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I i\ VOL 33. N O 41 ,-*& ALLIES PREPARE FOR THEWINTER Warm Clothing Being Rushed From Factory and Home to Men in Trenches. BIG MOVES NOT LOOKED FOR Short, Sharp Blows at Selected Pointt During Fine Spells, With Occa sional Airplane Raids To Be Order of Day for Winter. Paris.Preparations for the fourth winter campaign on the western front are already in full swing. The sum mer campaign Is over, and while both the English and French may be ex pected to make a few big drives, it is not anticipated that the beginning of winter, for military purposes, will see any radical alteration in the war map Of France and Flanders. Millions of sweaters, socks, paper suits, rubber Wellington boots, head wraps, mufflers, gloves and mittens are beginning to flow out from fac tory and home to the French poilus and British Tommies, hundreds of thousands of wliom are facing their fourth winter period-in the trenches. The comfort of the fighting man is so carefully studied now, after three years' experience, that nothing will be overlooked to make the coming harsh trial bearable. Practically all the way from Nieu port to Verdun the armies are in quar ters totally different from those they occupied last winter with the excep tion of one or two stretches as around La Bassee and the Argonne the French and British are stationed in captured German lines. Throughout the spring and summer the men have shown little inclination to dig, feeling that in view of the possibility of a further move forward, just enough shelter was good enough for the time being. Turning over earth has never appealed to any infantry in this war, but necessity is likely to force them to do a lot of it in order to provide them selves with snug and well-drained trenches for the winter. Little Change in Line. Until next spring the western line is not likely to vary to any great ex tent, unless the totally unexpected happens. High winds, morning and evening mists, snow flurries and rain will limit the usefulness of the air plane and diminish the enormous help it gives nowadays in every big offen sive. The machines are capable of per forming wonders in any weather short of a hurricane, and there will be plen ty of aerial activity, especially bomb ing raids, right through the worst months but poor visibility will make co-operation with the gun batteries dif ficult, the more so as the Germans* latest type of "ArcMbald," or anti-air craft gun, enforces respect and com pels pilots to fly high. In these circumstances big sweep ing moves are not looked for, but rath- I er a repetition on a more intensive scale of last winter's tactics. Short, sharp blows at selected points during i n 4.1 i i .gthemng out to close-up rest sta +iJTH \*A^A0 niM* i...w ^TOo,^* tions, hundreds of airplaneJ swarming /nr\,ty, out to attack encampments, aviation 1 sheds, munition dumps and lines of communicationthese will be the reg ular order of the day throughout the winter. The enemy will be kept on the jump all the time, great gaps will be torn in his dwindling reserves and every possible step taken, first to pre vent his ever again assuming the inl tiatlve upon the western front, and, I secondly, to weaken him Irreparably for the final knockout blow in 1918. The part the American~contingenta will play in the winter's activity is the closest of all military secrets at this time. There is nothing that Hin denburg is burning to know so much as just what Pershing^s plans are, and there is nothing that Pershing is more bent upon doing than keeping the slightest hint from Hindenburg. Prudence the Motto. (But while no light can be shed at this stage upon the plans of the Amer ican commander in chief, I am able to give this assurance, that prudence is U-BOATS NOW EMPLOY SMOKE SCREEN DEVICE New York.New German de vices for aiding U-boat frightful ness are reported by passengers on an American liner just ar rived in port from England. One is the use of a smoke screen in which the submarine may conceal itself while attack ing, escaping or submerging. The smoke screen has been used for months by battleships, de stroyers and merchantmen. Its first use by a submarine was re ported in the warnings of a U boat off the Atlantic coast. The-other device is the Use of mirrored periscopes. By coat ing them with sliver the peri r-sepes reject, the surrounding Water and -become-"invisible a couple of hundred yards awfey. It is believed this explains why survivors of several ships lately sunk saw no evidence of a sub marine before or after the at tack 'SSJi'^Asi.SA-J ^f*rC^. m^ motto, that he will never cons* nt to play to the gallery as even the best generals are sometimes tempted to 4o. It is Haig's great merit that he bides his time and only strikes when he is able to strike in real earnest. Persh ing resembles the British leader in this respect, and Europe has had enough war experience to know that these are the men whqv Washingtoni,is :%*&M' get the real results at the least possible cost in lives, and that though they have little to show'on the war map, they are steadily, per sistently, relentlessly wearing down the toughest foe that ever took the field. What can be said, however, without giving any information to the enemy is that here in France Americans will co-operate throughout the winter in the gigantic task-of preparing-for the death blow. The details cannot be discussed, but the ground has been cleared for a colossal amount of work, embracing all branches that go to make' for the efficient operation of a modern war machine, and a big share will be taken over during the bad weather by Americans, not only fn the United States, but also in France. And this quite aside from the training of the fighting men and the education of the officers in the latest phases of warfare. The result of all this activity will be that next spring the entente allies will possess a supereminent war ma chine, gunned, manned and equipped in an unprecedentedly complete and magnificent manner. It was correct to say last winter that in 1917 the entente allies would develop a striking force which could not be exceeded in 1918 if the war continued. But at that time the interventiori^of the United States was only a dim possibility the revolution in Russia and the collapse of her army were foreseen by nobody. Tough Problem for Enemy. As the situation stands at present, with the United States adding her mighty power to the common lot, and with a still unextinguished hope that the Muscovites may be brought back to their old aggressive fighting, men belonging to the inner circles of Eur rope affirm their belief that the entente allies will be able to confront Hinden burg with a far harsher problem.in 1918 than they could have hoped to put up to him in 1917. Next spring the British army will still be at top strength, for in the past summer Haig has put forth nothing like his maximum effort, and in con sequence has suffered losses far below the figures anticipated at the British war office. When it was seen that the Russian Army must drop out of all offensive plans this summer and that Germany would be able to develop an unexpected strength upon the western front, the Franco-British policy natur ally became more conservative. The building up of the American armies has confirmed the wisdom of this course, which looks to the accumula tion of an Irresistible power before the last continuous, annihilating blows are delivered upon all possible fronts. "TRUST US," SAY BRITISH War Does Not Make Englishmen Un derstand American Colloquialisms Any Better Than Before. Washington.Evidently the war has not made the English understand American colloquialisms any bette tna fine spells a continual battering on Englishmen are merely lacking a wide fronts by concentrated gtm fire seng heretoforeo some particular xxraBMnotnn 5 TOJ smiling a lios MnUn official* smile ,ui*.n i (whic the diplomatic way of eon ^fl^x) i cealing undue mirth over a little in cident that occurred in Hampton Roads the other day, when Secretary Baker v#as on an inspection trip. .He crossed from one camp to another when a British cruiser, lying near by, sig nalled: "Who is that going ashore flying an official flag?" "The secretary of war," was the answer. "Thank you," said the Britisher. "Don't mention it," replied our cour teous bluejackets. That ended it until one of our sail ors saw -the British wig-wagging furi ously.^ He read the signal. "Trust us," the British were saying, "we'll never mention it to a soul." GUILTY FLEE, NONE PURSUE Two Abandon Auto and Whisky in South Dakota When Conscience Stricken. Sioux Falls, S. D.A combination of guilty conscience and booze resulted in the Lincoln county authorities captur ing an automobile which had been abandoned by the owner. In the auto mobile was found a quantity of liquor, which the driver of the car had smug gled into South Dakota, in violation of the state-wide prohibition law. Worth Feldman was trying out a new motorcycle behind the automobile. The occupants mistook him for an oflP cer, stopped the car and fled. The machine bearing an Iowa license number was confiscated. GERMAN TOYMAKERS LONELY Send Notes With Wares Asking Buy ers to WriteFound by Teachers. -"vlrglnla, Minn.Love notes are be ing found by Virginia kindergarten teachers in toys made in Pittsburgh factories. The toymakers give their names and addresses and implore "some friendly person" to write. None of the teachers here has confessed that she has responded. -Most of the names signed to the notes are German and ihe writers apparently feel a social Isolation where thej live IDS? *i*, m* NEW DEVICES CUT TOLL OF U-BOATS Admiral Benson Tells of Meth ods Adopted to Foil Submarines. EDISON INVENTION IN USE Smoke Bombs and Smoke Screens Are Proving EffectiveCamou flage Employed to Surpris ing Extent. Washington. An encouraging ac count of the success of the devices being used by. American ships as a means of escaping or destroying Ger man submarines is giyen by Admiral Benson, chief of operations of the navy Several of the methods under trial at present, one of them the Invention of Thomas A. Edison, the admiral regard ed as inadvisable to describe, but he discussed without reserve the devices In general use on merchant ships and naval vessels. It was admitted that the naval con voy furnished the most effective safe guard against the submarine. Admiral Benson thought that the number off convoyed ships sunk was even less than the average up to a month ago, when it was estimated that only one half of 1 per cent fell victim to the submarine. The impossibility of con voying more than a small per cent of the merchant fleet leaving American shores, however, has made necessary the adoption of other protective meas ures. Devices Employed. Among those most in use on mer chant ships, the admiral said, were "smoke bombs" and smoke screens. Camouflage also is being employed to a surprising extent, but particularly on naval vessels. The smoke bombs are merely containers filled with chem icals which when cast overboard throw off a dense black smoke, obscur ing the ship from an attacking subma rine. A great^variety of experiments in camouflage have been tried on naval vessels. They have been painted ev ery hue of the rainbow that might tend to merge the hlp In Itsrifock-" ground and make it indistinguishable to investigating periscopes. Admiral Benson said many of these devices had been demonstrated to be of great merit. Warships, too, are equipped with detectors which indicate the prox imity of other ships. More and more of. the merchant ships, of course, are being armed so as to be able to give a good account of themselves in encounters with the U-boats, and experiments constantly are going on in the navy to improve the weapons of offense employed against the submarine. A special en deavor Is being made to perfect the operation of depth charges so that it may be possible more frequently to "pot" the U-boats as they submerge or as they run along with only their periscopes showing. Balloons are employed on the "ships for observation purposes, but their use Is not at all new. It was said today, in contradiction of a recent interesting story, that no invention had been perfected in the United States navy which would en able an attacked ship to deflect th course of a torpedo once It was fired. This report, according to Admiral Ben son, had no foundation whatever. Bigger Submarines. Another report which has been mak ing the rounds is that German sub marines recently" have been making it a practice of sparing all passenger ships they encounter. The only basis for this belief, it was said, is the fact that fewer passenger ships have been sunk. They have been attacked, how ever, but in most cases have escaped. There have been no'German subma rines near the American coast since this nation entered the war, so far as the navy department has learned. A submarine has been sighted nearly in mid-Atlantic, but that is the nearest approach one is known to havermade. The navy department has evidence that Germany is increasing the size of her submarines nearly to the propor tion of small cruisers. This evidence was obtained by ocular observation, in part, and also from the fact that the submarines now are mounting guns of nearly six inches in bore. Fragments of shells falling on merchant ships have disclosed the size of the guns. feii,l,,l,i,,l.,t|,,l.,i,.i,.li,ii,i,i|i.,|A,4 ,H HAS PERFECT BRAIN I BECOMES AN AVIATOR I Boston.Thomas James Aber-" nethy of West Pembroke, Me.,| whom the late Professor Muen sterberg found to be mentally perfect, is one of 999 New Eng- T^ land candidates selected for^in struction as aviators. He heads the listbut it Is arranged al phabetically. $ f..fif.if.f^^..^^^.|.^..|..|.,|.^..||ll|r^| Anomalies of War Prices,^ Kansas City.It is a rather extraor dinary fact that in some parts of the Southwest wheat is fed to hogs, being cheaper than cornwhich is now $2.05 a bushel, and scarce at that. This prac tice is not general, however, as there Is a sentiment against using wheat for f2^ ST. PAUL AM) MINNEAPOLIS. MINN. SATURDAY OCTOBE 13', M7 HELPS REp CROSS. Miss Margaret Wilson, daughter of President Wilson, who has aided the Red Cross funds by singing at many entertainments. BIG PAY FOR STEEL WORKERS Some Workmen in the Industry Draw as High as $800 a Month.? Youngstown.Higher wages than ever known before in the steel industry are being paid workers in local steel mills. Some workmen make as much as $800 monthly. This is due to the sliding scale of wages, based on the selling prices of. steel,, ^oj^ sheet and, tin plate workmen under the Amal gamated association ruling. Tremendous profits followed in the wake of the declaration of the Euro pean war. The highest wages go to the "rollers." Heaters, roughers and other workmen receive corresponding ly high wages. It is not uncommon for laborers to get from $12 to $15 a day. In some cases,\from $5 to $6 daily is made by unskilled workmen after a few weeks* experience. TRY TO LIVE ON $5 A WEEK Two Sisters Collapse After Attempt to Exist on Earnings of Third. Brooklyn.After an attempt of three sisters to live on $5 a week, in Brook lyn, N. Y two of them collapsed from starvation and their case was brought to the attention of the authorities. Edna, Anna and Eleanor Williams were the devoted sisters who made the, attempt. The trio went to Brooklyn after their parents died two months ago. Edna was ill and Anna remained at home to care for her. Eleanor worked in a store, earning $7 a week. Of this amount $2 went fOTL rent and $5 was all there was left for living ex penses. GERMAN CHANCELLOR'S SON A FARM LABORER Berlin.Willy Michaelis, the youngest son of the new Ger man chancellor, is working as a common laborer on a large farm in Langmeil, near Gruenberg, in Silesia. The young, man is a student of one of the Berlin high schools. When the summer va cation began in July he offered his services for the harvest with thousands of other pupils, and was sent to Silesia, where he works hard every day from four o'clock in the morning until eight o'clock at night. After the har vest he will, of course, return to school. Passengers Brave Sea's Perils. An Atlantic PortAn American pas senger steamer In the coastwise serv ice went aground- in a shoal off the New England coast, but was floated, apparently uninjured, after_ eight hours. The passengers and crew re-. mained on board. U. 8. Needs Stenographers. Washington.The government is in urgent need of stenographers and type writers. This fact is made known in a circular letter sent by Dr. A. Howard Shaw of the woman's committee of the council of national defense to the chairmen of the state divisions. Requisitions Space on Alt Vessels. I^Paris.President Poincare at a cabi net meeting signed a decree providing for the requisitioning of cargo accom modations on all vesselsFrench, aK lied and neutralfor the service of the! government. BOND S OR Which? IF THE Germans should win this war, the fate of your home would be the fate of those of Belgium. You would have no choice as to what would be done with your money. It would be taken from you by force. Today your boy, who is prepared to give his life to save your home, is looking to you for the money which will buy the bullets with which he will make his fight Buying a Liberty Bond is not giving money to the Government. It is loaning money, every cent of which will be returned to you with interest. Liberty Loan Bonds are backed by all of the resources of the richest government in the workL The second Liberty Bondissue isfor $3,000,000,000. The share of every American family is $150. The Government pays you 4% interest, half of which is payable November 15th and half May 15th of each year. Ifr before the end of the war, there should be another bond issue at a rate higherthanA% your bond will pay the higher rate from then on. Allwhobought thefirstLiberty Loan Bondsat ZV2% may now convert them into 4% bonds. Liberty Bonds are as marketable as wheat. You can go to any bank at anyjame and get your money for them. Liberty Bonds are in denominations of $50 and up. In this issue all purchases of $5000 or less are tax exempt. Buy your Liberty Bonds now. October 27th is the last day subscriptions will be received in Wash- in gtori. Don't wait for someone to ask you to buy a bond. Go at once to your nearest bank or post office. Your neighbors and your friends are watching you. They are depending uponyou to do your share. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Fiscal Agents of the United States Governmentin Minnesota,NorthDakota, SouthDakota, Montana, Northern Wisconsin and Upper Michigan $2.40 PEE YEAB.