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"1 C. P. McOANIEL, Editor. G. J). GERE, PUBLISHER AND PROPRIETOR f .TERMS ' I Tk Socthkrw lMK8w,wiIl be ptiblish "cd every Tuesday at five dollar in advance or "X dollar it the end of the year,; Adver ;imontt will be inserted at the usual tvites. No ub8cription can be rep eived for less than i MAffiKSMAE WHEN THE .PEOPLE CEASE TO THINK FOR THEMSELVES, THEN THEIR LIBERTIES ARE GONE. months, nor will any discontinuance be j ) . je until all due are paid. U . v - f made untu an Hues are nan I All communications to the editor, postage f mt be paid and the name of the writer given I to insure'publication . I rilESIDETS MESSAGE, I concluded. t ; lLua that a concentrated money power is tempted to become 0 aent in political affair?, nnd al CLINTON, ML TUESDAY, DECEMBER 25, 1838 NO6. IMBWUXAISSUH The banks have hut to continue in the same safe course, and be conlcnt impropriate sphere, to avoid nil mterte ' with eommcndahle energy and humanity, icnco ii m tnc uenerai. uovernmcnr, and ' their remornl has been orineiDallv under er in the , enil in that country, who has "performed wealthy and independent separate comma in their the duties assigned to him on the occasion ; nities of the same extent in the world. " become an active past ex perience has shown on which side that in fluence will be arrayed. e deceive ourselves if we. suppose it wni ever be 1 found asserting and supporting me i;riiw j of the community at large, in opposition I to the claims of the few. The whole subject now rest with you, and I cannot but express a hope that some I definite measure will be adopted at the 1 present session. f It will not I sin sure, be doomed out of 1 place, for me here to remark, that the dec I laration of my view s in opposition to the I policy of employing banks as the deposit ories" of the government funds, cannot I justly be construed as indicative of hos I tilitv, official or personal, to those instiiu Itionsjor to repeat, in this form, and in I connection wjth this subject, opinions I which I have uniformly entertained, and I on all proper occasions expressed. Though always opposed to their creation in the i form'of exclusive privileges, and us a state ? . ... t... . 1 ." magistrate, uuniug uy uiojm unc irgiMu- ! jion to secure the community against the I consequences cf their occasional misman I bsjemcnt. 1 have yet never wished to sec I ihem protected in the exercise of rights ' 1 1 .11. I I contermi tv law, anu nave never u;;uut eJ tln-ir utility when properly managed, i j : ? u todrive from it all the protection and ben efits which it bestows on other State es tablishments the people of the States, and on the States themselves. In this, their true position, they cannot but secure the confidence and good will of the people and the Government, which they-canonly lose when, leaping from their legitimate sphere, they attempt to control the legis lation of the country, and pervert the on orations of the Government to their own purposes.! O.ir experience under, the aotpassedat i the last session, to grant presentation rights to settlers on the public lands, has a et. been too limited to enable us to pronounce with safety upon ihe ctTjcacy of its , pro visions to carry out the wiYe and liberal policy of the Government in that respect. There is, however ihe l est reasons to an ticipate favorable results from its opera tion. The recommendations formerly submitted to you, in respect to a gradual tion of the price of the public lands remain to be finally acted upon. Having foiinil no reason to change the views then ex pressed, your attention to them is again respectfully requested. Every proper exertion has been made, and will be continued, to carry out the wishes ef Congress in relation to the to bacco trade, as indicated in 'he several resolutions of the House of rcpresenta the conduct .of their own chiefs, and they have emigrated without any apparent re lucfance. - The successful accomplishment of this important object' the removal also, of the entire Creek nation, with the exception of a small number of fugitives amongst the Seminoles in Florida, the progress al- ready made towards. a speedy completion of the' removal of the Chickasaws, the IChocfaws.the Potawatamies, the Ottowas land the OhifSpewas, with the extensive purchases of Indian lands during the pre sent vear, have ren 'ered the speedy nnd successful result of the long' established policy of the Government upon the subject of Indian affairs entirely certain. The occasion is, therefore deemed a proper one to place this po)icy in such a point of view ns will exonerate the Government of the United States from the undeserved re proach which has been ca st upon it through several successive administrations. That a mixed necupancv of the same territory the white and red man is incompatible with the snfetv happiness of either, is n portion in regard to which there has long since censed to he room for a differ- Bv the treaties made and ratified with the Miamies, the Sioux, the Sacs and' Fox es, and the Winnebagoes, duriug the last year, the Indian title to 18,458000 acres has been extmguishe I. These purchases hav&been ich more extensive than those of any previov?" y?ar, and have, with other Indian cxpenser, lorne very heavily upon ihe Treasury. They have, however, but a small quantity of unbought Indian lands within the States and Territories; and the Legislature and Executive were equal ly sensible of the propriety -of a final and more speedy extinction of Indian titles within those limits. The treaties which were, wrvsjnMe exception, made in pur sunnro .revioos appropriations for de fraying he expenses, have subsequently been ratified by the Senate, and received the sanction of Congress by the appropri ations necessary to carry them into effect. Of. the terms upon which these imoortant uegociations were concluded, I can speak from direct knowledge; and 1 teel.no dif ficulty in affirming that the interest of the Indians in the extensive territory embraced bv them.is'obc paid fbrat its fair value, nnd that'n'lmre favorable terms have been granted to the Uniled States than would have been reasonably expected in a nogo- I ciation wiii civilized men, fuily capable ence of opinion. Reason and experience r . , ,i,; . , . " .. Ol appruiiii'K auu uiuituuiig wnii monstrated its impractica- . , ' KiHtv. Tb hUio Trnifc ftfovPrf nHerrtnt ' "fi"1 have nbke demonstrated its impracti at ten heretofore to overcomp the barriers inter- For the Indian title to 116,349,897, ac quired sin-.e the 4th of March, 1829, the I n promoting the initios s of tiade, nnd t through that channel, the oilier interest & of the community. To the genera! gov 1 eminent they present themselves merely I as state, baviiig no necessary connection i with its legislation r its administratii n. I Like other state es-abliibmcntt, they may be used or not in conducting the affairs ol the goterument as public policy and gen eral interests of the -union may seem to require. Theonlv safe or proper prinfi pie upon wl.icli their intercourse wish the Government can be regulated, is that which regulates their intercourse with the private citizen, the conferring of mutual benefits. When the government can ac complish a financial operation better with the aid of the banks than without, ii .'huuhl beat liberty to M-ek that aid. as it would the services ol a private bai ker or other capitaliM or agents, giv ing the preference to those who w ill serve it en the best terms. Nor can there ever exist nit interest in the officers of the general government, as uch, inducing them to embarrass or an ov the stale banks, any more than to in cur the hostility of any other class of state institutions or of private citizens. It is not in the nature of things, that honilify to those institutions can spiinirfiom thi ource: or any opposition to 'heir course of business, except when th'-y themselves depart from the objetts of their creation, and attempt to usurp pow ers not conferred upon them, or to snbwrl the standard of value established by the constitution"". While e.j. position to their regular opera lions cannot exist in this quarter, resist rnce to any attempt to mr.ke the govern ment dependent open them f r the suc cessful administration of public aflairs, is a matter of duty, as I trust it will ever be of inclination, no matter Irom what con -nideration or motive the attempt may originate M.. v........ , . - - UlillCO lives and the legislation ol ihe two branch- ; , w V' i United Sties have paid 72.5fi0.0.fi. in i ..... .uon. pom nnvsicni nnri moral. io i p in- . . J ' uas, i trust ' , ' 4 - . i permanent aniiU. at present the only exception to fhe sue- cesstuj ettorts ot me uovemment to remove the Indians to the rjomes assigned them west of ihe Mississippi. Fonr hundred of tliis tribe emigrated in 1836, and fifteen, hundred in 1837 and 1838, leaving: in I lie. country, it is -upposed, about 2000 In dians. The continued treacherous con duct of these people: the savage and un- provoked murders they have lately com mitted, butchering whole families of the settlers of the territory, without distinction of age or sex, and making their way into the very centre and heart of the country, so that no part of it is free from their ravages; their frequent attacks on the light houses along tlat dangerous coast;, and the bar barity with which they have murdered the passengers and crews of such vessels as have been wrecked upon the reefs and keys which border the Gulf, leave tin Govern ment no alternative but to continue the military operations against them until they are totally expelled from Florida There are other motives which would urge the Government to pursue this course towards ihe Seminoles. The United Stales hive ul filled in good faith all their treaty st pnlation, with the Indian tribes, and have, in every other instance, insisted on a like performance of their obligations. To relax from this salutary rule because the Seminoles have maintained themselves so long in the Territory they relinquished, and, in defianceof the'r frequent and so'ermi engagements, still continue to ware a ruth cs. .A favorable impression 1 been made in the different foreign coun tries to which particular attention has been directed, and although' we cannot hope for an early change in their policy as m many ol i;:em a convenient anu 1 dinn; dangerous conflicts of authority be-! !"-' ''. t r,va..o tweenthe FrderalandStnt?Governmcnts,!f?r Indiaar "peMc. of removal aud sub r,nd detriment, to the individual prosperity f ce, mchardise, mechanical and ags of citizens as well ns to th craeml im- , neultura.esUblhments, and imp omenta. provement oflMhe connlrv. The remideal i ) hen a,e ll0avy "lenses incurred by the uni'en r5iaie?,anj me circumstance tnai so 3 in ninny ... . v . ....v j . . , . ijnuen n a e. ; large revenue h derived Irom mnnopoties - . . . ' ' " nnj lltn j large a pottiai of Hie emire leiritory will in ilio f1li-'i(..i'ifiT!n,l silo of ibis article more tnan'l'irlv yca'-p arfo, under the I 1 -j , . in inc MDncation una sa.ie oi mis ariioie, - t rr ' . , i be torever uv.iw cab h. are c nsidere.l. ar.d uoinuiisirarion or nir. jenereon consists . . . , . . , . . r Ending Jnne .10, 1337. The expenditures ui iiii- of-jiarimeni nan neen trrtniniAri i5on; the anticipation 'of a largely increased 'revenue. A'modorate cur tailment of mail service consequently be came necessary and has been effected,. to "Hieid ihe department against the danger of ernbarrawment. Its revenue is now improving, and it will soon resume its on ward course in themarch of improvement, . Your particular tention is- reauested tfso much of the Post Master General's report a relates to the transportation of the nfails tipnn rail roads. " The laws on that subject' do not seem adequale to se cure that ervice, now become almost es sential to the Wblic Interests, and at tho same time, profec the department from combinations and unreasonable demands. 'Noi can I too "earnestly request yourat ention to-tle: necessity of providing a '.more secure b'iri!dirtjsj.fcr this department. tne. aanger oi oesiruciion ir wmcn its im Prtant books, a n, papers' are continually, exitosed, aswell rrdm the highly combusti " bleVharacter fklie, building occupied, as from that of ohe.rs in the vicinity, calls loud! for prompt action . Yow, attention is again earnestly . ted to 'hiev suggestions and recommenda tions sdbrriitled at the last session in rea ped to i District of Columbia. 1 feel i my duty, also, to brine to your notice certain proceedings at law which have recently been prosecuted in this Dis trict, in the name of the United States, on iherelaiion of Messrs. Stockton 4f Stokes, of the State of Maryland," against the Post Master General .und which have resulted in the payment of nyoneyoutof the National Treasury, for the tVst time since the estab lishment of tha Gwernment, by judicial compulsion exercisedby the common lav writ of mandamus, isstved by the circuit court of this District. The facta of the case, und tticTgrounds of the proceeding, will be f und4 fully sta ted in the report ol the dccjon;and any vet,a these monopolies are really nvj'ii'U ous to the people where. they are estab lished, nnd the revenue derived from them may bn less injuriously and with equal fa cility obtained from another and a lib eral system of administration, we cannot doubt that cur efforts will be eventually crowned with s;:ceess, if persisted in with temperate firmness, and surtained by prudent legislation. ' In recommending to Congress the ad option of the necessary provisions at this session fortakir.g the next census, or enu meration of the li.Jirilj.tantis ol tna United States, the sugorestion presents itself whe ther the scope, of the measure might not he usefullv extended by causing it to em brace authentic statistical returns of the great interests specially entrusted to, or necess.ii ilv efft-ct by, the legislation of Congress. , The accompanying report of the Secre- tarv of War presents a satisfactory account ,of ihe state of the army and of the sev eral branches of the public service con fined te the superintendence' of tha officer. The law increasing and organizing the military establishment of the United States has been nearly carried into effect, and the army Ins been extensively and usefully employed during the past season. I would again call to your notice the subjects connected with and essential to the military defence of the country which were submitted to you at the last session, but w hich were not acted upon, as is su;- ! posed, for want of time. The most im- -i ; r ... t .1 . r I i n fn ,Ti;n,.;nn fU- f .,nt;,Bf;on pi ice is c:mpareu wi in inai lor wmcn of the till to all the land still occupied j tUe Ul11 St&cs sell t heir own lands no bv the Indians within the States and Tor- one carr doubt that just.ee has been done ritorieeof the United States; their remo- I to the Indians u these purchases also. val to a country west of the Mississippi, ! Certain it is, il.it the transactions of the much more extensive-nnd better adopted Federal Government with the Indians have to their condition than that on which ihev been uni'ly characterized b a sinceie then reciftd; the rrunmntee to them, bv : antl paramount desire to promote their the United States, of the exclusive 'pes welfare; and it mist be a source of the session r.f tint country forever exemnt highest gratification to every friend to jus fromall intrusions from white men, with lice an.d humanity to learn that, notwith- not only evince a want of constancy n ur ! Eire w,l,x Vc s.uPPllrcd by lh.e df Pa.rt part, but be of evil example to our inter-!ment-. No interference in ithe particular comse with other tribes. ' i?ase w conlcmp alcd. I he money has Experience has shown that but little! is ' ,becn Pa,d ' he claims of Oie Putors i i i i r ' have been satisfied : and the whole Kibject fo be gamed by the march of armies - . . ' , ,r J,. .i . ..-k - .... . i - so far as they are concerned, is finally dis- cessibUswamosand marshes, and which, posed of; but it ,s on "UP from the fatal knd mortal char?cter of the hc ca8e SfJ1?. " VtSS' climate, must be abandoned at the end of 've ,PoslUf.n of lbc. Jl'VTi? , - ' T , r that I have thought it necessary to pro- the winter. I recommend therefore, to your . .." m - ...ii t -ii - ,k sent it to your consideration. attention the plan submitted bv the feecre- , . f, . . e T v . , The object of the apidication to the cir tary of War, m the accompmying report, I . tJ . r' . t,Qmo V ' . . i . ' . ' cuit court was to compel the Postmaster foMhewrma t intoefTectanaard made ry freed from the Indians, and the moreeffi- fe Solicitor of the Treasury, under a c.ent protccnon of the people of Florida act ofC, flf lhe settlement from their inh,:man warfare. I oV certain claims of the relators of the Post From the report of the Secretary of he ; 0ffice Department which award the Post. Navy, herewith transmitted , d appears tha ! masler General declined to execute in full, a larcre portion o' ne oisposame lyvd, ;unli, he bould receive further legislative standing the obstructions from lime to time thrown in its way, and . the difficulties which have arisen from the ecu!iar and impracticable nature of the Indian charac ter, the wise, liumanc, a,id m;cviTiirg porr licv of the Government in this, the inost In a Government whose distinguished portant rf them is the organization of the 1 characteristic should be a difiusnn! and : militiac-n the maritime ana inland frontier. I equalization f its benefits and burdens, This measure is deemed important,' ns the advantage of individuals will be aug. tt is believed that it will furnish an ellec mented at the expense of the m issof the tive volunteer force in aid of the regular people. Nor is it the nature ofcombina- nrmv, and may form the basis for a gen rions for the acquisition of legislative ih- cral system of nn rgnnization f r the fluence to confine their interference to the entire militia of the United States. The single object to which they were originally j erection of a national foundary and gun.' formed. The temptation to extend it to ' powder manufactory, and one f r making other matters, is on the contrary; ivjt un-.-rrr.all arms, the lafcr to be situated at ftequcntly too strong to be resisted. some point west of the Alleghany moun 1 The influence, in the direction of public ntlhirs of the community at largo is there fore, in no slight danger of being sen?i . bly and injuriously affected by giving, to a tains, all appear o f sufficient importance to be again urgT?d upon your attention. Tho plan proposed by the Secretary of War for the distributiou of the forces of I comparatively small, but very efficient j the United States, in time of peace, is class, a direct and exclusively personal in terest in so important a portion of the legislation of Congress as that which re lates to the custody of the public moneys. If laws acting upon private interests can not always be avoided, they should be con fined within the narrowest limits, and left well calculated to promote regularity and economy in the fiscal administration of the service, to preserve tho discipline of the troops, and to render them available for the maintenance of the . peace and tranquility of the country. With; this i view, likewise, i recommeno inejiaopiion Ah til wherever possible, to tho legislatures ofiof the plan presented Irv that officer for theState. , .When not thus restricted, they the defence of the Western frontier. lead to combinations of powerful ussoc The preservation of the lives and property ations, foster an influence necessarily seU ! of our fellow citizens who are settled fish and turn the fair course of legislation ! upon that border country, as well as ihe to sinister ends, rather than to objects that j existence of the Indian population, which ftdyance public liberty, and promote the j might be tempted by our want of prepa general good, j-ration to rush on their own destruction, nnd It is no more than justice to the banks to J attack the white settlements, all seem to say, that in the late emergency, most of j require that this subject should be acted them strongly resisted the strongest temp- j upon without delay, and the War Depari tation to extend their naner issues, when i ment authorized to place that country in apparently sustained in a: suspension of j a state of complete defence agiinst any -.SKPie pavsnts by public opinion, even, assault from the numerous and warlike 7 tyme cases invited by legislative j tribes wmcn are congregareo on mat uoi- To this honorable course, 1 der. ; ippiresistance of the general It affords me sincere pleasure o be aide ioX acting in obedience to the to apprise you of the removal of the Cher- J0'il and laws Of the United o .aies, okcu nanon i uhiiuii w moi n in'iiiia -f Mn lroAoam ' west of thr Mississioni. The measures aruuuviioii ui nil n vvivvHt""' s -- i - 4 iftum, -may be atinoureo, m umyi iwu t vi.ugn--r tl. . c-...... . . . s..,.... i icithe speedy restoration of our with n view to the long standing con'HT il'rfla sound state, and the busb. versy between them.have had the hp- puntrr toils wonted prosper- P"esi eneeis. m nn ppceuicst xoi-Oiu-j j ded with thsm by the commanding Gen- I amn'e prvioions f r their security ?inst e-vternnl violence nnd inlernal dissentions, nn tb erter.ion t' them of suitable fa cilities for tbeir advancement in civi'in tion.- Tbia pns not been the policv of par ticular ndnnimctrationo onlv. but of ercb in succeccjnn, since the first attempt to difficult of all ur relations, , foreign or do carrv it out. under tha t of Mr. Monroe, mesne, has at length been justified to ihe AH In vp la Wed for it accomrdishment,' world in its. near approach to a happy and only with different deirrees of success. ' certain consummation. The manner of jt execution has, it is true, 1 The conditionof the tribes which occu from time to time, niven rise to conflicts py the country sot apart for them in the of opinion nnd njust imputations; but in ; west, is highly pioserous, and encourages resnect fo the wisdom and necessity of the the hope of their early civilization. They policy itself, there Ins not, from the be- have, for the mostpart. abandoned the hun gmninff, existed a doubt in the mind of ter state.'' and timed their attention to any calm, judicious disinterested mend agricultural pursuits, ah wiosewnonave oftheTndi-m race, accustomed to reflec- been established fr any length of time in tion and enlightened bv experience. j that fertile region,' maintain themselves by Ocuovinrr the character of contractor their own industry.! There are among them on its own account, and guardian for the ders of: no mcopsidemble capital, ar.d parties contracted with, it was hard'y fo planters exporting cptton to some extent: be exnected tint the dealings of ihe Fed- hut the greater number are small agrieul- eral Government wih'the Indian tribes tunsts. living in comfort upon the produce wnilff-1 PCPQ rvr m i c forvrncon fof inn TK..' of their farms - there occurred, in the early settlement of - The recent emigrants, although they th country, as in all others where the have in some instances removed leluctant civilized race has succeeded to the posi ly, have readily acrfiiesceil in their tin session of tho savnge. instances of oppres- avoidable destiny. They have found al sion and fraud ou the part of the former, once a recompense fiir past sufferings, and there is too many reasons to believe.' No an incentive to industrious habits, in the such offence can. however, be justly char- abundance and comforts around them, ged upon this Government since it became - There is reason to believe that all these free to pursue it," own course. Its deal- -ribes arc friendly iu their feelings towards ings with the Indian tribes have been just the United States; and it is to lie hoped and friendly throughout; its efforts for : that the acquisition of individual wealth, their civilization constant, and directed bv ll e pursuits of agriculture and habits of in- thebesl feelings of humanity; its watch 'dustry, will gradually subdue their warlike fulness in protecting them from individual , propensities, and incline them o maintain frauds unremitting; its forbearance under , peace among themselves. the keenest provocations, the deepest m-1 To effect this desirable obtect. the at- juries, and the most flagrant outrages, may ' tention of Congress is solicited to the chrl'enge at last a comparison with any , measures recommeMdef by the Secretary nation, ancient or moaern, in similar cir- ot War, ftir their future governnicaf and cumstancesand it, in tuturelimes.a pow- j proiectjon, as well fros each other as from erfu!,,eivilized and happy nation of Indi- j ihe hostility of the warlike tribes around ans shall be found to exist within tho lim iiw.m: !ind tb intrusions of the whites. its of this northern continent, it wi'l bev The nobcv of the Government ha given ; .1 r ! . t- . 1 . J . . 1 owing io ine consuinmaiion oi inai poncv which has been so unjustly assailed. Only a very brief reference to facts in confirm ation of this assertion can, in this form, be given, and you are, therefore, necessarily referred fo the report of the Secretary of War for further details. To the Chcro kees, whose case has perhaps excited the greatest share of attention and sympathy, the United States have granted in fee, with a1 perpetual, guaranty of exclusive and 'peaceable''-possession, ..13,551,155 ucrcsof land on the west side of the Mis sissippi, t eligibly situated, in a healthy clima'e; and in all respects better suited to their condition than the country they have left, in exchange for only 9,492,160 on the east side of the same river,-. The Uni ed States have, in nddition, stipulated to pay them five millions six. hundred thou sand dollars for their interest in the im provements on the land thus relinquished, and one mdlion one hundred, find fixty . J-"--- r subsistence and ether j ..' , 'IK'IIMIUU uui.um .... . fSrj;aI purposes, thereby put (W it in their power to become one cf the mogl them a permanent home, and guaranteed to them its peaceful and undisturbed pos session. It only remains to give them a govern ment and laws w hich will enceuiage in dustry, and secure to t hern the rewards of theirexertions. The importance of some form of government cannot be too mflch insisted unon. The earliest efii cts y be Indiminicti mo ennses and OCCasioiS for rioptiliiiea amonsr the tribes, to inspire an interest in the observance of laws to which they will have themselves assented, and to mukiifU' rlie recuiit'es of property, and the motives for felf improvement. Intimatt ly cor.nected with this subject, is tbeestablish mer t ef Ihe military defences recommend ed ly the Secretary of War, which have Ifcn already referred to. , Without, them, the Government will be powerless to re deem its pledges of protection" to ihe emi grating Indians against the numerous war like tribes thai surround them, and to pro r4- -rr.L ti f tl.A frontier otticrs utie UII IMC UICIJ v mg stales is either actively employed, or in a state oi preparation for the purposes of experience and discipline, and the protection of our commerce. -So effectual has been this pro tection, that, so far as the information of liovernfftent rx;?rmi- a single" oti'rao has leen attempted on a vessel carrying the flag of the United States, within the pre sent year, in any quarter, however distant or exposed. The exploring expedition sailed from Norfolk, on the 19th of August last, and information his been received of its safe arrival ai the island Made-ra. The best spirit animates the officers and crew, and there is every reason to anticipate, from its efforts results beneficial to commerce and honorable to the nation. Tt ill also be seen that no reduction of the force now in commission is contempla ted. The unsettled state of a portion of South America renders it indispensable that our commerce should receive protec tion :n that quirter; the vast,and increas ing interests embarked in the trade of the Indian China seas, in the whale fisheries of the Picific Ocean, and in the Gulf of Mexico, require equal attention to their safety; and a small squadron maybe em?- ployed to a" great advantage on our Atlantic-coast, m meeting sudden demands for ihe reinforcement of other stations, in aiding merchant vesse-13 in distress; in af fording active service to an additional number of officers, and in visiting the dif ferent ports of. the Uui'ed States, an ac curate knowledge of which is obiviously of the highest importance. The attention of Congress is respectful ly called to that portion of the report re- commending an increase in the number ot smaller vessels and to other suggestions contained in that document. " The rapid increase and Wide expansion of our com merce, which is every day seeking, new avenues of profitable adventure; the abso lute necessity of a naval force for its pro tection precisely in the dejree of its ex tension $ a due regard to lle national rights and honor; the lecollection of its - former exploits, and the anticipations of its future friumohs whenever opportunity presents it self, which we may rightly indulge from direction on the subject. If the duty im posed on the Postmaster General, by that law, was to be regarded as one of an official nature, belonging tohis'office as a branch of the Executive, then it is obvious that ihe constitutional competency of the Judi ciary to direct and control him in its dis charge, was necessarily drawn in question. And if the duty so imposed on the Post master General was to be considered a merely ministerial, and not executive, it yet remained to be shown that the circuit court of this Dl trict had authority to in terfere by mandamussuch a power hav ing never before been asserted or claimed Vy that court. With a View to the settle ment of these important question, the judgment of the circuit court was carried" by a writ of error,"to the Supreme ouri of. the United States. Iu the opinion of that tribunal, the duty imposed on t le Post master General w as not an official, execu tive duty, but one of a merely ministerial nature. , . Th 3 - grave constitutional questions which had been discussed w ere, therefore, excluded from the decision of the case : the court indeed expressly admitting that, with powers and duties properly belonging to tho Exdcutive,' no. other department can interfere by the wrii of mandamus; and thequestion, therefore, resolved itself into ibis: Has Congress conlcrred upon the circuit court of this District the power to issue such a writ to an officer of the.Gen I eral Government, commanding him to per form a ministerial nAl A majority ot ino court , have decideJ that it has, buthavo funded their deciion upon a process of reasoning, which, ij my judgment, render further legislative provisions indispensiblo to the public interests and the equal admin, istfalion of justice V . " - It has long beecdecided by the Supremo Court, that neither that tribunal nor tho circuit courts" of the United States, held within the respective States, possess the power in questiori but it is now held that this power, denied to both of those higa tribunals (to tho former by the Constitution anJ to the litter by Congress) has been by its. legislation, vested in the circuit court 'of this District. No such direct grant of i ... . ' . . p r:- it. TnMiene. of the oast : ail seem to ooint ' power to the circuit court of this District . " r- 1 - , , 1 -. V. l 1 is .....1 is ciaimca; oui . ii wu uiu w unf by necessary implication, from several sections of the law establishing the court. . One of these Sections declares, that tho laws of Maryland, as they existed at the time of the cefsion, should be m force in that part of the; District ceded by that State ; andby this provision, tho common lawr in civifand ciiminal cases as it prevailed in Maryland in 1801, was established in that part of the Viv net. - . .... In England, the Uourtot King's UencU-'. because the sovereign; who, according td the theory of the'eonstitution is the foun tain of justice, originally sat there in per son, aud is still deemed to bo present, in const ruction of law, -alone possesses the-; high power of issuing thewrit of nriada mus.not onlv to inferior Jurisdictions and to the haw as a most efficient arm of our national defence and a proper object of legislative. enconragemert. The progress and condition of the Post Office Department will be seen by a refer ence to Ihe report of the Postmaster Gen eral. .The extent of post roads," covered bv mail contract, is stated to be 134.818 miles, and tlie annual transportation, upon them 31.580,202 miles. The number of post offices in the United S'ates is 14.551, and rapidly increasing. The gross revenue Tor the year ending on the 30th day of June last, was $4,262,145 00" The ac cruing expendi'ures, $4,680,063 00: er cess of expenditures, $416,923. This has been made up out of the surplus previously on hand. The cash on hand on the first instant was 5 3 14,068 00. The revenue for the year ending J ne 30, T838, was corporations, but also to magistrates and of the boiuw.. e.rr.;noIcs ecasuiute- g:t;i,c:u raore than tnat.tor the year swrcrs, coinuiunoHiuieu in-me The esse cf the i ' i; i i : ' ' ' ! i i;