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The Progress. [volume] (White Earth, Minn.) 1886-1889, December 03, 1887, Image 1

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VOL. 1.
Gus. H, Becwlieu,
Theo. H. Beuulieu,
[email protected] A
And All About the* Treaty
and N. W Commission.
Some FimtH ana Objections Never
7% Progress.
White Eartli Agency Minn.
voted to the mteiest of the White
E.uthltosLrv.ition and geneial Noith
westen* News. Published and man
aged by membeis ot the lleseiva
Conespondence beaiing on the In
dian questionpiohlem, or on geneial
interest, is solicited.
Kubaenption rates: $2.00 per an
num. Foi the convenience ot those
who may feel unable to pay foi the
paper yeaily oi "who may wish to take
it on tual, subscuptions may be sent
us foi six and thiee months at the
yeaily lates. All subscuptions oi
sums sent to us should be toiwaided
by Registered letter to insuie safetj.
Adderess all commmncations to
White Eaith, Minn.
.EMI I IME. rfi
IME. -A- 1 IME.
Clocks, Watches and Jewelry.
WHITE EARTH Oiders, if left with
Benjamin Cdsm ell, at Failbanks &
Bro.' Store will leceive piompt at
tention. 4tf
Ed. 01iTer Proprietor,
Everything in fiist-class keeping with
the times.
The tables are always provided with
Fish, Game and Vegetables
their season. Good stabling,
ample accommodation tor
both, man and beast.
Dealer in
Lumbermen's Supplies.
FLOUR and FEED kept on hand.
Ginseng, Snake Root and Fnrs
Bought, Sold and Exchanged.
All kinds of Job Printing, snch as
Bill Heads, Letter Heads,
Blanks, Cards, Tags etc., solicited.
Work Warranted and Satisfaction
^i-2^&^- feS^ JrsrfT +%*?]&>
The Indian Right and Wrong.
""WE hold these truths to be self-evident,
that Ai.i, MEN aie created equal that thev
are endowed by their Creator with certain
unahenablo rights that among these, are
WVE.S.S."Declaration of Independence, July
"What are your objections to
the treaty has been the ques
tion suggested to us repeatedly in
relation to the agreement which
the Northwestern commission en
deavored to make with the Minne
sota Chippewas last year. With
out special reference to the sever
al articles of the treaty, we will
state in a general way our objec
tions to such portions of it as we
deem most important, and which
relate to the interests of the Miss
issippi bands only.
Under the several treaties be
tween the United States and the
Mississippi Chippewa Indians, it
was and is stipulated that the
White Earth, White Oak Point
and Mille Lacs reservations should
be reserved as homes for these In
dians. The value of these reser
vations for the pine timber, and
the fertility of their arable lands
cannot be approximated with any
degree of certainty, but a reasona
ble conclusion may be arrived at
by refering to the estimates of
those who have carefully consid
ered the matter. Taking this in
formation as a basis the follow
ing conclusions are reached:
White Earth contains over T50,-
000 acres of unoccupied land,
about 400,000 of it being some of
the best arable land in the state,
and the balance being timbered
land. The arable land has been
estimated as being worth not less
than five dollars per acre there,
fore placing these figures as a
maximum price the arable land on
the White Earth reservation is
worth $2,000,000. And according'
to the estimates of competent erui
sers the reservation contains T5Q,-
000,000 feet of pine, which is said
to be worth at least two dollars
per thousand feet sturapage. If
these estimates are correct, the
pine alone is worth $1,500,000, ex
clusive of other timber on the res
ervation, such as oak, maple, etc.,
valuable for different purposes.
The White Oak Point reserva
tions contains about 1,000,000
acres of land, which has been va
riably estimated as being worth
for the timber that is on it, from
two to four million dollars the
value of this reservation is there
fore placed at $2,000,000.
The Mille Lac Indians have a
possessary right to the Mille Lac
reservation and it should not be
supposed that they ought to relin
quish this right without remuner
Having in view the foregoing es
timates, the Mississippi Chippewas
could readily realize from the sale
of the unoccupied land on their
reservations together with the
pine, over $5,000,000. The Leech
lake, Cass lake, and Winnebago
shish Indians own reservations
containing in all about fourteen
townships of land which are worth
probably $1,500,000 for the pine
on them, there being but a little
arable land.
The Fond du Lac, Bois-forte,
and Grand Portage Indians have
small reservations of no particular
value, being for the most part
rocky and barren, and the only
probable sum which could be real
ized from their sale would not
even be sufficient to defray the ex
pense of the removal of those In
dians to the White Earth reserva
tion. Therefore, the inequality of
the several amounts which may be
contributed to "a common fund"
by the above named bands, would
make the inaugeration of such a
"common fund" system a gross
injustice to the Mississippi Indi-
ans, who would according to the
foregoing estimates, contribute at
least three-fourths of the amounts
to that fund' while no further
benefits would accrue to them
than to those who contributed
I wish to be distinctly under
stood as favoring consolidation at
White Earth, but it should not be
effected at the expense of the
Mississippi Indians, nor without
the "consent of at least tm-th!rd8
of the band" to open the said res
ervation to other Indians, whieh
has not as yet been obtained, as
we propose to show further on,
notwithstanding the statement of
of the Northwestern commission
to the contrary.
Should the consolidation be ef
fected under the proposed treaty,
one can discern in the future of
the Mississippi bands much dissat
isfaction amongst them a great
deal of dissension regarding the
distribution of funds between
them and other Indians not be
longing to that band who may be
removed to White Earth, and con
sequently a continual wrangle will
arise, greatly tending to lessen the
progress of all towards that long
sought an$ much desired conclu
sion, a peaceful, prosperous and
civilized community.
No agreement, so far as it re
lates to the Mississippi bands and
the opening of the White Earth
reservation to other Indians has
been, effected,, as only eighty per-
,..y *,yllLy
sons out of a tribe numbering
nearly 3,000 persons, actually
signed the proposed treaty.
The commission claims in its re
port that thirty-four persons signed
the treaty at White Earth, eight
een at White Oak Point, twelve
at Mille Lac, and twenty-four
Gull Lake, making in all ninety
three persons only, of the entire
Mississippi bands who signed the
treaty. signed by proxy.
The commission also
secured at least three fourths
"A higher Civilization The Maintenance of Law and Order."
nothing, and whose numbers per afhough claiming that a majority you
capita would exceed those of vthe
had no right to sio-n any agree
ment effecting the Mississippi's in-
Mississippi bands.
Under the proposed treaty, al
lotments of land are made as fol
lows: "To each person under 18
years of age, 40 acres to each
person over eighteen years of age,
80 acres and to the head of each
family, 160 aeres^'a^nTarflelT'wo^
man if not the head of a family,
receives no land. Under existing understanding that it "would not names also, and not because we
treaties 'any Indian'every person
belonging to the Mississippi
bands of Indians, is entitled to 160
acres of land on the White Earth
reservation, under conditional
rules which are easily complied
with (and of which many of our
people have already availed them
selves, and hold 'certificates' for
the stipulated 160 acres of land).
Therefore the proposed treaty re
quires every person belonging to
that band, other than those who
already hold 'certificates,' to relin
qish without remuneration, a cer
tain amount of land as follows
each person under eighteen years
of age, 120 acres each person over
18 years of age, 80 acres and ev
ery married woman not the head
of a family, 160 acres for instance,
a family consisting of five persons,
viz: a husband and wife, and three
children if under 18 years of age,
relinquish 620 acres of land or an
equivalent to a cash value of $2,600
if worth the nominal price of $5.00
per acre! The pretext for this is,
"on account of the insufficiency
of arable land to give each 160
acres, if the Minnesota Chippewas
should be consolidated on the
White Earth reservation."
become law until three-fourths
at least oi all the Mississippi In
dians had feigned it. (See speeches
of Joe Critt and Wah-bah-nah
quod, pages 74 and 76 com. rep't.)
mixed bloods of the entire num
ber belonging to the Mississippi
bands signed the treaty, and we
understand that three or four of
them did so only after being as
sured by a solemn promise from
the Commission that certain
amendments would be made etc.
to the said agreement. And it is
safe to say that some others signed
from the fear that the threats
of 'expulsion from the reservation'
which had been openly made,
would be executed in case they
did not sign and again one would
be led to believe (from prevailing
sentiment then and since) that $he
most of them signed from the con
viction that there was no other a/-
Urnatiw I /That if the treaty or
agreement failed, owing to its not
being signed, the "White Earth
reservation would be opened to
white settlers within six months"
from the failure, ete., etc.!! And
it is a well known, and no less a
notorious faot, that coercive meas
ures were used at White Earth to
prevent an open expression of op
position to the treaty, agent Shee
han intimating the removal of
certain persons from the reserva
tion if they did so.
The main object of the, treaty
seems to be the consolidation of
the Chippewa Indians upon the
White Earth reservation, and we
have no doubt that this meets with
the approbation of a large majori
ty of the tribe, but the conditions
under whieh the representatives of
the Government are endeavoring
to effect is what meets with such
general opposition, and especially
among the Mississippi bands.
Should Congress ratify the trea
ty in its present form it would on
ly add one more injustice to a long
list which the Government has
been led into doing by over zeal
ous representatives, which it sends
out to deal with the Indians. It
is to be hoped however, that the
members of the U. S. Senate In
vestigating committee who lately
visited White Earth, may heed the
protests made to Congress by the
Mississippi Indians against the
treaty, and that no action may be
taken as to itse ratification until a
ssissippi Chippewa Indian
tnnesota." It is worthy of note the agreement, Col. Beaulieu was
t the Commission, throughout again requested to come forward
whole report, makes no men
||n of the number of Indians rep
Renting the Mississippi bands,
lians ab6ut 2,400 persons accor
|g to agency pay rolls, and it is
reasonable to believe that nine
ftjiree persons represent a major- ised me that the Commission will
the men Eighteen chiefs
bF (thirty-two) signed the
treaty, and this they did with the
Only fivej'or six of the intelligent the other members of the Com-
dian bureau) is
tribe (and not by
delegationo composed of persons
a ee
called to Washington to modify
or add to the provision of the same
majority of the Mississippi Indians
has been obtained.
it was loudly noised' about by
members of the Commission and
or else until the consent of the that properly VpertamToTtken
ship in such community is to
doom them to perpetual childhood,
and when added to this they live
in constaut expectation of being
The second day of the council deprived of their lands, the condi
tions for perpetuating savagery are
Consideringp This include, those who others, that if they "failed to make anceTKXoMliS
eht anv f.o-0_ t. Ma w+lh i fl n^Ts
terests, and those who it is claimed and it would be so reported to the P.ay
signed by proxy TWnvf.^*. nwmwm.JnnU^in hmderance is the
all the Mississippi Chippewas who ent H. and Theo. H. Beaulieu as
reside within the limits of any also by the author of the above,
reservation, and a majority of the Finally on the last day when sever-
entire tribe, if we inelude every al of the Indians and their chiefs
a treat.y wit th^ Ojibwa here
th. 'Beaulieus' would be to blame,
Department, owing undoubtedly,
says, "we to the opposition of certain clau
of ses of said treaty, by Col. Clem-
had been persuaded into signing
and sign also, Mr. Beaulieu then
stood up and turning to his peo
ple said, "It has been said that if
did not make a treaty
signed the treaty. There ar woul)ddbe totblame, now you "have
Ridinegl on the several reserva- signed an agreement we (the Beau
approve, but
i lieus no fnll
whether good or bad you have no
one to blame but yourselves and
since Bishop Whipple has prom-
embody the ajnjBndmfints-praposed,
which he will read to you, in this
agreement then will we sign our
are afraid to please or displease
anyone." Bishop Whipple then
read the several amendments
which were satisfactorily received
by all present, after which he and
mission promised to embody the
same in the agreement and urge
their acceptance (and not to
distort their nature or scornfully
tender them but a passing notice,
as has since appeared in their re
ports) to the Department and Con
gress, after which Col. C. H.
Beaulien, the editor and one or
two others signed the agreement.
What White Earth Wants Exactly.
From the annual report of Judge
Willard to the executive commit
tee of the National Indian Defence
Association, published in the
Council Fire, we quote in part his
views on "Indian self-government
and the security of possession and
control of property and the prod
ucts of industry," etc., which
aptly fits itself to the present con
dition and efforts of the people of
the-WTiite Earth reservation:
"It is equally an essential of civ
ilizing progress that a people from
whom such progress is expected
should be able to exercise self-gov
erning powers within their own
body, especially where they are
united among themselves by cus
toms and traditions that separate
them socially from surrounding
peoples. A people under an alien
government cannot make civiliz
ing progress in the same degree as
is possible where they are self
governing. If that government is
well organized and conducted and
yet is adjusted to the conditions of
a people far beyond them in civil
condition what may be regarded
as its excellence are the very
grounds of its unfitness for their
condition. If that -alien govern
ment is unorganized, irregular and
fitful, like the government sought
to be exercised over most of the
Indian tribes by the agents of the
Government of the United States,
a positive barrier to civilizing pro
gress is imposed.
Looking to the present condition
of the Indian tribes, we find that
in the degree in which they have
been enabled to exercise self-gov
ernment has their social condition
advanced. The leading tribes in
the Indian Territory stand fore
most in the maturity of their po
litical system and the highest in
social condition. They are the
only portion of the tribes under
the control of the Government
that has been permitted to devel
op an internal system of govern
ment free from the interference of
reservation agents, and the result
is shown in their advanced condi
tion. To deprive the people of a
community of the responsibilities
then the hinderan-
"^,s iJLym
A.. V-
gress among the Indiax tribes
lightaffirmed of what has beenprimarit,said that the
to their lands".
The history of the Indian title has
been, that the Indian is placed on
wild lands beyond the anticipated
reach of the white population. The
advance of the white population
proves to be unexpectedly rapid
(Continued on Fourth Page))
J3T We find that in the dc- 4
gree in which they have been
enabled to exercise SELF-GOT- t-^jg
ERNMENT has their social con- 3f 8
ditions ADVANCED.-JUDGE ***m
WILLABD, of the N. I. D. A. -E
NO. 9.

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