel.
A feature of the house is the big
cellar, the entrance to which is on
the south side of the house, just to
one side of the front door.
Horse Runs Into Window.
Chicago.Frightened by a pass
ing automobile, a horse attached to a
cab owned by Robert Stafford, 12S
South Elizabeth street, crashed into
a plate glass window in the Washing
ton Shirt company store at South
Dearborn and West Washington
streets, shattering the pane. The ani
mal was cut by the glass.
To Wear Rings on Right Hand.
Reno, Nev.Divorcees hating
-part with their first wedding rings arc
now wearing them on their right
hands, a sign to eHgibles that than
are in a receptive mood aa regard*
Jf &^%&\t}*&-&Mj+

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